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Old Nottingham 

James Granger 



^-rS^^L.WI.'J 



^arbarli (ItoUtQt l^ibrarg 



BOUGHT FROM GIFTS 

FOR THE PURCHASE OF ENGLISH 

HISTORY AND LITERATURE 



** Subscription of 1916 ' 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM : 



JAMES GRANGER. 



Reprinted from the Nottingham Daily Express, ^ 
November 7th, 1901. — ^June 2nd, 1902. 



NOTTINGHAM : 
Printed at the Nottingrham Daily Express Office, 



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^.x, 50.\'o.\U.T 



HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

NOV If 1916 

SUBSCRIPTION OF 1916 



^ 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM. 



DiSCREPAN'CIES CAUSED BY AN UNEXPECTED CHANGE 
OF ARRANGEMENT OF ARTICLES IN THE 

Second Series. 



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«€"nve<l muca viaruaJiiei assnstnnoe. un vanous oc- 



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PREFACE. 



Dunmg tlbe iafiit half oentiwy or sir-ie Baalej wrote 
bid ajinalfl, boi few add'iiiions have (been macEe to 
Uie ixa^ianr of Xobtrijiigihein, yet in tihai time the 
advioiioeanent in ail dtrreatUms, toglfether wiWIi tli# 
changes eflfacW, as coanpai^ed with any oimiilar peofliod, 
almost exceed' i)elii«f. Thei ipopulaltilan m now ajp- 
ppoiiiroately a qiKvrter of a (million, as connpared 
with 'little more tftian fifty thooisandis in 1841. 

In 1853 Wiflbilam Howie Wyiie pablitebed an in- 
ter^stimg book entHtled '* Old and 'Stm Nbttiingliam.'* 
It iis not to be termed a biiktory, bxnt contadns many 
9ketcbe« of pix»niiiten>b peiople and of the town. 
Baffley and WyBe a/pipeor to !ba«ve €iuSh pubMwd 
tibf'.ir works mi 1853, and few Sf any others have 'since 
followed in therir steps. 

The pre#<ent pulbHc/i^iJon, though no doubt his- 
tnoncflfl in chanaoteir, dbcB not claim to be a bi«tory. 
I have ft*eiqueut!y thoufrhit that much more of a very 
intea>6<9tiiDig iMitare might be menitnoned redaMng to 
our " Old Town : Its Sreets, Peloplle, Names, &c." 
tlvvn whnit aipT>eara in TlKwioibon's, Deeriog's. 
Tbposby'p, or ofthier hE^torites, and it is largely in 
this dEbectiioti thiatt my ideas have ran, and as I borpe 
with tibe reault that thie dolikigs of oui* aiM»*OTO will 
*ba betJter and miore generaUly undei«*ood. 

When entering ujpon this undertaiking I badi no 
expecJtinJt'ibn whkute-vieT thalt my ta^ would have 
rchdbpd fto haitf it* pwsent extent, but the racenpt of 
Tiuimerous aupiR!e«tHon»s, with the loan (vohinrteiered!) 
of raritoujB mteutteiw aippwprtlaitie to my subject, «nd 
tha pot»e«s.«ion of mamuscriipte, &c., iiilbJimiateflv asso- 
ciated thtvpeiwith, have c«au.sed t(be work to be coo- 
wderahly lengthened. In al cbs&b I havie carefirfly 
endeBAnoured to avond inoocaraiciies. 

It will be observed that I fpequeni% quote from 
our l"ocal hTtetorians. &c., but specially refer to the 
"Boffough Records" (5 vo3».), from which I have 
derived much vaJuohle asvisbanoe. On various oc- 



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cQoioDs, as an old irihahiitfliit havaDg a good know- 
ledge of the city, I have cofrujidered it my doty to 
Uik^ exoeptnooi to aome of the sAeifemesa^ or oon- 
clusione of iJb» t\iv> editam of the ''Borough 
Reoords,*' and as a numlber of otber old rosidents 
B^iGo bedieve TFtith mttclii reason, for tbey conflict with 
matters rdkutJiDg generoUy to what ie 'w^tiutn otir 
personal recollection ; but this is witboiit the least 
desiine to oarp or cavil, but iporely ftw the further- 
ance of truth, and -wfaillist asking for the favouraUe 
conaidenTEutiion of my readera, I UMMt willniDgly conr 
cede it to otthers. 

Enrom in orfahognaiphy, iy pt y niphy, &c., miuy 
probttWy be found, for ^vhdch I re«!pectf ully claam in- 
dulgeiKie; hoplDg thait what I haive wiitifaen wift 
-profve both .iinterefltdng and onfltructDnre, and my 
d6BvreB wndl then be folly s«!tnflfied. 

Jnne, 1902. JAMES GRANGER. 



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OLD NOTTINGHA.M: 

ITS STREETS, PEOPLE. &c. 
I. 

Afl a native and old reandent of No<ting^hom, 
retadning a diatioot recollection of ihe town in 
many p«rt0 a« regards its general appearance, con- 
dition, and extent, for between sixty and eeventy 
years, I have long oonsidered that much might 
still be said reepeding irt, and of considerable in- 
terest, without in any way trespassing upon ground 
which oUiers have previously occupied. Begarding 
its general history, but little has been written 
during recent jears ; aikd ^ing back to Throeby's 
time (1797), lu0 opportunditiefl were much nnore cir- 
oumscribcKi tihan fortunately is now the case, for in- 
creoaed light and interest has been thrown upon 
what occurred in the old town and the doings of 
the people from the publication during the last 
twoity years by the Council of a large portion of 
the Borough Records, which, with the chief of our 
local histories, will form the basis of the remarks 
which I propose to make on the above subject. 
These to some extent will applv to the social life 
of the people, their mode of conauoting the business 
of the town, the various changes therein, &c., and 
in some degree eonnect the old town with its more 
modernised conditions. 

When looking back, after the course ol a long 
life, at what the town was in extent as regards the 
ground it occupied, and then considering its modem 
development, I acknowledge, with some surprise^ 
the small proportionate increase in the space covered 
with houses, &c. (taking the old maps as a guide), 
from about the year 1740 until the years 1835 to 
184(> — which time will be well remembered by a 
number of old inhabitants—and bow in many cases 
at those dates the changes in the town had been 
M few and much less in kaportaiice 
even proportionately to what has since occurred. 
Though for this there may afterwards be some 
particulars giveta which will fuly explain the cause 
of the slow advance made by old Nottingham, and 
it may perhaps be as well to say that our ancestors 
had pec^iar notions of town government, and even 
in respect to social life ; for, amongst other strange 
acts, they severely fined many people who pre- 
sumed to build new or additional houses, and also 
a number who took lodgers into their houses, and 
many houses were even ordered to be pulled down 
w|ien empty so tbaA there sbsold be no accoiamoda- 



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tion for strangers coming to the town. Those not 
freemen or burgesseB had, in numeroos instances, to 
close tbeir shops and leaye the town ; asd in other 
cases, even with burgesses thenMelves, thej were 
prevented or stopped from carrying on trades, &c., 
to which they had not been apprenticed ; and of 
tibese, to us moet strange, acts various caaes will 
probably be afterwards mentioned, though thii is 
sufficient to explain the stunted growth of t^ town 
from causes more recent than many are aware of ; 
and, without doubt, such unwise proceedings had a 
deleterious influence upon its expansion, even for 
•mflny years after they nad ceased. 

In my recollection it was possible, in two direc- 
tions, to be in a field but little, if any, more than 
two hundred yards from tbe Market-place, where 
hay was being made. In one case it was near to 
the north side of a portion of Upper Parliament- 
street (formerly called Back-side), ond a'so at the 
lower end of Back-lane on or near the land now 
occupied by Whitehall's factory, as well as land at 
tiM oack of where the Theatre Eoyal now stands 
and the lower end of Sherwood-street. The second 

Eliace WQS at the bottom end on the south side of 
lerby-rood, where some old houses and other build- 
ings, together with the Threa Horse Shoes Inn, 
occupied the frontage from Park-row until near the 
svte of the Albert Hall is reached, from whence to 
the upper side of OoUege-street there were grass 
fields, with a hawthorn hedge as a boundary to the 
road. In an odd house in one of these fields an 
elderly man named Rippon lived siitjr or more 
years since, who had cows and sold milk, and who 
was obliged to leave thalt locality on the enclosure 
of that part of the town land, which occurred, I 
believe, about 1840, or a few years before the 
general enclosure took place. He then went to live 
at Lenton, end for many years afterwards his son 
or graivdson daily brought milk to Notting^ham in 
a conveyance. Through one of their fields was a 
well-frequenit«d footpath leading from Derby- road to 
the "Bay of Biscay" (as it was usually called), on 
the Park-top. 

At the lower end of Derby-road, and at the back 
of the old houses and buildings nwntioned before, 
were two other fields, one of them being occupied 
by Mr. William Beighton, hay and com dealer, 
who lived in a lidtle old-fashioned house, about fifteen 
yards below the Three Horse Shoes Inn, and during 
the haymaking season I was in his field and thoee of 
others on many occasions as a youth. 
The third person to be nkentionad as occupying » 



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field there wna Mr. John SSiaw, who for years lived 
in a house near to the no<rth-eastern comer of what, 
I believe, is now called Circus-street, and close to 
Derby-road. By aome elderly people he will be 
remembered for removing bodily a weighing-machine 
hou«e several yards more on to the land than it 
was previocwly, so a<9 to give increased width to 
Derby-road at that paH. 

He waa, I believe, an original member of the ^"-m 
of Bayley and Shaw, fellrooogers, of Lenton. r> 
warda the latter end o^ his life his mind appeared 
to get weak, and ai times his actions were un- 
accoantable. In one case he brought a quantity of 
newly-nwwn grass from a field a distance away, and 
had it spread on the dusty road near his house to 
dry, though this, of course, brought him into con- 
tact with the town authorities. Some time after- 
wards he endeavoured to ride his horse through 
the Talbot passage, on the Long-row, when A&. 
Oheatle oocupiwl it, aboot forty years 
since, but as thecie was a contracted part probably 
not exceeding six feet in height, througn which 
horses might be led but not ridden, he was injured 
to such an extent as to cause his death shortly after- 
wards. For many years a son of his followed the 
fellmongering business at Grantham, and recently I 
wue sorry to see that he had met with an accident 
by being thrown out of his oonveyaiice, from which 
he shortly died. Fifty yea-rs since, the lower end 
of Park-row for sixty or eighty yards was only 
just sufficiently wide, with a narrow causeway on 
the east side, and a few stone poets, kc, on the 
west side (to protect the walls of the boildings), 
to allow of vehicles passing through, and the build- 
ings were of the most ordinary charaeteiL Tfctre 
were two, if not three, houses at the top cad ef 
the narrow part, the largest being (with a yai^i 
occupied by a joiner named Gelsthorpe, who, I 
believe, has still dcecendajits in the city. After 
passing this house the road was much wider, and the 
fields were again reached (on the west side), and as 
forming the bouaidary on that side, I rememibeT 
when there was not a house between Gelsthorpe's 
and the Park, and when crossing the Park no houses 
were then to be seen in it, nor were any reaohed until 
arriving at Lenton. In my early days there were 
no Park-steps, nor Park-terrace, nor Reservoir at 
the top of Park-row, where it is now situated. Tlie 
Barracks were in the Park for many years in my 
recollection, and horses and cattle gi*azed there, by 
arrangement with the Duke's agent. 



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I remember a large proportion of tbe houBea beuig 
bujii iviiich are on or near to the top of the Park 
Hills and Bopewalk. In Toll-street ore two low 
houses, (m tbe north-east side, which have one end 
to the street. They are brick-built and tiled, and 
Biti pnotbalbdy the olrdest ouitside of Obapel-bar in 
that part of the town, which in old records, taking 
the right side of Derby-rood when walking up it, 
and through to Back-lane, as well as a piece of 
ground to the right-hand after coming through the 
Bar wft9 ccdled " Tbe Wfl0te," and is mentioned as 
such in old deeds of property which I have seen. 
Poesibly this may be furtlier notic^. Where the 
Theat>re Royal now stands in Parliament-street, 
and including the front land between Sherwood-street 
and what is now called Gk>ldamith-»treet, there were 
formerly some moderate-sized houses abutting upon 
or near Parliament-street, and a yard, with a few 
houses and other buildings in it, belonging in part 
or wholly to the parents of the late Mr. Fred Henry, 
of Derby-road, which were probably sold by them to 
the proprietors of the Theatre Royal before it was 
erected. 

StHkTtimg froon this part, and goi<ng up wbeut 
was then called Back-lane, but now Wollatoo-street, 
the rood on tihe right-hand was bounded by a field 
until a few yards past Whitehall's factory (there 
was no Gk>ldsmith-street at that time), and then there 
was a row of several moderate-sized three-storey 
houses, ooe end of which abutted upon the stretet, 
end with a little alteration it still remains there. 
From these houses until near the top of Back-lane 
tbe road was oot»iAe<tely bounded by fields oa that 
side, and then a tedrraoe oonsisting of several bouses, 
and probaibly fponn twelve to fifteen feet above 
the level of the bme, wee reacbed by a fliglbt oi 
steps. At that time the roadway at the top of 
Back-lane — ^now Wollaton-street — was very narrow, 
and towards fifty years since it was increased to its 
present width, and in carrying out the work these 
houses were pulled down. At that period, as regawis 
the ground at the back, there were no buildings 
near, nor were there any streets in the rear, such as 
is now the case, but all was open ground — that is, 
unbuilt upon and gross fields. In my recollection 
there was but one dwellint^-house on that side of 
the road from tlie top of Back-lane, and proceeding 
to the Alfreton-road, where the north-onat side then 
formed the boundary of the town as regards build- 
ings, and continuing along it and keeping to 
ibe boundary on the ri^t-hand dowp wi^ 



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«9 nonr tckOed ForergB-fftre^ to BenClnidk-maA, 
the boundary of the town ended and the county 
began, but there was no other house except the one 
mentioned in tflie whole of the diHance described (as 
regards the town) and it was attached to a weighing 
machine which was fixed in the open space in front 
of the General Cemetery and near to where the chief 
entTance now is, and a Mr. Holbrook was the pro- 
prietor at tjbat time, and wthen moved to the top 
point between Derby-road and Back-lane a son or 
80116 of his attended to it for many years ; but since 
then the town has very properly undertaken the 
duties. I ought to say that my memory carries me 
back to the time when there 'was no General Ceme- 
tery. An Act for its provision wafi, I believe, ob- 
tained in 1836, and the next year (1837) burials 
occurred there, one of the earliest being the wife of 
the landlord ol the public-house called "The 
Btruggler," wbicdi then i»bood upon the ground and 
in the narrmv street now forming a portdon of the 
site upon which the Albert Hotel was afterwards 
built. 

When on the Radford aidie of the Alfreton- 
road but little more than 50 years since, and 
ppoibably less, thene was a portion of it where any 
oine cosold stxund and practically see nothing but 
grass fiekls between there and the east side of She-r- 
wood-street (at the back at Mansfield-road). The 
only boose in that space that comes to my mind 
being the old ginger beer house in the upper part of 
the Bowling Alley, which no doubt many of the 
older inhabitants of the city will still renkember. 
At tluut time there was no Arboretxmi or School of 
Art or streets, generally speaking, oanmecting the 
Alfreton-road or Mansfield-road and the Bowling 
AUey (praotica»lly Waverley-street and fields on eaeh 
side), nor was there then business to cause mnch 
traffic between the two parts, or they must have 

rne a long way round. Respecting Alfreton-road, 
ought further to say that until aboot 45 yeare 
since, at a spot probably a little distance farther 
from the town than Messrs. Thackeray's mill, a 
chain was fixed across the road at ivhich, under 
certain conditions, toU oould be demanded. My 
remenkbrance of it comprised a number of yean 
previously, but I think it must have been removed 
Dearly forty yeajiis. On one oooaenon whem on the road 
I saw a Nottingham getntlenkin on horseback leap 
the ohadn (Mr. James D. Gbrse), but thio hofree 
caught the ohadn with a hind foot, when fortonately 
tt broQce, or it nngtit poosiDly Iiave t>een tct^ ^a- 



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pleasMitt for botih borere uA rider. 

Reepectdng the boundiury of tbe town on thf 
AlfreUm-nxid, and conunencing widi ihie end Deaowst 
to the Market — the yrhoAe of the road was in the 
borough — (before the incliwion of Radfood) for a few 
himdmls of jurdfi, and I betliere until near Messrs. 
Thaokeraj's mtill, even iDcIodiDg the caioaewaje on 
each side, and I have in paet ycajB frequently heard 
it stated that where tliere were no sponts in the 
l>art mentioned that the Radford evedrope fell upon 
Nottingham ground, and that the spoutfl, window- 
sills, Ac, projected into the town, as the houeee 
were said to have been built oloae to the boundary 
of the county. 

After passing at or near to Measrs. Thackeroy's 
mill I understood that far some distance half the 
rood belonged to the town and the other part to the 
county, arid on or before reaching the first end of 
Aspley-terraoe the whole of the road then belonged 
to t'be county. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM: 

ITS STBEETS, PEOPLE, &c. 



Respectmg ihe aorih-'W'esteiii otutlets to tiiie 
town, I de»ire further to say tiiat from sixty to 
•eyenty years since there was practically no atoiDe 
flagging to the causeways, but where there wa« any 
attempt on Derby-road and Back-lane to form a 
pavement it was with large pebbles or boulder stones, 
otherwise, as occasionally called, *' petrified kidneys," 
and the only place where I remember any flagging 
was in front of .about four houses (as they were then) 
on the north-east side and at the bottom of Derby- 
road, where the causeway was paved with Yorkshire 
stone for half its widt^ and the remainder 'with 
boulders. 

On the other side of the road boulders were ex- 
clusively used on the causeway from Park-row 
to, or near, the level of the Albert Hail, for there 
wa« no street there then, and continuing upward 
until the higher side of College-street is reached the 
causeway wa« merely curbed, without any attempt 
at paving, even with boulders or gravel, and in web 
weath<«r there was sufficient mud to satisfy most 
people, and this was also tlie case with the wiiole of 
the causeway o<n the north-east side of Back-lane 
from Parliament-street to the top as regards the 
absence of pavemefnts and the presence of slui^. 
About the years 1840-1841 the old Workhouse for 
St. Nicholas's parish, at the bottom comer of Park- 
row (nearest to Chapel-bar), as it was then, with its 
narrow outlet, was occupied by a detachment of the 
Kifle Brigade, who remained in the town probably 
lor % yea*- or s«r, ana were arterwards lot- a aiuw 
relieved by other soldiers o! the line, with their 
red coats. 

About the time of my early boyhood a change was 
made in the level of part of tie lower portion of 
Derby-road, or, as it was them commonly called, 
Toll House-hiU, and with good reason, as may 
probably be afterwards shown. In making this 
alteration the road was raised against the Three 
Horse Shoes Inn, so as to necessitate the making of 
an area in the front of the house with a descent of 
three or four steps into it, whilst the oppoeitb 
side was lowered almost to the same extent, with 
steps down from the causeway, on which, for a 
distAOce, posts and rails were fixed to prevent 



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6 

aocfdeiyts. SonK yean afterwards Uie o&tMeway 
was lowered, and addHiaDal steps fixed to 
acmw of the hoosee abore the payement. 
Sixty-five years since tliere were very few salesbops 
on Derby-road. In the hok/bsm property, on ihe aofrt^- 
eaat side, for instance, near as it was to tJ»e Market- 
place, there was only one shop then where there are 
five now, and if that is not the correct proportion 
for the whole of the road on that side I consider that 
it would be that the shops were less in number than 
one-fifth. As regards the south-east side of the road 
I think I may say that in my younger days it could 
not boast of a single saieshop. It is true that on 
that aide, in the open space on the top of the hill, 
there were several wonciriiops, including a black- 
smiths forge belonging to Mr. Frank Drabwell. 
These places, and even a couple that were them occu- 
pied as houses, were more or less excavated out ol 
the rock, and Mr. F. Drabwedl was in that looality 
one of the earliest, if not the first, to keep a branch 
po«t office. I may say that when on the top of 
Derby-road, on a clear day with the wind in sueh a 
position as not to allow the smoke of the town to 
interfere with the prospect, I have on a number of 
occasdons, when about level witt the post office (Mr. 
Beverley's), been enabled to get a good view of 
Belvoir Castle, making due allowance for the distance 
of about nmeteen milefl. On oi near to the spot 
just mentioned the rock has generally been lowered 
many feet to allow of the road being used at 
its present level, and this includes also the 
upper portion of Wollaton-street. If some of 
the houses on the south-west side of Derby-road, at 
or towards the top of the hill, be examined at their 
backs; it will probably be found that the rock has 
been cut down in places nearly thirty feet before the 
fT^.nt level of the road was reached, l^re is, 
according to **The Rscoids," good reason for sup- 
posing that a portion of this work of excavating 
took place two or three hundred years since, tbcmgh 
I beiieve it to have been mainly carried out in toe 
early part of the last century or the latter end of 
tftie eighteenth century. 

In my early boyhood there were two mills for 
grinding com close to the open spaoe, on the top of 
Derby-road and Wollaton-street. One was near the 
end of Rope walk-street where it joins the irampike 
road to Derby, and occupied or owned by a Mr. 
Ghdmley at or shortly before the time of its^bmolt- 
tion, which, I believe, occurred a few yean previ- 
ous to the other. The second mitl was sitvated oq 



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^ mar ti» flNond wMoli now foittir the %q(> «nd 
4rf Upper T^ot-BtrMt, and tlie lAto of Mme oew 
mews winch are now in cooree of et%&Aoa, There 
wms at that time no Talbot-stre^ Mf hooiM neitf 
tbe mill on that Me of t^e TOtA tn Back-lane, ex- 
cept the small elevated terrace preriooisly mentioned. 
It wae in the corner of a gfraes field with an enitranoe 
at the top of Back-lane. In each oaae the ground 
on which the mills stood was at tiiat time a con- 
siderable number of feet above the level of tihe main 
roads or streets near them. The name of tbe per- 
son owning or ocottpjing the seoond mill has escaped 
my memory. 

In my yooneer days I have frequently seen carts 
going about the town with fresh drinking water 
and selling it for a helfpenny per backet. In past 
centuries there were nearly twenty public wells or 
pumps in the town (of whioh more will be stid 
afterwards), and I can yet remember seven or ^ght 
of them in various parts I have in my early 
days heard discussions respecting the merit of the 
water from various town wells or pumps, and its 
qualification for use in making tee, coffee, &c., 
some preferring one and some another, which fre- 
quently resulted 'm persons walking a ooosiderably 
greater distance then to what might be called the 
well or pump of the district. 

Many mav probably be surprised to hear tliat 
rather less man fifty yean since it was poesrble to 
obtain in New Kadfond, on Alfreton-roed, &c., a 
supplj of wate. for househcid purposes other ths^, 
and mdependent of, the then Nottinglham Water- 
works Oompany. 

This was from tbe wtuks (mairble, ice.) of Menre. 
G. F. and S. J. Walker on Sion-hil!, w1k> had for 
such a purpose a nM>derate-sized cistern on the pre- 
mises, tQio which waiter was pumped from a wdl 
by their engine, which, besides sawing marble, &c., 
also supplied power for working a number of lace 
machines. By what I heard from Mr. S. J. Walker 
I had excellent reasons for supposing that they re- 
ceived five thousand pounds from we Nottingham 
Waterworks Company for terminating tbe vup^y of 
water from their works to houses, &c., in tbe 
locality mentioned. 

In addition to these works, Messrs. Walker also 
owned another place from which in one form or 
another water had been obtained for many years. 
This was at the back of some property on the 
Radford side of Alfreton-road, and about one hun- 
dred yards from the Nottingham end. There 
were two or three houses fronting to Alfre* 



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10 

toD-road, and the p popet ty Trenb tlvmigft 
to what mm then oaUed Gregocy-sti^eb, 
though I haTO the impression thai it« name was 
changed a unm bat' of years since. It was possiUe 
in varying circimMrtances and emergencies to ohtadn 
a supply from here to aid in any failure or diminu- 
\Mm at the Sion Hill Works. The w«li \e 67 yairde 
deep (201 feet). I hare seen the bottom of it, which 
is bell-shaped, with a ledge of probably three-q'urters 
of a yard wide round what appears to be about a 
hogshead of water in the centre, and which is not 
more than a foot below the ledge. Yet I heard that 
with their moderxte-sized steam engine, when pump- 
ing, that the level otf the water only varied a few 
inches. Whatever might be the character of the 
water now I cannot say. thouofh I have little doubt 
that 60 yeajn or even less since, It waa of exoelleot 
qualitv and equal to any in the town. At that time 
(full 50 years back) the well was in a cellar, and 
was worked by an antiquated steam engine of about 
fivc^horse power, tibe beam of which, I remember, 
was unfortunaitely made of foreign oak (so unlike our 
English oak). In a damp plaoe especially it will 
gradually weaken to its centre and with a strain be 
liable to snap, and another oak beam, when I saw it, 
was in course of being prepared and fixed. I do not 
know what has become of that old engine — ^no doubt 
one of the earliest in Nottingham — ^though it has 
probably been removed many years, still it would 
in that branch of business and in the present day 
be a great curiosity for the younger folks, especially 
if it oould have been seen at the mechaiucal work- 
s1k>P6 of the University or in the Museum. I may 
say, further, that it was from the laat-named well 
that the water was pumped which to a large extent 
supplied the carts and which was sold about the 
town as stated/ 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM: 

ITS STREETS, PEOPLE. &c. 



m. 



Reepeoting water for hooisehold purpoees I 
ouigbt a-Lso to say ibat there were at leoet two odier 
private sooroes froon wtbioh, in limited distncto, it 
WTi« obtaiBa'ble {<me or the ofthctr of tibem), going 
back 60 yean^ and more. Tbe fiivst person to be 
najned waa a Mr. Rowell, a medbandoal engiceexf 
whose business ptremises were on I>erby-ro«d, on 
tShe same siide as, but a little bigheir up the bill than, 
the Milton's Head Inn. I believe that he oecised 
supplying water earJer than Messrs. Walker or 
aJiother finn, naonely, Messrs. Fiahcr, of the Faetorv, 
Qt New Radford. I think it probable that iir. 
Rowell made no arrangemenit with and received no 
compensation from the Nottingham Waterworks 
Oompainr when terminutiKg his Mu^ply, but om rc- 
g»*rdi8 Messrs. Fisher it is probable that they were 
treated in a simular way to Messrs. Walker when 
their proviflion of watetr enided. Respectimig soddieTs 
being quiairteTed m the town, it ukay further be said 
that when their oM place neartbie top of Olha$>el- 
bar was not avtaikble — 'thou^ there was proinhly 
an interval between their goi.ng amd ooimsng — ac- 
commodation was afterward)s foui^ for some in 
Oastle-^te, where they occupied a lai^ Ihoujse and 
prenuses on the same aide as St. NkJhoias's Church, 
out rather neairer to the Lister-gate end. I have a 
recoUeot'ion of seeing the jQ^nes when the Oeusfcle was 
on fire from the upper windows of a hocuK, aud of 
beiQg taken rouod tihe Market-place, probably tine 
next <lay, and observing windows boaided up, &c., 
which to an ol)der person would no doubt have been 
a thorough reaninoer of the rioting wihich had just 
ooourred. Five years later I welil ramember goifig 
into the Mai^et alone and seeiiig the Exchainge 
on fire. This was on the 26tib November, 1836. 
Undoubtediy there aire others yet living wiho would 
also reanemiber some of the oircunksftanoes meotioiied 
quite -as we 1 as myself, and possibly better if living 
meaoror. 

In my time (1829) the level of Milton-street and 
North-street was lowered. The old name for Milton- 
street was Boot-lane, and it was, according to old 
•maps, so narrow that in a portion of it there was 
probably not sufficient room for two ordiDary sod 



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. 12 

modem rehicka to paae each other. At or about 
the time that tfae street was newlj lereUed (1829) 
the hoiues oa thd west side were polled down, and 
it WM also made coosiderxblj wUker, bat still far 
too narrow for modem requirements ; with eiectrio 
oars aDl trathc, which dann^ 72 jeaia has, with the 
population, extent, and business ol the city, so enor- 
mcKwLj increased, it will with most be c(Hnprehended 
that, having in addition a Large and important rail- 
way station in such dose proximity, the width of 
Milton-street will not be greater tiian its require- 
tfnents if about seven yards more be added to it 
after the demoiitiion of the sh<^ and ^nremises on 
the west side, which work is now in progress. I 
should certainly, with most others, have been 
ploased if it had happened that our ancestors had 
made Milton-street of the same width whem the first 
alteration was in progress as Parliament-street, or, 
better still, in a line with the upper pxrt of Mans- 
field-road, which is a continuation of the street ; but 
it would, I think, be scant justice to them if they 
were unduly called to account for not so doing, as 
I am decidedly of opinion they acted accordiaig to 
their knowledge; and who amongst tJioee at pre- 
sent living would have dared in those days (72 years 
since) of semi-stagnatioti, as compared with recetnt 
yean, to have made full provision for the wonderful 
development of the town in the many ways which 
have since occurred? Whatever our wishes may be 
now, it is probable that our acts then would nave 
been the same in many respects as of those going 
before us. 

I much hope tSiat when the ^yresent ezoellenii 
change is msule »xne thought will be given to 
the naming of the street, or rather road. Its width, 
if not the same the whole distcknce from Parliam^^- 
vtneet to Forest and Mapperley-roads, will be so for 
all useful purposes ; and therefore as it is by the other 
reoemt dhaoigee in width, conakected w'tm Trini^^ 
Ubonsh, new station, &c, made one large wbde, there 
should now especially be ooe name only applied to 
it, and that should be Mansfield-road. I^viously 
the loiwer and narrowest part was Milton-fltreet, and 
I am iM>t certain where it ended, and the same with 
many otiher persons, but still more bewildering to 
strangers. Then there was Melbourne-street, 
but where it commenced in its lower 
part I oannot say, though I believe it 
oMied at Woodboroug^rcMMl, and if so, aooordiag to 
that objeotnonahLs moide of giving names, Mawfteld- 



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13 

road would then begin. Tliis ma^tior ought to be 
oarefuUj ooiMidered. Whilst I am whtiog thi« I 
hav« before me an old msup of the town, datmg ba«k 
about 160 yeein, and ai that tiohe the and of "Mbldm- 
fteld-Toad commenced ttt the end of Shaw'e-laiM 
(now Sherwood -flfcreet), and wa« oooUnned down 
what Mi DOW called Nokh-stroei, with a few houaot 
on the right hand but bouod«d by fields on the l«ft« 
and cootniLing so, without much doubt from itv 
commenoemeDi, until past the town boundary, tha4 
is up the whole of Maaisfield-poad aoid more. When 
wfaa4i is now oalkd North-street reached the road 
(from Shaw'a-Iane) a oonsiderable angle was rounded 
o£f at the comer of what would t£e9i be or was 
called Burton Leys, and fadng near to where the 
(George and Dragon Inn is now situated. As re- 
gards distance, the road by Boot-lane was much 
the nK)st eligible, but the constricted width of pait 
o€ it to some extent rendered ih» route by North- 
street aiLmost imperatiye. At the time mentioned, 
the "Road to York" is entered as being by what 
was afterwards known as Glasahouse-st^et, which 
was then bounded by hedges and fields on each side, 
and this to a large extent also applies to Broad-lane, 
now Brood-street, in which there were no buildings 
on the west side and a yatcani place or two on the 
oiM. In 1839 an Act was passed for enolosuig 
Burton Leys, on Mansfield-rood, and the Weatcroft 
in the Meadows. The former had, I think, as good 
a daun to be considered waste land as that foroMrly 
on the outflide of the Bar or n«er the Oastle, &c. 
li was a place with many for depositing manure, 
and often used in other objednonable ways. In 
extent it was about four acres, and one of the first 
pieoee of land acquired for buiUling purposes was 
that upon which Trinity Church now stands, and 
afterwards for the Mechanics' Institution, the Bap- 
tist Chapel, and various houses. In that part the 
ground has in places been lowered a number ol feet 
to make it convenient to the road. Some years 
back, when in convereation with an aged friend, he 
informed me that he could remember com growing 
in the fielda abutting upon or dose to Burton Leys. 
Before leaving Mansfidd-road it will probably be 
best to refer to its surroundings, sixty-five years 
srnee, and later, respecting the open ground, houses, 
&c. Any one starting from Parliament-street and 
walking up the western side would, on reaching 
North-street, and in probably less than one hundred 
yards, arrive at the open ground; that is Burton 
Le^, wbidi, excepting at the end next North-vtreet 



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14 

*nd the side next ^laiusfield-road, was bounded by 
grass fields, and ocmtanuiiig on thai side tUere was 
Mu noiuio or building until arriving a little liigliiekr 
than where the Bluecoat Scthool is now built. (I 
remember it when an High-pavement). Theire was 
at that time no Bluecoat-atreet, but just above the 
sciiool there were two or three small houses, which 
ore jet at a considerable elevataoii acifl 
reached hj a number ol steps asd 
onie end of them comes to the road. These were the 
first buildings t^ be fou<nd on that side from North- 
street, and from and above them there were houses 
to the top of the hill when the Forest was reached, 
and soon after passing the end of which the county 
commenced at the date mentioned — about 1836. On 
the west ade of the road Back-lane or AMreton-road 
was reached. Where Shakespeare-street is now 
there was formerly a narrow lane from Mansfield- 
road leading to the Bowling-alley, which is repre- 
sented by tne present Waverley-street, the fields on 
each side being often termed the Bowling-alley fields, 
yrhwh ineliided part of the Arboretum, 
and the (north - ecet aide of the street 
from n<«j* tihe end of ShaJteypeaTe-sibreet 
and from about the same place on the south- 
west side of the street, and al«o including a portion 
of the General Cemetery and the lower portions of 
Cromwell-street, Portland-road, and Raleigh-street, 
t/bough they were not then formed. According to 
the '• Borough Records " of 1669, vol. 6, p. 304, the 
upper part of what is now termed Waverley-street 
was then called Bowling Alley-hill, for it is there 
** ordered that at the request and desire of George 
Gregory, Gentleman, Samuel Stables. Gentleman, 
and divers othci Gentlemen and Inhabitants of this 
Towne, that the Chamberlayns shall forthwith cause 
a payre of Butts to be builte n-eare vnto the Bowldngt 
Alley-hiU, and Rayle them aboute with a Single 
Rayle and Stoope (post) for the better preservaeion 
of them." In this immediate neighbourhood men- 
tion is made in the " Borough Records " of some 
names of Da'es, and during the last year or two 
various statement* have at times been made respoct- 
ing them which to myself and a number of otiier old 
inhabitants of the locality did not appear to conv'.:y 
a correct idea of the fact or case ae it has come 
down to ua by tradition, and in a future oommuni- 
cation I propose to consider the subject further. 

Respecting the narrow lane of which Shakespeare- 
street is the enlarged representative in recent times, 
w^ich wa« known by the name of CroflB-lane^ I meQ- 



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IS 

tioned it to an old friend ns regaxdB its title, and bis 
mind wm a bbdnk respeoting it, tihough as Bomething 
to di^tinguiah it by and alio appropriately de«orib- 
kkg iti9 frequent state he called it Mud-bue, and it 
would be difficult to find a name more suitable, fotr 
the road was praictically unmade, undrained, and un- 
cared-for — ^with deep ruts and in the wet seaaon al- 
most impassable. There were fields on each side 
wheme oakle grazed, and hay might be made, and in 
a case or two land was rented by those of whom 1 
remember some names, for the use of their cows, they 
being seUers of milk. In th^is lane there was a cow 
hovel on the southern side towards the middle, and 
as being built upon Laoomas land, I have no doubt 
tha* in fonncfl: years it had caused some trouble. 

This hovel was ooonpied more tihan sixty y€«rt 
»ince by a person named Woodward, residing in 
VennoiHBrbreet, Dert)y-<roecL In my younger days I 
well knew the owner, and frequently went to a 
field on the northern side of the lanes which, a*» 
near as I c«in guess, would include a krge portion of 
the ground upon whiicb St-rat ford-square is built and 
the sites also of a number of other houses nearer to 
Dryden-street. 

RettufTnintg r-gain to Mansfield-road, and in refer- 
ence to the eanitern side, it must be mentioned theA 
it was fuly bounded by houses «p to the level of 
Woodborough-road, whioh, going Iwck 60 years and 
nH>re, was called Fox-lane. In the Chamberlains 
Account for 1632 there is an interesting entry as fol- 
lows : "For hewing down both the ways without 
Chappe! Barr, and Fox Lane end, £6 13s. 4d.'* 
ComiKired with our prefiarot moo-sy value thi* would, 
I have little doubt, fully represent from £30 to £40. 
Amongst other buildings a little lower than Fox- 
lane and near to Man- field-road was the old work- 
house, formerly belonging to St. Mary's Parish, on 
tbs site of which a large brewery h^ since been 
erected. Sixty-five yeaj^ since each of the- three 
pariihes in the town liad a workhouse. St. Peter's 
wa? In Broal-marsh, and St. Niohola*?'s 
was at the bottom of Park-row, but the 
three parishes were united for poor law pur- 
poses in July, 1836. On MansfieM-road, 
except an old house or two near Fox-!ane, n'^ne were 
then to be found on the ea.st side until a public- 
bou?e was reached, which is called the Nag's Head, 
then there was a block of houses reaching up to 
where Great Alfred-street now joins the road, and 
from that spot, except possdhW an odd one het^ 



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16 

•Ad there, soaroely a house wa« to be found on that 
cide iixty or more years since imtil Sherwood was 
reached 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM: 

m STREETS, MOPLE, &c. 
17. 

I desire etiH to oootimie my refereoce to 
MMMfield-road, with the adjacent land, &o., on it« 
•atftern side, and ailM) to wb&t in some cases will ba 
found to the son^-easi. I am glad to hare my 
menoovy aa&isted by an excellent plan of the town, 
together with the land connected therewitb ; aUo of 
the Oastle, and including parts of Ube panobee of 
Lenion, lUdford, and &eintoD, at that period in 
the comity of Nottingham, from vorveys made in the 
mrs 182?1828 and 1829 by £. SUnreley and fi. 
M. Wood. In 1848, or nineteen yean later, Mr. H. 
M. Wood baying made a fresh euryey, pabliriied 
anot4ker large plan of the town, ^., Ac., where be 
shows in colours the land and otlier property pertain- 
ing to tbe Chamber and Bridge Eetates belonging to 
the Nottingham Corporation, both large and small, 
in and around the town ; the instanoee being yeiy 
iNiiiieroiis, and tbey wiU be found included in most 
of the districte of the town. The Inclosnree Act was 
finally passed on the 30th of June, 1845, baying on 
that day receiyed the Royal asseot. From thu it 
will be perceiyed that the first-named map show* the 
town, &c., as it was sixteen years before tbe inclosure 
of the land ; and the second map enables us to see 
to « large degree what changes had taken place 
during tfa ppevious nineteen yeafv, and they are 
yery perceptible on the west side of Toll House-hill, 
Ipc. As regards the first map, Mr. Stayeley was, I 
belieire, the Town Suryeyor at that date, and Mr. 
Wood had taken his place when the second map was 
issued or published. 

In 1829, and almost the same in 1848, except per< 
bape in each case it miffht be for foot-passengers, the 
roads to the top of Mapperley Hill were of a yery 
prinutiye character, and in some parts but Mttle more 
than mere cart tracks, the top being called 
Mnoperley Hill Common. . Some portion of the 
road whi^ at that time — at the end against Mans- 
field-road — ^was known as Fox-lane, was in some or 
all of the remainder known by the nanke of Gooee 
Wor.g-"ane. At this time — ^72 years since — there is 
nothing to show that the suburb we now call Mapper- 
Jiey had any existence, though this can scaroe^ be 
^Iidere4 lit from the objectionable state 



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.18 

of the pcwda in almost every way, for they were 
gemerally ill-made, unlerd, and narrow, wiuch 
undoubtedly would have a cepressive influence upon 
a trade such ae briclmiaking, wfaioh chiefly baa 
to be relied upon in tt^ pait; tiiArefoce, the 
locality was aroided ^to a large degree. On 
JuJy 15th, 1850, the Nottingbam and Grantham 
Bailway was opened by the Qreat Northern Railway 
Company, and from about that period tiie ccMnmence- 
memt may be said to have been made of the immeaae 
improrement in every form coimected with that road. 
On an average, from wbait is now called Huntingdon- 
street until Mapperley i« readhed. the width of the 
road must have been nearly doi4?kd, the hilli bcwe 
been lowered or their gradients made much more 
convenient or easy, and to a certain extent the 
valleys were reased ; though in cariying out this 
woik a p*«ce bad to be found for an enonnous 
amount o^ c!ay, &c., in eioeea of the requirements. 
But. as it fortunately occurred at the time, there wa4 
a place in the town where the necessity of having 
it was. I think I n»ight say, even greater than of 
those d-e^ring to port with the surp^ne soil. It w«« 
efisentia'l for the Q-reat Northern Railway Company 
to have all and even nrore than oould be spared 
from that change in the Mapperlev KiCl-roed to 
ra.ise their railway station, yard, &c., convpa-ising 
many acres, in the East Croft, a number of feet 
for a great part of its extent atove its former leveL 
Respecting this matter, I believe i should be right 
If I asserted that a abnong rnduoemeot was h^d 
out by the Great Northern Railway Conapeny to 
induoe the town to undertake tfiis work, of what I 
will call regnliating tbe road, whicih no doubt 
caused it to be more thoroughly amd effectively 
carried out than it might- otherwise have been, and 
in its result much more beneficial to each party. 
Of course the road even yet is hilly, which it is im- 
powibl'e to avoid, Vut in other respects for its pur- 
pose it has few superiors. Fifty-ifoar years sinoe, 
and probably a few years less, there was no 
Mapperiey-road, as now, to the ca^rt ; when on the top 
of Mansfield-road, that is entirely additional, though 
if paasinsr on northward until level with the lower 
side of the present Boulevard, or a trifle further 
and M\V to the ri^t, weerrive at what is now called 
B^cliffe-road, but formerly named Red-lane. 
This in liygone years was frequen^'.y in 
a terrible condition for traffic, and I 
have heifd ma.!«iiotioiw both loud and <ie«|> 



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19 

in the pa t rr«pectuig ita atate, wticfc, when v«7 
imperfecta mode^ and but litUc attended to, in 
adutioQ to the i^round bein^ ohieflj cocn(posed of 
clay, can be easily accounted for. As in the "previom 
oa€e so in this, dbe road hns in all points, I think I 
may affirm been since made in a moflt excellent 
manner, and except idukt may be said of the hlU, 
tile way out of tLe city by Mapperley will bear 
comparison with any ot^er and surpass mo€t, if not 
aQ, in beautiful sceneiy and inTi^ratdng air. In 
1829 nothing was known of MeM^nro-street, that 
ridiculous addition on Mansfield-road had not then 
been perpetrated, though Boot-lane was succeeded by 
a muoh wider Milton-street, which appears to have 
extended at tibat time from Pariiament-street to 
ChaTk>tt«-8treet on tibe rig)bt and the dirty Cross- 
loLo on ^be left, aod from thence it had one name 
on^ — ^Mansfiekl-road. 

From Chaarlot^e-street (as it then was) to Bond- 
street, which af regoadts position is now represented 
by the new street parsing over the iron bridge of the 
Victoria Station; and between MansfieM-road and 
York-street — at that date — ^whidh merely covered 
about three acres, there was for the space men- 
tioned a fair quanti^ of houses, but with the re- 
mainder of the road when going northwards to the 
top of the hill, whether to the right hand or the left, 
there was in no place more tiban a mere fringe of 
hiovses, and it was poeisible for a pedestrian prac- 
tically to be in the country either east or we?t in a 
few nunutes from that portion of the town. 

Respecting Sherwood-atreet, it was then named 
Sbaw*6-lane, frcnm Parliament-street to Babbington- 
street, whidh is what may be oalled the eastern end 
of the present Peel-sbreet. The upper end and 
northern part was then, as now, styled Sherwood- 
street. From Babbdngton-street to the top of Sher- 
wood-street the houees, &c., were almost continu- 
ous on the eastern side, whilst on the western side 
there was not a single building of any kind ; but the 
ordinary field hedges formed the boundary, and eveo 
in the part caUed Shaw's-lane, except at the Parlia- 
ment-street end, where aboot three houses are shown 
on eodh side ; tihere were no other buikhngs in 
it, and for the most part none hear 
for a long time after the year 1829. 
Seventy-two years since both sides of Glaashouse- 
street were almost filled up with houses, &c., and 
the street is shown as reacting from Lower Padia- 
roent-streeit to Oharlotte-street as it was, previous to 
the building of tb^ new Victoria ^ation^ or to St, 



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20 

Ann's sti^et as it, still remains, and then a continna- 
tion woA called York-street nntil reachinff Manefield- 
Foad, though I think we may say as with a number 
of oth-er mii>or streets, &c., Ac, the new station has 
caused it to a very great degree if not completely 
©o to become a thing (rf the pa«t. Most of our fedlow 
citizens will still remember York-street with its 
clofey packed buildings and of smaU«r streets, &c.^ 
runoing into it, more particularly from the east, 
whereas in 1829 theire wtua not one of ihe smaller 
streets connected with it, but in place thereof there 
were gaps between the houses on that side, a« the 
land had not then all been takes up for building 
purposes. At the same time there were no other 
houses except those forming the froiktage, and this 
was the condition of things aJm in the case of St. 
Ann's-stieet on its northern side, which for nearly 
half its length was then unbudlt upon. 

On that side of St. Ann's-stt^eet and at the bade of 
the booses on the eoatem side of the whole of York- 
street the ground was then let for gardens, and ths 
was the case also on Moosfield-road from whore 
York-street ended on the sooth side of Wood- 
borough-road or Fox's-kuoe as then called. For 
from Woodborough-road until just below the Nag's 
Head Inn, the ground between Mansfield-n»ul and 
what I believe is now called Huntingdon-street, is 
shown to be almost exclusively gardens. Wheo 
going eostwaixl thixmgh St. Ann's-street in 1829 we 
arrive at a laoe entii^y bounded by fields on each 
side, of which Union-road is the present representa- 
tive. Between Fox*s-lane or Qoose Woog-lane 
(having passed down the lane now called Huntnog- 
don-street), and what is now named Union-road, 
there were four fields to the left, some of them of a 
fair length but nairrow. On the southern side of 
Union-road there were also four fields, and on its 
northern side one large and long field extending from 
the top of the road to or near where Q-reat Alfred- 
street is now made, and it happens to be named 
much as it is now, for on the map it says *'To St. 
Ann's Well, Coppioe, Lambley, Ac." 

Seventy-two years since Beck-street was known as 
Beck Bam. and going towards St. Ann's Well, the 
fields on the right hand were reached where the 
Burial Ground is now, and on that side there is no 
other building alterwaids shown as being in the 
town. On the opposite side of the road the houses 
extended probably 50 to 60 yards further, but not 
so far as the ground taken up by the new works 
for electrical purposes, and afterwards it was a plea- 



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aani couatry walk to Uie Well, aad on mncii of the 
road liiene wm scarcely a house in aigfat. Thw oon- 
ditirn of things is well in my remembraiKe, and nn- 
doubtedly of nmoj others aJao; bat compare tha4i 
tinoe and the locality y^ith its nnxlem state, and 
large numbers of streeto compleitely filled with houeee, 
and other baildings, in amount sufficient to form a 
good sized town. The road to St. Ann's Well, or 
where it once was, is io a large extent now lined 
with hou8C6, Hnd in the remaining port on many ure 
to be seen. It is no longer a country walk to that 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM: 

I I'S STREETS. PEOPLE. &c. 



I deaire to commence thm letter with some 
remarks having reference to the town, lands, 
boundariea, &c., in or Dear Sneinton, and to the 
6oath-ea«t of Nottingham. In 1829, and for many 
yearo alter, there wa« scarcely a house to be seen in 
the whole of the ground between St. Ann's Well-' 
road and the road to Caditon, beginning with and 
including what i« known by the name of Sn«intoo 
Market, though really in St. Mary's parish, Notting- 
ham. The houses at the south-west side of the 
Market were in 1829, a« regards buildings, the la«t 
in the town on the road towards Carlton, and they 
remained so, I think I am warranted in stating, from 
twenty-two to twenty-five years afterwards. 

Pasainff the road to darkoD, and keeping to 
the norti-westem side probably for about three 
hundi%d yards, or a little more, Longhedge-lane was 
readied, and cantinuing along which, on the right, 
and also mainly south-east, it formed the boundary 
of the town on the side next to Sneinton. Seventy 
yean since, and even considerably later, a gi%at 
part of the town lands in and near to Longhedge- 
laoe wece really in the country, and as free from 
Louies as St. Ann's Well-road at the same date. In 
1829 Manvers-sti^eet, which is now a noain street 
out of the town leading towards the Hermitage and 
Colwiok-road, was then a mere cul de sac, endang in 
a field just after it bad reached Pierrepont-street. 
There was then, as in later years, a footpath across 
the fields to Old Sneinton, which at one part passed 
the churchyard on irts south side. I well remember 
this old footnoad, and am inclined to think thai ii 
has sinoe been more or le«8 absorbed by streets 
running in the same direction. When on this foot- 
path, about fifty yards from Permyfoot-stile, there 
was another path, branching off to the right, which 
was then called "The Footway to Colwick, &c.," 
and cantlnuinff on it the path went by Sneinton 
Hermita^, which at that time was a thorough- 
fare for foot passengers only, and if any vehicle 
was required at one of those houses in 1829, and 
later, it would have to be taken by road from the 
further end. At that period the nearest houses to 
the Hermitage would no doubt be some in Old 



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23 

Soeuiton. 

To make ameods for a sligbit omiaskm, I muet 
retam omce more to wiiat wafi formerly colled 
Beck Bam (now Beck-street), and in reference to 
tbe field which baa mncc (1831-2) freqaeotiy been 
entitled tbe Cbolera Burial 6roand, to say tbat imtil 
a much more recent date tban 1829 there wae no 
road or street ait the side nearest to the body of the 
town which led to Soeinton, and also that the bottom 
end of what is now called Beck-street, and on ka 
eastern side a lititle in the rear of the front buildings, 
and having an eutranoe from Brook-street, the 
old pottery was situated, at which excellent brown- 
wac>e wa4 made, of which some samples may be seen 
in the Oaetle Museum. It appears that a Mr. 
Morley, who was once a nifaker of this ware, and 
proepetred in hie busijiess, erected the house, &c., in 
Beck-lane (now Heathcote-street), which more or less 
formfl the People's Hall. This trade has been dis- 
cootinuied in the town a great length ot time, 
probably one hundred years or more. For the 
whol« of the pedod thait the pcnttery wafi in work 
there seems to be no doubt that it was, with various 
buildings attached to it, beyond the radius of the 
town proper by the width of two or three fields, 
though there appears little room for unoertannty that 
its ate is occupied by Hat foundry and ironworks 
now or formerly in the occupaition of Mr. Q. R. 
Cowen, having Brook-street on one side and Ba4h- 
street on the other. The former, as shown on the 
map, W9M made before 1829, but as regards the 
latter a number ol years appear to have elapsed 
before that easy nteans of access to Snednton from 
Beck-flfcreet wias provided for what even then waa 
practaoally to undte two parts of the same town. I 
believe tha^t, with Bath-street as a continuation of 
and being near to the bottom of the large and im- 
portant street now in course of construction through 
Uie grounds of the late House of Correction and 
other par^i to St. AnnVroad, they are further 
propoflinff to make a wide street or boulevard, 
mmung by Sneinton Market through various pro- 
perties, describing a quarter circle in shape, and 
emerging on the London-roe^ opposite the end of 
Xteen-side, otherwise Canal-street. ' This will cer- 
taii^y open up and allow of much more light and 
adr in IN congested district, and ffive far easier means 
pf access to various parts of the city, aod at the 
same time greatly add m completing a valuable circle 
of boulevards round the city. 
, At the present tdme the north-eastern end of Carter- 



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gate, ar tlie eud of Suointon-Btfcet, is the coiinn«(nce- 
ment of tiie Soutiiwell-roiUl according to the namefl 
afiized to the TrallB, bcut on the map publiahed evcii 
as late as 1848 the part of the road between the end 
of Garter-gate and extending paat MaiiTers-fltreet 
aAd probably to Snebxton-road and reaching to the 
east end of where the Market ia now, wae called 
Old Glaaahoose-street, and I think it probahlc that 
it could really claim to be the original street of that 
name, for on an old engraving in my posaeteion two 
buildings are shown im that cUstrict woere glass was 
made at least 160 or 160 years since, and probably 
not l>ess than 200 years back, though no doubt tlia.t 
business has been long concluded. Of course, 
most Nottingham people will know of the preisent 
Glasshouse-stieet, the bottom part of which com- 
mences in Lower ParLiament-street, opposite the 
eiid of Broad-street, and ran northward to Charlotte - 
9tTe&t, previous to the altenations caitried oat in 
making the new Central or Victoria Station, but 
under the greatly changed circumstances this street, 
as regards its tide, ought to be conUnued now to 
the road uniting St. AmnVatreet and Mansfield -road. 
I have sometomee had my curiosity excited to find 
a reasoQ for giving this street the name it has when 
there was another street with the same, biit 1 have 
not at present found anything to decide th&t "pc^irit, 
though I have no knowledge of any glass works ever 
being in that locality. 

Whilst remarking upon this part of the old town, 
I desire to make further reference to what at 
various time^ has been called Penyfotlane, Penyfiit- 
kne, Penyfotelane, Peonyfoote-lane, Pennyfoot-row, 
and now Pennyfoot-stile. The first four of these 
names are taken from the Town Records, com- 
mencing in the year 1397| and the fifth is from 
Deering's "History of Nottingham," which was 
published 150 vears since ; and as regards the Town 
Records the fifth vdluine includes matAerft connected 
with the borough to the year 1702. In this and 
most, if not ail, of the preceding rohunes at 
their terminations, and in the list of names of 
streets, fields, &c., we are in effect told, as in the 
first vokime, that Penyfotlane or Penyfuilane is the 
equivalent to Pennyfoot-stile, aod in the fifth or 
kst volume that has at present been issued Pennv- 
foot-lcune is entered as being mentioned on |Mige 1^, 
and that its modem title or distingufshing name is 
Pennyfoot-stile. I have read the v^otis volumes 
of the Records with intense interest and pleasure, 
and in anything I may say respecting iUem it ii 



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% 

Vvitb(Mtt thb l^etst kida of being c&^tiotii^, \Mt to 
merely elicit and ectabUsh what tiiay poShibty prove 
to be tiie real facta of the case. I ei^teem t£e work 
dona by Messrs. W. H. Stevenscm liSid W. T. Baker 
in coimection with the Town Reoords too highly 
for me to ^w anything but appreciatioci and re- 
gard for their laboicrs as editors, and if I take 
exception to any matters or remarks respectitig the 
Rtoords I cannot do better than repea4> what has 
been so well said by Mr. W. T. Baker, in his in- 
trodoctton to the last Yolome^ when notioing some 
errors in Baiil^s "Annals/' and his oorrecting 
them, that it is ^^ in no censorions spirit, but merely 
as a matter af du^/' that I notify any case or 
oases in the Town Reoords which appear to me to 
need roctifioutiou. This explanation will also 
app.y to what I may say in a future letter in which 
I proipo99 to make some reference to atatemfinta 
which I and various other old inhabitants consider 
as erroneous, regarding the dales, &c., on the north- 
western side of the old town. 

Since Deering's "History of Nottingham" was 
published in 1761 sreat ebanfi^es have taken place 
eastward of the anm formed by the meeting placo 
of Oarter-gate and Fisher-gate. In Ddedng^ time, 
and previous, Pennyfoot-laoe, or what he terms 
Pemyfoot-row, extended eastward from the junction 
of Carter-gate and Fisher-gate to what was then 
colled Back-lane, but subsequently altered to WaAer- 
lane. Some time afterwards Pennyfoot-row was 
renamed, and probably this occTCHed near 1780, for 
in or about that year Willoughby*8 Ho8|ntal was 
bui!t in Pennyfoot-row, and it was then called 
WitUmghby-row. According to the old map of 
the town, this road was at that time a narrow one, 
though sudh as vehicles could possibly get through, 
if they could not pass each other. It was, no 
doubt, oalled a "row," becouae the houses on the 
north side filled up the length of the street, w^hiht 
on the south side, in Deering's time, three-fifths 
of the ^reet was tmbuilt npon, and it was practi- 
oatly in the same state in 1829, dir 78 years aftekr. In 
my recollection, great alter^tiotw have taken ptece 
in the immediate neighbourhood of this part. Wil* 
Ibugliby-tow has be^, I consider, dpoubled in Width 
as a street, and also in an increased desree the part 
now oalled P^nnvfoot-stile, in whi<m a chnirch 
(St. Philip's, I think, it is named) has been built. 
Aft^ the^ more recent changes the old Pennyfoo^^ 
row has once more had another name given to it, 
and on this occasion it is Fisher-gate, for it ie 
extended tn that direction, Hfftd the 6ld -PtBiittyfbOt- 



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row i« now abtorbed in it, tboogib, no doubt to 
mosi people it was at that period only known as 
Willougbby-row. I have thus shown that the old 
pennjToot^asie or row and the modern Pennyfoot- 
9treei or Pennyfoot-stile are not the same pbice 
with another name. I think there can be no doubt 
that the o.d name of P-enjfut or Penyfot-lane has 
been superseded, end its title annulled ; for about 
120 years, and therefore not in the memory of any- 
one living, though in the inberecrts of truth it is, 
fortunately, possible to obtain some further know- 
ledge upon this subject hj referring to Deering*s 
Hiabory of the Town, for in it the old map gives 
us a good idea of that locality, and the connection 
of one pact with the other ; and this is rendered still 
more easy of oomprehension by an excellent en- 
graving of the south-ee«tem portion of the town 
as it was 150 years since, and in it the foot-sttle 
is plainly shown from which the lane or street has 
token its name, but it is a<t the end of a narrow 
footpath, apparently only two to three ycirds in 
widui, between gardens, and having a boundary or 
fence wall on one side and a hedge on the other. 
At this spot the little rivulet calkd "The Beck" 
appears to form the boundary between Nottingham 
and Sneinton, the stile being close to it on the 
western or NottiiM^ham side, and over the water 
there appears to have been some wooden planks 
kid to enable foot passengers to cross it. I be- 
lieve that, with the demolition of houses and the 
great addition made to the width of the various 
streets, &c., it is almost possible to see at the 
present day through the l^igth of Pennyfoot-stile 
and Fisher-gate to Plumptce-square ; but, with a 
bend in the road and houses ohstruoting the view, 
it w«s not possible in olden times, according to the 
engraving mentioned, to see anything even of 
Pennyfoot-lane or row from Pennyfoot-stile, and 
to get there it would be necessary to partly pass 
round a house or other building. When thes^ 
matters are ful'.y examined, inciuding maps, en- 
gravings, &c., I think it wMl be genenraUy allowed 
that Pennyfooi-lene or row and Pennyfoot-stile are 
places that were fonneiiy auite distinct from ffixi^ 
other, and I consider that the reprehensiUe syste^ 
U unnecessarily and thoughtlessly chanflrlng tbo 
names of our streets, &c., is in a great degree re- 
sponsrble for many errors of a similar native whdoh 
have occurred, in 1751 there is no bridiwork 
visible in this part of the town (eastern side) to 
the Boul^ ol the vraHL forming one side of the foot- 
path to Psnnyfoot-stile ; and London-rosid, with its 



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▼arious adxhways kc., is piainly shown on the en- 
graving mentioned ; but a most somrising circnm- 
stanoe to most m modem times with its enonaocw 
changes will be to observe how few and small the 
alterations or additions in that part had been during 
the years 1751 until 1829— the vacant ground, 
ooontry footoedifl, &c., were pFactioally tl^ oame 
at the latter date as at tbe former 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM: 

ITS STEEETS. PEOPLE. &c. 



VI. 

I propose oa tbis oocafirion, \\\ih yo'ur pei- 
miBsiou, to take into consideiratjon the souUiem side 
of tbe town aa regards its various outlets iu that 
direction, together with a number of changes and 
additions which have been mad^e in that part, 
thoutrh chiefly such as will stild. be retained in re- 
membruuce by a large portion of the older inhabi- 
tants. In doing this I am giad to be assisted by 
some excellent maps dating from various perioas 
and which fully explain the extent, &c., of the town 
on that side for the la*»t two to three centuries, 
ihoxi^h moie pariicuarly my references for the 
instant at least will probably be to what is in living 
memory. 

To the present generation, with such meaos of 
egress southward as we now possess, it will no 
doubt cause much wonder, when fully informed of 
the extremely poor provision of such nec«98«ury 
facilities even as late as 1840 to 1846, which was 
from the first to the seventh year after the opening 
of the Midland Railway (1839). At that time, if 
with a conveyance heavily loaded the course taken 
from the Market-place to the Trent Bridge, Ac., 
would probably be by Clumber-street, Low^ Parlia- 
ment-street, to Coalpit-lane, then to Carter-gate, 
Fisher-gate, and LoiKion-road. When not heavily 
loaded it would be possible to make nee of QooBe- 
gate to get southward, and with a light conveyance 
probably the road by Bridlesmith-gate, High-pave- 
ment, and Hollow Stone might be used. It is no 
less singular than true that until 1843 (ait the latter 
end, I believe, and about the time when the Queen 
and Prince Albert drove through the town) there 
wa« no possibility of getting on London-road with 
a conveyance south of the Market-place except by 
way of Low- pavement, High-pavement, &c., or 
Broad-marsh and Narrow-maraii, or by Carrington- 
street and Leen-side, and a part which was i5ter- 
wards called Canal-street. Sixty-five years since, 
except the house connected with the Toll Bar and 
a house or two near to the Trent Bridge, there 
were no houses whatever, I may say, belonging to 
the town ; the whole of the Meadows and road 
being entirely clear of them. If there was a $ipall 



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hovel used for horses or cattle here and there that 
wonid comprise the whole of the buUdings. The 
most southern houses in the town were those on 
the Leen-side nearest the canal on its north side. 

I have in my younger days on various occaAions 
in times of flood stood upon the southern bonk of 
the canal, before the time of railways or stations, 
and seen boats sailing about on what was really a 
small lake, and coverinc^ the ground where the 
Midland passenger and luggage stations a<re now 
built, and including their yards, also the sites of 
Station-street, Arkwright-street, with other streets 
branchinsr therefrom, &c. At that time, as there 
were no bridges over the railway, as at present, nor 
houses to obstruct the view, much water might be 
seen upwards when the Trent overflowed its oanks 
after a rainy season. 

Until about the yenr 1842 the roads leadinc 
sc-uthward from the Market-place compared witn 
those at present in existencp were such (except Car- 
rington-street) as had generally been in use for 
generations by our forefathers, tnd in places were 
cramped to a most unpleasant and trouble- 
some degree. Until 1846 when Albert street was 
formed, there was no direct outlet from the Market 
by Lieter-flrate, &c., to the railway except by way 
of Church-lane, which at that time was at no pla<je 
wider than the lower end is at preftent. This was 
the first place, I believe, in the town where it was 
nece«ary to station a poli3eman to regulate the 
traffic, for the width of the lane was not sufficient 
to allow of vehicles passing each other, and therefore 
it continually happened that thtre was a number 
waiting either at the upper or lower end to take their 
turn in passing througu. and i/t was not uncommon 
for a dozen and sometimes more to be there wishing 
for their opportunity to come. Occasionally 
incidents occurred which had the effect of 
entirely disorganising the traffic. Accidents 
happen in moet places, though occasionally 
they appear to be at the most inconvenient 
or undesirable time or place, and this occurred in 
Church-lane. I formerly knew Mr. Toyne, a miller 
of the town, who having purch!ised some corn a load 
was sent for. which in the ordinary course would 
hive to come through this lane on its way to a mill 
on the Forest, and unfortunately when in it an axle-, 
tree broke, which for a time caused a complete stop- 
page of the heavy traffic of that part of the town. 
Such accidents wore not singular, and their unde- 
eirableness in similar cases by dehy to large numbers 



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96 

of persons may be more easily imagined than de- 
scribed. This serious inconvenience and loss to the 
trade of the town positively remained unremedied 
(a<icordin^ to da^tee mven ue) for eeveo years after 
the opening of the Midland Railway station (May 
30, 1839), for Albert -street as mentioned wa« not 
fo^med until 1846. To mo«t of us in these days it 
must apptar strange thM our ajicasbors could by any 
possibility i-emain qu:e.s:ent under such circum- 
oftaocee for so long a period a>nd not feel impelled to 
effect the needful alteratiions, but they movc^l elowly 
in past vears. as is evidenced in miany other mat- 
t€<rB, and occasionally in the wrong way if we are 
to be guided by modem notions. 

Untjl about ten yea« since, and probably less, 
Wheeler-gate was, at the top part, only about two- 
thirds, and at the bottom but little, if any, more 
than ofie-tbird its present width, and undoubtedly 
there had for many years been a strong claiim npoQ 
the town for its alteration before it was carried out. 
Respecting List-er-gate, it appeare to have been 
widened in 1865, and at the same time a consider- 
able altemtion was made in its level, the gradient 
being now much more easy than it was in olden 
times. If the widening of Albert-street and Lister- 
gate bad occurred in 1^1 in place of 1846 and 1865 
I have no doubt that in the result it would be a, 
few yards wider in each case than it now is, or the 
s^une possibly as Milton-street will be when finished, 
but in 1865 no one had thought of such things as 
trams of any kind running in the streets, and es- 
pecially such as we possess in those driven by elec- 
tricity, and therefore it would be bare justice to 
hanihly judge our forefathers for not preparing or 
providing for trams or anv other nwtter of wSich 
they had no knowledge wnatever. 

Respecti-ng Carrington-street, it is, comparatively 
speaking, of modem formation. ITiere was nothing 
of the sort in Deering's time (1760). At that period 
tliere were two fields, which, with a number of 
gardens, practically filled up the whole of the space 
bounded by Broad-marsh on the north, the River 
Leen on the south, Turn Calf-alley on the east, and 
Gray Fryers-gate on the west, and according to the 
plan there were nearly forty large trees then standing 
on the grotmd. It is true there were a few houses 
upon it, but in number as compared with the land 
of little account. Coming down to 1829, we get to 
the t'me when Carrington-street had been formed, 
but very much the greater part was then unbuilt 
upon. Oooxnencin^ at its junction witfi Broa4' 



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31 

marsh, thiere wa^ a good-nzed piece of groasd bar- 
ing a froBtage both to the street and the Marsh, 
w&ch land was qaite clear of baildings then. Ac- 
cording to the ma.p there must have bcin a frontage 
found (wheo making the street) to land ooimeoted 
with or belonging to St. Peter's pariah, the Work- 
houee, aind biuying groond. On thie it appears as 
though six or seven nooses or shops had been built, 
but theme were no others on the east side, which 
left fall three -qnartens of the frontage vacant. On 
the oppoeitte, or west side, the ground was enclosed 
for dbtlin's Hospital, as it is now, excerpting the 
portion at the end near the Walter Fountain, which 
was acquiired a number of years since (prohablj 20) 
for the purpose of increasing the apace in the streets 
or the SQuare. At that tame there was only ooe 
block of Duiidings conoeoted with the hospital, and 
that the one next to Oarrington-eta^et. Excepting 
a couple of buildings at the south-east comer of 
Co4Hns-street there were no &thec ereotdons of any 
kind on that side of Carnngton-street nor even for 
a short' distance after turning the corner into Canal- 
street. On the eastern side of Grey Friar-gate for 
more than three-quarters of its length there was not 
one house to be found at that time (1829), nor was 
there one in Melville-street although it was formed, 
nor in a large portion of Codlins-street. Thds da/be 
is but ten years before the Midland Kaiiliway com- 
menced running at Nottingham, and the map of 
thoit time shows that Carrington-street ended on 
reaching Canal-street. It was in that year, 1829 
(April), that steps were taken for arching the River 
Leen over in the part where it ran tto>ugh the 
town, for before then it appears to have l^n an 
open rivulet. 

At that date and after when going down from the 
Cnstle Lodge by Brewhouse-yard on arriving at the 
bottom of the hill, it will be remembered by many 
that the Leen ran close to the houses and other 
baildings on the north side of Canal-street, there 
being no street, nor room for one, between it and 
them, and this continued to be the case 
until within a small space of Knotted-alley, when 
the width between the bouses had considerably in- 
creased for a distance, and the Leen turned more 
southward, and here it had a bridge over it on 
which vehicles could pass and get to London-road. 
The first or upper part of the raid I have described 
was called Canal-street, but after passing the bridge 
mentioned it was called Leen -side until London-road 
was reached. In a short distance eastward of the 



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32 

bridge and befoi^e reaching Pelt -alley, the Leen fol- 
lowed ita counie at the back of the honse«, &c., and 
amongst the buildings on the south aide of the road. 
In the part called CSinal-«treet in plaoe« where other 
atreets, &c., abutt^ upon it, seven or eight smail 
bridges had been made for the purpose of passing 
over it, and this arrangement was also carried out 
on Leen-side. One of these bridges was at the end 
of Turn Calf-alley, which was near the footway 
(during the last century) to another bridge for foot 
passengers, which is still on the same spot, and 
croraas the Camai. In fonmeir times the lootpcidi 
then branched ofif south-eastward across the 
Meadoiws, until it reached London-road at or near 
the end of Kirke White-street. There was one more 
footroad to make up the total outlets on the sotMth 
side of the tofwn, and that formed the communica- 
tion between Nottingham and the south by way of 
Wilford Ferry, as many will yet remember it. In 
1829 the roadway (Wilford-street) was constructed to 
allow of oo^danary traffic to the Navigation Bridg*^, 
and onward there was, according to the map, a foot- 
way to the Ferry and Wilford, though I am very 
much inclined to think that horses could also ble 
brought that way. In 1751 there was a field or 
piece of bnd on the east side of Turn Calf-alley, 
which was covered with trees, and there were also 
many trees on ecu:h side ol the Leen near the town. 
At that date the Leen-side was not a thoroughfare 
for much more than three-fourths of the distance 
from London-road to the Wooden Bridge and tihe foot- 
way from Turn O&lf-alley, then but few houses had 
been built to the south of those in Narrow-mnrsh. 
and nearly the whole of the ground on which there 
are now so many courts, alleys, and yards was 
divided up into gardens. At tliat period there was 
00 Canal-street, uor any Canal to give it a name. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM: 

ITS STREETS. PEOPLE. &c. 
vn. 

Befom coftctodkiff mr remains respeotinf tbe 
w^Hfe e m sidle of Nottiii^m, to^pediter -wm it« 
outleto, &o.» I think it will be better to meotion a 
few more Blatters which are connected therewith. 
Aooording to the Dat« Book, it appears l^at an Act 
of Pa4rliainent was passed in Maj, 1791 for the con- 
struction of a caoel. On Jaly 30, 1792, the first 
sod was cut, and on Jnly 30tah, 1793 (twelve months 
after) the n^wly-formed canal was formally opened. 
At the present time it has, therefore, been m use 
rather more than 108 years. It was, no doubt, 
ebont the tame when the Canal was made that 
GaiNd-street was fofrmed. According to Deering 
(1750) there was no direct oomnvunication from 
TumoaU-alley in his time either with London-road 
to the east or Gray Fryer's-gate to the west, nor 
between Gray Fryer^s-gate and Brewhouse-yard, 
and the south side of the Castle Rock, including the 
old town Waterworks. In the first case there weire 
two fields fiUiDjjr up tbe space, and in the latter one 
field. Then to the east of Turncalf-aUey there was 
a field and gardens occupying a space {Mrobably ap- 
proaching two hundred ;^ards, which b'ocked the 
way to Leen-side. Talung the whole of the dis- 
tance from London-road to the old Waterworks, 
bordy two-fifths of the road was formed in 1750, 
and that was called the Leen-side, and the remain- 
der when made was named Oanai-street. At that 
date the ground comprised between Gray Fryer's- 
gate, C^sterfield-lane, and Fink Hill-street was 
almost completely covered with tf«es. There were 
possibly three or four houses on it in Gray Fryer's- 
gate and a similar number in Chesterfield-lane, but 
that was aH. There were alao a number of large 
trees on a piece of ground forming the angle of Gray 
Fryer's-gate and Rosemary-lane. Between the west 
side of Fink Hill-street and the Castle by far the 
ffreater portion of tbe ground was then (1760) un- 
built upon, and a large part of it appears to have 
been hi use for gardens. 

A little consideration will now be jiriyen to the 
chief southern outlet from the town, namely, Lon- 
don-road, commencing at its northern end. In 1760, 
this practicjally was the onl;^ southern outlet, at 
any mte, for vehicles, and without such aid as we 
now have by railways and canals for bo<h passen- 
gers and heav^ traffic, but as we do not appear tQ 



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34 

have read in historj of asy complaiota of ito inniffi- 
ciency in olden times there is reason for supposing 
that it was quite able to meet its requiremeote, 
thoug^h certainly in some parts it must have been 
narrow, judging proportionately from Deering's plan 
oi the town in 1750, and also of the old Treat 
Bridge on which there was no room to spare when 
carts, kc., passed each other, and if there had not 
been a number of recesses oyer the piers oo each 
side into which foot passengers could step, it would 
oertainly on numerous occasions have oeen yery 
dangerous for them when crossing. As with the 
Bridge, so do doubt with the remaining portion of 
the road there were in olden times do oanseways, 
and it appears to be undoubted tibat 
tiro insufficiency of width would preyent their 
formation even if considered desiraible et tha4> time, 
but though to many it may possibly appear sbrange, 
it is nevertlieleas true that causeways are maanly 
if not tota.Uy, aa regards Nottingham, of com- 
paraitively modem initroduction. (On a future 
occasion I propose to say more upon t^s subject), 
fhough the omission of causeways would certainly 
make a cx)n8iderable difference, aad add to the 
facilities of vehieuilair traffic on the narrow roads 
and 8it<re«tfi of our forefathers. 

With our ancestors, tihe part they cabled London- 
road probablv (from the man of 1760), began near to 
where Island-street is now. The open piece of 
ground into which Hollow-stone runs together with 
Fi«(beT-gate, Xarrow-marsh, &c., was at that time 
called " Bridge Foot." Many year« since on first 
obserying this, I could not understand it, my ideas 
of a bridge being spedaliy associated with what 
we in recent devs have called the Treot Bridge, but 
to which our ancestors for centuries gaye quite « 
different appellation A little study of our best 
histories wiih the then maps, &c., aided by the 
Borough ru30«tl8, &c , will howeyer giye all f^ 
explanation needed. Deering on page 166 informs 
us that " over ibe Leen between Karrow-marsh and 
Fisher-gate is built a long stone bridge of twenty 
adxrhcs, this is called the Leen or Town bridge. 
In its repair by the 36th of Henry 8th, it appears 
that the various Wapentakes or Hundreds of t/be 
County had to bear a large proportion of the cost, 
and from what we are there told this bridge must 
have been full 650 feet long. On an old map I 
have lately seen, the Lean is set out in that part as 
being divided into several small arms. A large 
portion of my older fellow citizens will remember 
that before tWre was a railway brid^, this toiul 



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ss 

was miaed a mimber of feet for a coniiderable 
duitence a^ye the Meadows, or tibe CanaJ, or ihe 
Leen^ in fact until within a few hundred jardi of 
the fir«t end of the Trent Bridge from tibe Town, 
when, on approaching the Rye Hills, the ground 
graduatij rose to tm level of the road. G<»n- 
menciiiA from Bridge Foot and until some distance 
after Leen-side was passed, this road aippears to 
have been quite contracted in widtlh as compared 
with a nnmber of others, and accordmg to the map 
it is probabLe that from Bridge-end to, ot near 
where Island-stieet is now, the road was called 
Leen-bridge ai» it probably readied to there, and 
from the old mi^, engravings, Ac., which I have 
seen of it inclndmg a large proportion ol its length 
to the Rye Hills, it had many arches in use for 
the Leeo, Obainv Pools, the Seven Ardies^ flood 
parpoaes, &c., toe reason is then better understood 
whv Plnmot'Te-sqaare was in olden times called 
Bridge Foot, for immediaitely after its commenoe- 
ment at lOie town end, the bridges for various 
purposes also began, the first being the Tecy long 
Leen Bridge. 

The first refeirenoe which I find in the Borough 
Records to the bridge over tihe Trent at Nottnngham 
is at p. 16 vol. 1, where with other land Ac., Ralph, 
son of Folk of Nottingham gives— (1222-1235)--to 
St. John's Hospital, " three roods (of land) at the 
bridge of Hebeye.'' To many readers this doubt- 
less will be a strange name thonj^, with several 
variations it was, for wen than AoO years without 
much doobt, the accepted appellation for what in 
other wocds in modern times we styie the IVent 
Bridge. When re^rriof^ to this ma4;ter, Deering 
says:— **' This ancieht bridge bears in all writings 
the name of Heathhetti Biridee, tho«^ ddfferentTy 
ifpelt, for the etymokgy of which name I am in- 
debted to John Pkimptre, Esq.". Goang back 
to the date mentioned, and even in mnch more recent 
times, the orthogvaimy of our ancestors was very 
Indifferent and nntmstworthy, for in 1647-1625 in the 
4th vol of the BoroD^ Records, it is named 
HegU>eth Bridare, Heithbeth Bd^, Hethbeth 
Brrage, Ac., and Deering mentions Heyeghbeytihe, 
Hethw«th, Heathbethe, and HeaOhbet (or Higfahath 
Bridge), asnameensedat different times or occasions 
for &e Trent Bridge. 

In a very fine engraving, dated abont 1740, which 
I quite reoentiy saw of ttie Meadows and souftbem 
side of the town, I noticed that the old footpath I 
have in V^, 6 letter mentioned a« running south eagt 



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36 

from Oie town, and to be reached by Tamcalf-alle^r, 
and tike Wooden Bridge wem in at least a portion, if 
not in all it« length, raised above the grass. In re- 
ference to this Deering, at p. 164, when referring to 
the Trent Bridge and some one coming into the town, 
says, "From the foot of this bridge there goes a 
oanseway well secured with brickwork and covered 
with fl»t stones leading to the higher part of the 
Meadows, aod from thence acroas the lower parts, 
there are pkaka raited a foot or a foot aod a half, 
and in some places two feet high from the ground, 
upon which in flood times peo]^ may go d^ from 
Heathbeth Bridge to seyeral parta of the town ; all 
these are taken care of and repaired by the bridge 
masfters." Deering also inlorms us that: ''Between 
the two principal l^idges, that is, the Trent and 
Leen bridge, and about the middle betwixt the 
Trent-lanes are two considerable pools of waiter not 
without good firfi in them, which is the coomion 
passage for horses and wheel-carriaget except in 
time of flood, in which case two bridges built over 
these pools give passage to horses, coaches, wagons, 
&c., to avoid the danger of driving or riding into 
one of these pools ; these bridges at other times have 
chains acrom them, whence both these pools and the 
bridges hape obt4uned the names of Chainy Bridges 
and Chainy Pools, a corruption of chained. There 
are farther between tbe Leen Bridge and the«e ju«t 
iKMned bridges, very high planks and raib 
reaching from the one to the other, 
over which when the waters are out, people 
may walk on foot dry to Chainy Bridges, and 
thence over the highest part of the Meadows, and 
the above-mentioned cauflewav to Trent Bridge, 
which is a measured mile. These planki and rails 
are likewise kept in repair by the bridge masters." 
In my younger days I have a clear recollection of 
wondering (with another matter or two) why we 
should have a small sheet of water named Chainy 
Pool, but history afterwards exf^ained it, and may 
possibly do so for others on this oc<-asion. 

There is still one more road or footpath to l>e 
remarked upon which mig^ truly be said to be in- 
timately associated with the south of the town, 
though leading westward, as in former times (1830 
and years after), it left the town at its extreme south- 
west ani^le, for it was, and may now be, properly 
called the low road to Lenton. In comparatively 
recent times it commenced near to the bottom of 
Finkhill-atreet. and passed onwards towards the 
west, having the Castle rock near it on- the right, the 



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3T' 

RiTer Lmii beuw aJso od the same vide, and iiuine- 
diattly agaiiMrfc toe road or pathway, for a consider- 
able portion of the distance to Lenton. On 
tiie kft, oonomeiicing against Wilford-roed, waa 
Mr. Yook's timber yard and wharf, afterwards 
Messrs. WoodwiBTd and CAairke's, then Mr. Simpson's 
wharf for general purposes, afterwards Mr. £. H. 
Gordon's. This extended a considerable dnsptajioe 
witli the back towards the Leen or footpath, and 
until the space between the Gaoal and the Laen wa.s 
not sufficiently wide for farther nse after atlowance 
for the footpath was made. The Fishpotnd Oardens 
and this wharf (both sA that tinfe belonging to the 
Duke of Newcastle) ended on the same Une. On the 
north side for a considerable distance the Leen was 
in some form fenced in. From shortly before reach- 
ing the old waiterworks it was bounded by a low 
stone wail as a protection, and this was continued 
probably for about two bandred yaida, and until 
just past the entrance to Mr. Gordon's wharf, near 
whiicn a bridge crossed the Leen in connection with 
^t^ Fishpond Gardens, when the stone wall and the 
road for vehicles and horses may be said to have 
ended, and the footpath I^^oper began without any 
protection from the Leen. There were a few small 
houses with a number of old buildings forming part 
oif the boundary of Mr. Gordon's whcui. 

It was, I believe, nearfy a quarter of a mile from 
the beginning to the end of vbe wharves, and then 
the prospect was open on the right to The Park 
across the Leen, and on the left to The Meadows 
across the Ganal. In a short time the Old Rock- 
boles could be seen with "The Doctor's Shop/' &c., 
• Ac., which will abide in the meoKwy of nwoy of 
my oiUkr feaow-oitizens, and espeoiaJly if natives 
of the locality. A few steps farther then brought 
us to the part oi the Leen called the Oowdrinks, ot 
which the same section of persons will, in many in- 
stances, retain vivid recollections and reminiscences 
pertaining to their younger days. I think I ought to 
say to many who may not remember t^ Oowdrinks 
that they were at the bottom of the last deep de- 
pression in The Park when crossinff from Notting- 
nam towards Lenton. After passing here on the 
footroad Lenton was reached in a few minutes. 

I%xkce this time the transformation of this part is 
complete many^of the old landmarks are either out of 
sight or enbliely obliterated. A narrow footpeith is 
metamorphosed into a wide bouievaird, on which there 
is an enonmons amount of traffic, and under which 



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3B 

tbere k probalbly tbe lai^geat outfall sewer bdongb^ 
to tbe city, irath hooses, bwiiifeM m aam uj kc,, 
flpriDgiDg up aJi romid. Even the Leen hM been 
divertod into some otber oourae, but tbe ooirr^iueoce 
bu been enoimously iDcai^ned, 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM: 

ITS STREETS, PEOPLE. &c. 
vni. 

In my ihM letter I petferred mcidleiittiallY to ihe 
Ihkm, TfrbTdt ere to tbe noptii-'wiesb oif Nottiiig- 
ham, and to staiem/mts in tbe Borough Becords oo<n- 
ceming ijbtem. Theee. in my own opimoo, and aJao 
of varioiuB old inhabitants of the locality, familiar 
with the Dales, do not convey a correct idea reopect- 
ing them nor such aa traditdon has brought down to 
us, and old maps made us famiiiao: with. I men- 
tioned in my fifth lettw that my only motive in 
remarking upon this or other points is to eetabHdi 
the truth whether it be in favour of the Records or 
of myself, and to effect this it is proper that the 
subject should, if possible, be set at rest whilst a 
number oi my old fellow-citizens are alive, who in 
their younger days were thoroughly conversant with 
the Dales, when in what I might oall their normal 
state, and as it is now almost exactly half a century 
since they were first interfered with for street making 
and building purposes, I think it will be allowed 
that there luis oeen no undue huny in broaching the 
maitit>0r. 

In y<d. I. of the Borough Recordf>, as mentioned 
in "List of Names of Streets, Fielda, Ac.," it ap- 
pears that there is an entry of Wrendak, near Ling- 
dale, on three oocaaans, but though the name of 
Larkdale is there casually entered, the reader is re- 
ferred to Lingdale, and informed respecting "land 
passed in a certain plaoe there, comm<»)ly called 
Larkdale or Lingdale.'^ It is very doubtful whether 
the name of Wrendale will be found in any future 
volume of tbe Records, and I have no doubt that 
Wrendale was only another name for Larkdale 
(1230-1335-1363). It must also be remembe<red that 
in Vol. I., page 442, Wrendale is stated to be " near " 
Lingdale. In Vol. 11. there does not appear to be 
any referenoe to Larkdale, though in several in- 
stances Lingdale, otherwise Lyngdale, is mentioned. 
In Vol. nf. of the Records, according to what is* 
entered in " The List of Names, Streets, Fields, Ac," 
on page 473, the Larkdale again appearo to have no 
mention noade of it, as there seems to be no page 
brought to notice in which it occurs, though incd- 
dentally we are informed of a case in 1460 where 
Thnrlandgrants to the Trinity Gild an acre of land 
without Chapell Barre, near Larkedak. I have been 
at a littie trouble in trying to find anything directly 



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40 

referring to that maMeir, both in tbe aeoood and tlufrd 
Yolumefl, but at preMoi have not aacoeeded. Ac- 
cording to this there is practically no direct mentioci 
of the Larkdale in the three iiivt volomM of the 
Records in the ordinary coarse or reference thereto 
m the liet of names, &c., though Lingdale is often 
menlioDed, and yet on paffe 473, VoL UL, the 
editor says that "the Lark Dale, formerly called 
Lingdale, is t>he Valley represented by Shabeapeare- 
street and the Valley in the Gkneral Cemetery." A 
statement like this to many inhabitants from 64 to 
82 yeara of age, who have been familiar irrth that 
part from their childhood u{>w»rdB, is most sur- 
prising, and it is the first and only intimation they 
have ever received that the Valley of Shakespeare- 
fjtrtei was included In Lark Dale, but they dniy it 

The notion of such a thing is entirely opposed to 
tradition, old maps, or other ijiformaition which had 
come down to us respecting the Dales, and unless 
full proof be finrt produced of the accuracy of the 
statement by those making it, care should be exer- 
cdsed before accepting it. I demur to the notion 
that Laf kdale was ever called Lingdale or Ljngdale, 
because there were as a fact positively two dales, 
and that would (though in name only) reduce them 
to one, but before I further refer to this -poiat I 
desire to make a f&w remarks respecting the roods 
and footpaths connected with or leading to the two 
Dales. 

In my first letter, when refeiring to the upper end 
of the north aide of Parliam«ntHit'reet and the lower 
end of what was then termed Back-lone, I stflited 
that there was no Goldamith-st(«et at that time, 
though there was a footpath across the fields from 
that point, and it very closely followed the cause- 
way on the east, side of that street until near the 
point where the bottom gates to the cemetery are 
fixed, when it joined the lower end of the Bowling 
Alley. The first and naost noted of the fiel(k crossed 
by this footpath was Boper's dose, which is a ikUB» 
that will be well rememhered by many of the older 
inhaibitants of the city living near it, and- probably 
bring up numerous recoUections of the past, for 
amongst yonng people it was in constant use fifty 
years since for a run into the fields. This path ap- 
pears to have been well retained in the OMmory o£ 
most persons who had once fully known it^ I bow 
desire to refer to another footpath across the fiddi 
in connection with the Dales. It oertaanly wus not 
used by such large numbers of penons as the last- 
mentioned foot road, by not being so ceatratiy 



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41 

atoAied lor tiie tows, and HkBreiose ihent akay be 
some aliiywaoce nuMk lor ite aica^wiig tiie memory of 
variouB persoiM until some inoictent haa been men- 
tioned wiu<h. rac«LUed it to their misid. 

Goiag back poosiiblv from fifty to fifty-five yean» 
TdMH in Back-lfloe (Wodleton-etreet), on ite Dorti^m 
side and about lereA witii tbe top of ToU-atoeet 
(where tbere was a winding fooA^ay from Toll Houm 
Hill, called Mark-lane, on Uie oppoaite side), a nar- 
row foot road acroos tiie fields would be found wiilch 
had a hedge on each aide (eacrt and wevt), and waA 
generally but li-ttle if any more than two yank wide. 

Whilst I am writing this I have before me the 
large map of the town aixl land surrounding it, 
wfa^h I have before mentioned as being from surveys 
made in 1827-26 and 1829 by one whom I believe tli< a 
was, and another who oertoinlv afterwards became 
the Town Surveyor — namely, Meecrs. G. Staveley 
and H. M. Wood. In t<hkr map the paths are plainly 
lined and all the fields set out and «hown. 1 eould 
i»^ that the editors of the Borough Records could 
have seen or had thoroughly examined such an one, 
as it miffht have oansed th^n to modify a few state- 
ments they have made. I have also the advantage 
of two other large maps of a little more recent date 
to refer to, though both are earlier than the greet 
changes which have occurred in the town (dating 
59 and 53 years since), but all agree in the main 
points und^ discussion. 

Respecting the footpaith from the north side of 
Parliament'^brest, it passed through six fields before 
reaching near the end of the present Sbakeepesflne- 
street. One long one (the fiist) and five narrow 
ones. The footpath from Hib middle of Back-lace 
first passed on right and left by long fields, then 
two narrow ooes, when the bottom end of the Lark 
DaJe was reached to the left, which doubtless was 
very nearly opposite to the eotranoe gates or lodge 
to tiie Aihoretam as now fixed or built, but this foot- 
path oontinued at an angle until it reached the Bowl- 
ing Alley, near where Portland-road or Raleag^- 
sti«et is now formed. Fortunately there is one old 
and (as regards this case) valua&e landmark still 
left respacting Lai^ Dale, iitB position, &c., and that 
is a house in the General Cemetery which, when 
looked at from Waverley-street, is at the back of the 
bottom chapel. It was at one t'mie close to the bot- 
tom of Lark Dak, and the back wall of a little yard 
in the rear once formed a portion of the sou^m 
fence to the Dale. Many yeedns past before all traces 
of the Dale were lost, and in fact, as building opera- 



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tioiDdi aod tti^eet VQaking ^w^Dt on, I took some mental 
Dotea at times raipeciixig JtB positiion, &c., aod dtill 
retdn most of than in my memary. 

Lark Dale when entered ait it« lower eod ran 
somewhat noorth-west until it reached ForeBt-road 
ae it wias fotrmerlj, though in that port the road 
waa much the same m direction a« it is now. The 
pathway wa« but a naiiiow one, with hedges on each 
side, and prohaUy not exceed ng three yards in 
width in a large portion ol i/t, and much of its 
lenffth was sunk some feet beh>w the level ol the 
iieldis on either side with much loo^ sand. It was 
proportionaitely a smfbll affair when compared with 
the other Dale, the mane recent name of which is or 
was the Bowling Alley, though I am thoroughly 
convinced and consider it as practically certain that 
its old name was Lingdale, which nearly three cen- 
turies since was renamed, or became known, as the 
Bowiinff Alley. As a diminutive, and on the 
principle that a small house or cotta^ is a 
moasonette, so also ought the Lark Dale to to termed 
a dalette in comparison with the other Dale. The 
mere idea thait the little Wren Dale (a small bird) 
or Lark Dale should be so magnified as to be pre- 
ferred to its much larger and more important neigh- 
boor, and even extended to three times i<ts proper 
length, by being on paper continued to Mansfield- 
road, has when mentioned in several instances, which 
I have seen amongst old fellow-si faizens who had a 
full knowledge of the Dales, raised a smile of in- 
credulity that such an assertion could possibly be 
made by any one. 

The ground enclosed between the Bowling Alley 
hill and Lark Dale was V shaped, the wide part at 
the tc^ being on the Forest-road, and it was then 
filled up l^ two good-sized fields, then there were 
four considerably smaller and differently shaped 
fields filling up the remaining and lower pait of the 
enclosed iMid. There was a&o a piece of land, suf- 
ficient to make a ffood-sized field, which was un- 
enclosed or unfenced and open to the footpadis and 
Bowling Alley road, and to a oertaiin extent be- 
longed to the Dak and road also, and if sold at any 
time wi4h a full and a proper descrip4aoo given, it 
would almost undoubtedly to a present-day reader 
without a full knowledge of the spot., prove em- 
barrassing and difficult to fully compreh«Ki or un- 
ravel. Two of the maps upon whidi I rely were 
brought out directly for Corporation purposes and 
by theiir aothodty, and the third by two of their 
eurveytxv. And ae the largest was issued (1829) a 



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43 

DUiaber of jMb before Uie nioUMntz^ took place, and 
peir^ps I might say befoire it wmt mach tliovg^ of, 
we find mo0t or all parts of it just aa it is i«meni- 
be(red aod apokaoi of by moDj erf the okl to>wDflfoik, 
aaul the others (odb of 1843 and another of 1848) 
agree with it 

In saying that Lark Dale extended to MaaMifitild- 
road, oae or two moet importaDt meMen ware over- 
looked or ignored, which point most deoddedly in an 
opposite direction. (Ist) The old road, focmerly 
nuuiing where Shakeepeore^breet is now, was caUed 
CiQOB-laDe until it reached the Bowling AlW, which 
ought to be soflicdent evidence from its cufference 
of name that it was not ooooidered or intended to 
be past of Lark Dal«, but there is another, and as I 
oooaider decKsdve objection to such an ili-aaaorted 
iHiion. Oross-lane was a road for vehicles, whilst 
Lark Dale waA exclusively a foot road among fields, 
and by width, formation, &c., totally unsiutaible for 
wheel traffic. lliis I consider as fatal to thear 
juDotlon, and to assertions made as regairds whait 
with but litUe doubt was formerly known as Ling 
Dak, and for a great part of three centariieB re- 
named " The Bowing AUey," and which also was a 
road for vehicies, tnere W80 undoubtedly a juncbion 
near to the end of ShaikespeareHibPeet or the oeme- 
teiT gobes as dow formed or fixed. 

hk VoL L of the Borough Records and page 432 
we are informed that "mte*' in the Notetiingham 
street names means a road or way. On page 181 of 
Y<A. I. of the Reoords Lingdalegaifae is mentnoned 
(1362) in connection with the tnansferenoe of some 
land to John Samon, which is said to be " athwart 
Lingdaleoate," one rood in Wrendale, and one rood 
also in Lingdale. This proves undoubtedly that there 
were two separate dales, Wrendale or Larkdale being 
one, and Idngdale the other. H^n T^ingdalaga^e 
must not be forgotten with the land that was trans- 
ferred in it, for it asserts or proves ^ importanoe, 
comparatively speaking, of LmgdaJe, and ^at Inhere 
was a road to it, •which was not a mere footpath, 
and that undoubtedly was Oross-lane as {»«vionaly 
mentioned ; and I consider the proof is ample that 
Lingdale commenced where Cross-lane or LingaU- 
gate ended, and then continned to the top of what 
we now called Waverley-street, to Forest-road. 

In 1659 this ja&rt wae called the Bowiiog Alley. 
(See Records, Vol. V., page 304). I cannot say 
how long that name had then been in use, though I 
believe that to be the first mention of it in the- 
JUcords. Yet I consider it probable that it had been 



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44 

eo knonni for « conndeniUt tiflM bitfete Ibat ^Ato 
from vtwm ioMmtm to be gadi«red from tkne to 
time ia tbe RtoofdA. I will also meotaoa aootiiir 
ciroiuiMrtuice ppoficg tliat In bygooa <!«]» liogdak, 
oifeherwdae Hie Bonrlmg Alley, -wia -oooaidrnd of much 
more ImpoirtaBce ihSa Larkdai^. In yoyember of 
due year (last month) I mw an o4d deed relating to 
knd wliidL had a fronta^ to tiie Alireton-road, and 
ii WM datcribed a« being part of the Bowling ALLey 
Leys, but ibm vraa aotuuly igDoring the exiotence 
ol Lark Dale and paasag ooo^kiteiy oyer the little 
plaoa, foritt'm between tha BowJiing ALkey and 
Alfi«ton-road. ^fty yean aknoe a new orfcreet was 
made from Alfreton-noad, the bottom end of which 
ran into tine BowHng AUW, and the OomnaflBioa»« 
of the inokware oalied it BowUng AUey-road. Thia 
in ite oonme paeoed acroee the little Lark Dale, but 
the mode of keeping in remembraooe the ohl land- 
marks of the town does not aeem to hare milted 
some of oar Nottingham worthiee, for they soon 
altered it to Bialeigfa-0treet» which ie atill its name. 
If ita former name had been retained and the tin- 
meaning Portkod-road had been called Raleigh- 
street or the names int^rodMnged, I qneation whether 
there would ha/7e been any eompiahite whatever, and 
old plaoaa would hare bean kept ia mind. 

I think I have fully proved tha* tfcere were two 
dales in the part mentioned and not one only, and 
thai I satisfaoboriiy show thai Lingdaie (with its 
gate), o i he rwiae the Bowiing Alky, was of mnch 
graaiber importaoee and siee than Wrendole, other- 
wioe Larkdaie, and thai Larkdale em a loot nerer 
readied widkin one-thkxl of a mile of Manofield- 
rcmd. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM: 

ITS STREETS, PEOPLE. &c. 



IX.— Part 1. 

I wish to Gommeoce this letier with further re- 
ference, directlj or indirectly, to the dales men- 
tiooed in mj previoas 0De» aod to tli^ road or rood*' 
directly cOTamimioatiog with the diief of them 
ao4 that is the Bowling Allej, which I am 
thocongUy cooTiaoed was called Uogdale, and to 
be^in. witi Lmgdalegate, aemoDtMoed to Vol. I., page 
435, and said to 1^ '*the road to Lyngdale,** aad 
whidi in more modem times wa« called Cross-lane. 
In position, bat that only from its often objectioo- 
abls state, it is represented bj the present Shakes- 
peare-street. Seveoty-tliree years since, on fhe 
north side at the end between Maosfield-road and 
ShaVs-lane (now Sherwood-street), there was a krge 
grass field, called Calah's Close, which occupied fhe 
whole of the space, and on the Hansfield-road side 
it reached within a very shoit di«ptanoe of where 
Bluecoat-street was afterwards fonned. On the 
south side to ShaVs-lane there were three much 
smaller pieces of ffronnd or fields. From Shaw's- 
lane to tiie far end of Cross*lane, against the Bowl- 
inff Alley, there were eifrht fields on the north side 
and nine on the santh side, bat seTcral of them were 
not nrach wider than a few of the streeto in the 
town. On taming the angle oat of Cross-lane at rUi 
western end into what is now Goldsmtth-street. 
thoacsh often 'Considered to be WaTerley-street, and 
nassmg np to P^l-street or the Bates to ^e 
Oeneral Cemetery, the fields on each side were fenced 
fn hot after then the nortfti-eatftera side was one fpneat 
HM reaching to witibiQ a 4K>rt distance of Forest-road. 
It is tme that this land in the steep part of the hill 
towards the top is shown to have a fence ; vet as 
ihe whole of ihe remainder was open it would have 
bat little effect in ezclading anyone. Whait was 
taken from this field now forms a considemible por- 
tion of the present Arboretam. On the opnosrte or 
soath-west side of the Bowling AMey (now Waverlev- 
street) there was another fair-sized piece of land, 
nnfenced and open to the pohlic, with two footpaths 
rannhMr over it, one to prstty little Larkdale and 
the other to its nrach larser nei^hbonr. Lingdale 
(now called the Bowling Alley), and on th-4* e'-*^ 
there wete three Mis to fill ap. tbe giomid itaok 



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46 

near the cemetery gates to the top of tlie Forest or 
Forest-road. On further examiiimg the Borough 
Records, I can perceive but one direct reference *^ 
Larkdaie in the whole of the five volumes, named;', 
in YoL lY., on page 273, and the 25th line, on 
March 5th, 1605, and even then it was respecting 
a town councilor, Maister Jowett, who differed wKt-^ 
others of the Council in respect to his having for h'^ 
own use one acre and one rood (of land) in Lark- 
dale which belonged to the town. I do not think 
that as regards the pubUc there is any other re- 
ference to Larkdate whatever in the part entitled, 
*' Records of the Borough of Nottingham," except 
this ; but if I have overiooked any case I riiall be 
glad to be infonned of it with volume and page. 
Yet though the Larkdale appears to be mentioi^ 
in one volume only in what for distincUoo I will 
term the ordinary way, the editors have introduced 
its name into each volume, and in nearly all oases 
with what appears to be the idea of Little LarkdaJe 
absorbing the very much larger Lingdale (after- 
wards the Bowling Alley) — but it is rather unusual 
and difficult to carry out such a notion. When the 
Lings are mentioned we are informed, as in volumes 
4 and 5, p.p. 439 and 449, that they are "A portion 
of the LarkdaliM." The plural is used in each caee^ 
although most undoubtedly there was but one Lark- 
dale, yet there were really two dales, but differently 
named, though as hefore mentioned Larkdale as 
compared with the other was a mere " Daletbe." 

That the Lings (or Lin^ale) were not a portion of 
Larkdale as asserted, is I think fully proved by an 
entry in the ''Records," Vol. 1, page 435, under 
the head of Lingdale. We are there told that in 
A.D. 1629, (the volume itself only oomes down to 
1399) there was a release of land abutting upon the 
oommon ground on ihie north. It is here acknow- 
ledged that Larkdale merely abutted upon the Lings 
(or Linfirdale), and therefore the Lings or Lingdale 
were juet as much a portioo of Larkdale as is 
Burton-street respecting the Ouildhall or Shake- 
speare-street of University College, each of which 
streets have those buildings abutting upon them. 
Larkdale most certainly abutted upon Lim^dale on 
its eastern side for its whole length, and ^y each 
went northwards sufficiently near in distance to call 
it the same, but southwards Lingdale or Bowling 
Alley was about one-third longer tiian Lsurkdak, 
and rt« road in width was in proportion about nina 
yards, to Larkdale three yards, besides being used 
for vehicles, aod therefore o{ m^di ipofe importaap^ 



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47 

Uian a mere footroad. Linp^dale %nd Larkdale w^c^e 
joined togeiiber in imagdD«t>iioii ootly. Lingdai-e, 
o6herwM»e The Boiling AIl«y, finr:«4»d off k>w<r 
down the hiH, probxbly by not less tlian 
one hundred yards than little Larkdale, and 
not faf from its t-erminaitKm, tho«agfe lower down, 
tibere was a depression in the groua^d into Vbi<:h in 
raany seeeon a oonsiderabk quantity of water ran 
and formed a fak-snaed pool, and oooaaiomalCy it 
was made use of by persons coming from the town 
for the purpose of droiwndng dog saflnd oats. Sitvce 
tbcMt time, aoooiddn^ to requireoiente the ground haa 
been in various plaoes raised and lowered for drairn- 
a^, tbougih some idea of its old lerel may be ob- 
tained in the place a* the back of Tterrace Boya]. 
It wcbs undi?r these oircumAtances very foctunflte 
t^bat the soil w9a of a thoroughly sandy nature and 
therefore calcvla'ted to ahsod) nmcih waiter. 

I may incidentally mention that at this period 
there were nine fields abutting upon the northern 
side of Back -lane, wliich is now called Wbllaibon- 
street and sixteen on the west side of ^law's-lane 
or Sherwood-street to the Forest top as it was then 
(1829). several of them being quite narrow and only 
one that was of any size, whilst along the Forest 
top. taking up nearly the same distance there were 
but eififht fields and a uiece of ground IwuTt upon, or 
say totfll nine fields, thoucrh these were chiefiy large 
ones. From the ton of Bnrk-hne (WoHaton-streetl 
jroinij bv Alfreton-road to Forest -road there were 
eight fie'ds abutting upon the road. From the east 
end of St. Ann's-street. goinof bv way of what is 
now called Huntingdon-street. &c.. to the top of 
Mansfield -road there were in 1829 eleven fields to 
pa.?T5i, w^hlch abutted upon the road. 

IX.— Pent 2. 

I have now some remarks to make upon a widely 
difi^erent swbject, whdch I believe wnT. to many be of 
interest from its comieotion with two of our very 
noted townsmen, when looting bac^ from 63 to 78 
yeaM. There is no dou!bt that to a oertain ex- 
tent this matter is brought to the front by the gi«at 
changes which d-uring the last few years have been 
effected for the new railway, the station, &c., in 
Nottingham, though more especially as reigiards a 
portion of it where the work has not yet be«n fullv 
wirried out though expeot^ to be immedjiately. I 
am now referring bo an old shop and preimBe« in 



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48 

liower Parliameni-street, ^tdi in a very liiort 
time Hite expected to be demotiohed for Hie purpoM 
of widening ihe street. This property is sitoAted 
at one corner of wtiere NewoaMfe-street wm sitiHubad 
before most of it disappeared in oanyix^ throqgb tbe 
very extensive alterations required in maJciog the 
n<6w Victoria Station, and tibe rfiop fronts to Par- 
liamerkt -street. Until about two years since it was 
with the otlier portion of the premises occupied by 
Mr. John Witford as a chemist aad dmggwt, bat 
the requirements for tlie station appear to have 
necesHtaied their porcdwae by Uke jomt eomfpwy, 
and Mr. Wilford vacated thetn for o^ibers in Milton- 
street about two years since. In that old house 
Wi>liaan Howitt once resided, aiKl in the iftiop he 
carried on for some years the business of a druggist, 
and ismed som« of his works tibere. He wae suc- 
ceeded by his younger brother, Richard Howitt, 
who remained for a few years, and here also several 
of his works were issued. I can well remember the 
time when the name of Hovritt could be seen aittached 
to the premises. Richard Howitt's successor was 
Mr. Edward Cox, an old and valued friend of mine, 
who had two or three places of business in Notting- 
ham, and he in a short time was succeeded by em old 
apprentice of his— the la*e Mr. Qiarles Bass— wiiom 
I knew even during his appreiiticeship, and more 
than M^ years since. in 1854, during the 
Crimean War, the street angle occupied by Mr. Bass 
was called "Alma Csrner,** and it was for years 
known to nmiy by that name. With each of these 
I have hal many conversations respecting their two 
famous predecessors, and heard varrous interesting 
reminiscences of the Howitts. Mr. Bass's successor 
was the late Mr. John Wilford (with whom I was 
also acquainted), and who had been apprentioed 
with him. Mr. Cox died probably ten or eleven 
years since, aged about 88. But Mr. Bass has, I 
think, been dead nearly, if not quite, twenty-five 
years. In this house "Festus," tne production of 
another celebrated fellow -citizen, who is still wi«t!h 
us, was read when in loose sheets, and therefore 
previous to its being either bound or published. 
Tliere also William Wordsworth, a former Poet 
Laureate, was seen and conversed with. I have for 
many years had a knowledge of a number of these 
facts, a«d others I have culled from Wylie's *'01d 
and New Notrtingbam." 

William Howibt was born at Heanor, Derbyshii*, 
in 1795. In 1822 it appears that be ^rst came to 



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Xottingliain witii his wife, Marr Howiti, axid f^m 
toe old IkooBe mentioned in 18z3 they istoed tiwdir 
first work, " Tbe Forest Min«t(rek and o«b«r Poeans." 
William Howitt also re$iided on Timber-hiil, and 
whilst in Noitingliam published severai otb^rs of hu 
works **Tbe Desoktioti (f Eyam," "The History 
of Priestoraft," "Tbe Seven Temptations," "Tradd- 
tiooa of Ancient Umes," &c. He became a town 
councillor and afterwards an aldennan of Notting- 
ham. He appears to have left tbe town about 183o 
for Etiber, in Surrey. 

Richard Howitt succeeded his broiber William as 
a druggist and occupant of the shop and pirerndses in 
"He unt came to the town in 1822, aod resided 
with his brother William, their house being a good 
school for the young poet, aod we are in/oxmed that 
he there learned much and that it remained kmg 
unforgotten by his grateful heart. In this town he 
spent many of the best years of his manhood, and 
besides those of bis brother*s house he was on 
friendly terms with Ibomas Bailey and Samnel 
Phmibe; whdst under his fos^iering guidance 
dawned the ffenius of Spencer Hall, then a quaint 
Quaker boy.'^ He left tbe town at tbe latter end of 
1839. 

In reference to these old, but intemesUng business 
premises now under sentence of denK)Ution by the 
town authorities, who have acquired tbem from the 
Station Joint Comtpeny, or whatever is left of them, 
to enable the town afuthonties to add sufficient 
width to the street, Mr. W. H. Wylie says :— 
" That oki comer shop at the junction of Newcastle- 
street and Lower Parinament-sti^et has witnessed 
many an interestjng gathering, and tbere Ridkard 
Howi/tt, a youngier brothe of William, conceived 
and executed not a few of his noblest sonnets. Tliere 
he enjoyed the communion of kindred minds who 
loved to linger in the pr«€ence of one of the gentlest 
and most beeiutjful spirits. In a genial epistle to 
the writer of these pages, Mr. Howitt himself says 
that there he enjoyed thie privilege of reading in 
loose sheets before its publication "Feetus," no 
mean gratifioa*tion, and "in that .comer hou^e now 
occupied by Charles Bass," he adds, "I saw and 
conversed with WiTliam Wordsworth, our late Poet 
Lourea'te, many of whose golden sentences sank into 
my mind to live in it for life." 

Respecting the latter part of my letter, I have 
been desFroos that the public should be fully in- 
formed about Hbe old premises I have mentioosd, to 
which our attention is so strongly dmawn by what 



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50 

ha£ occim&d in fibem ^nring last ceatwy, and hop- 
mg some one migiit be rejoiced by having anotber 
look befoce demolitkm at what is so rich in 
reminisceiices of the past. Is thi0 one of the cases 
provided for by tike wUl of the late Mr. Holbrook 
as retraiids some memento being affixed at or near 
to pjftoes connected with our more famons and de- 
parted ctticens? 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM 

ITS STBEETS, PEOPLE. &c. 



I propose on this occasion to reler to diverse 
circnmstanoes which have occarred or to peculiarities 
in houses belonginf^ to Nottingham at varions dates 
of which some will be remembered by my older 
fellow-citizeos when in n^e or unaltered from 50 to 
70 years since, aiid ooe or more of wh«ch may be 
seen at the present time. I desire in the first in- 
stance to miULe reference to a honse at one period 
m the Market-place. 

The mode of building four to five hundred years 
since was veiy different to what is the case in re- 
cent times, for straw or reeds, according to the 
circumstances, would generally be used for thatch- 
ing them, and wood with plaster chiefly formed the 
walls. In my time plaster floors were ordinarily 
put in some or all tne chambers of a house, but 
during the last forty years I believe that they have 
gradually ceased to be used in new buildings, and 
the upper floors of houses are now almost exclusively 
of wood. Deerii^ informs us that in his time (1750), 
luHy one hundred and fifty yean since: "The 
floors commonly were plaster, ax>d are still much 
in use." On page five he tells us that "the first 
tiled house in Nottingham appears (to be) that of 
Mr. Stanton on the Long-row, late the Unicorn Inn, 
in whose writings it is expressed that this house was 
built in the year 1503, the first that was tiled and 
the last on the Long-row.** From this and other 
oKTcumstances, whach may prdbckbly soon be referred 
to, it almost appears doubtful whether this house 
was not on the site at present occupied bv Messrs. 
Skinner and Rook, grocers, at the end of Long-row 
and comer of dumber-street. Respectine the date 
f^ven— 1503— for the first tiled house in Nottingham, 
I may say that Deering is most certainly in error 
on thiat point, and this includes all those who have 
referred to him as their authoritv in that particular. 

At different times durio« the last few years, whea 
examining ihd Boroogh Records, I have seen refer- 
ences to the " Tylhusse." or Tvle House, on several 
occasions, and some of them related to what occurred 
a number of years previous to 1503 — namely, ths 
Jrs^ in 1435 (see Tol, i., page 358), and the second in 



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62 

1486 (see vol. u., page 258). Thia was sufficient to 
cause anyone to be fully assured that the date given 
by Deering was incorrect, for unless tiles were then 
being used there would certainly be no Tyle Houaet 
required or pliices in use where they were made. 
Fortunately this state of perplexity was shortly 
ended, for whilst perusing vol. i., pase 349 I found 
an account of an action brought on July 26, 1397, by 
William Huntston a^^ainst John Slater that whereas 
the said John made an agreement here at Notting- 
ham with the «ud William "that the said John 
should not put any but good tiies upon the house 
of the aforesaid William the said John put bad tiles 
upon the said house which were not suitable and 
fell from the said house, whereby the timb^ of the 
aforesaid house is ruined by divers tempests of rain 
in default of the aforesaid John, and so he says 
that the said John has broken the agreement with 
him to the damage of the aforesaid William of 40s., 
wherefore be enters suit, kc." Each shilling at thia 
date would proportionately be nearly equal to 208. 
at the present time. 

This. I think, most undeniably proves the in- 
accuracy of the date nreviously given as to when 
the first house was tJled in Nottingham. In place 
of 1503 it is at any rate proved that one was tiled 
in 1397 or a little earlier, for that is the date of the 
action, though, as a fact, there is nothing whatever 
to show that even this house waa the first to be 
tiled in Nottingham, but the probability is greai6 
thiH other houees had been previously tiled. It 
can only be said that the first mention of a tfled 
house in Nottingham was in 1397, which is putting 
the date further back by 106 years more than had 
been previously supposed to be the case as regards 
Deering*s History. Mr. T. C. Hine, in his "Not- 
tingham, It* Oastle, &c.,** informs us on page eleven 
that the "Unicorn Ino, situated at the S.E. corner 
of Sheep-lane, wa« the first tiled roof in No«tting- 
hfim." Tbis lookp like an ertraot from tibe Det© 
Bocflc, and, as in his oase, is tibopougflrlv iaaaccurate. 
On reference to "The Nottingham Date Book" 
fpige 90 — 1494). which is nine years earlier than 
T)eerincr*8, we are told — ^The first tiled roof in Not- 
tinehajn was that upon the "Unicom Inn** on the 
Tvong-row, the south-eaet comer of 9heep-lane. The 
date here given, though before I)eering*s, is still 
about 100 years too late. I have not tie kaat de- 
s're to critic i^e the three works mentioned for stating 
what baa afterwaiPds been proved to be incorrect, 



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53 

but would rather rejoice tiiat in more recent times 
our faciliti^ for arnying at Um truth have 00 greatly 
increaaed. 

Deering refers to this house as the first that was 
tiled **and tike la«t on the Long-row." If so, it 
appears quite imtpossible that it oould be at a lower 
corner of Sheep-lane, for, though nearest to the 
upper end of Long-row, it was still a considerable 
distance from it, according to Deeiing, and prac- 
tically in the middle, for on his map of the town 
(1760) he shows that where Bar-gate (now Chapel- 
bar) ended Long-row began, and that was ahnost 
exactly opposite Bear Ward-lane (now Mount-street). 
If it was the last on the Long-row I do not, from 
a circumstance I shall shortly mention respecting 
the first brick house at tihat end, consider that it 
oouid be at the west end, and t-herefore it would 
possibly be to the east, and, if so, it was probably 
the site of Messrs. Skinner and Book's shop. 

On page six Deering informs us that "The date 
of the oldest brick house I meet with is that of the 
Green Dragon, a public-house on the Long-row, 
1615. The window frames of this are stone, the 
manner of building in King James I. and Charles I. 
time." When referring to the "Date Book" re- 
specting tJie first brick house we are, under the same 
date as Deering's, further told thit the Oreen 
Dragon is on ^ Long-row aod was afterwards 
known as the Derby £rma. This plaoe many of 
the older inhabitants will easily remember, though 
it lacked one essential and that was age, and it has 
since been entirely rebuilt. But where were all the 
stone windows mentioned by Deering (with their 
leaden lights) ? We ought in this case to haye some- 
thing by way of proof before being satisfied as re- 
gards what the "Date Book" says. There were 
no leaden lights at any time on the front of the 
building remembered as the Derby Arms facing the 
Market-place. Those buildings were, I believe, the 
last which were absorbed In Qie premises of Messrs. 
Foster and Cooper and rebuidt by them, though 
aiDo^lber public-house — The Old Bear — ^formerly occu- 
pied, I believe, by someone having a shnilar sur- 
name to the present owner of the site — ^was also 
purchased or previously owned by Mr. Foster when 
his large pr^nises were first erected. He has 
therefore the honourable distinction of having in- 
cfaided two pi^lic-houses or their sites in his busi- 
ness premises. 

Retpeoting '*Tbe Old Bear," the house was a very 



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u 

old one, and do doubt wkb its two low storeys, high 
Dhtched gable«, and OYerhanging front it would di^ 
back to a ceotory earlier tfaan tiie date giYeo for tbe 
firat brick booae (1615). I am mach pleased, whilst 
writing Uiis, to bav« by me an engmying of tfast end 
of tbe Long-row and two or three shops at the lower 
end oi CXiapel-bar taken in 1840, where the shops of 
Mr. Taylor, printer, Mr. Buttery, druggist, Mr. 
Paiker, shoemaker, with the Q«oige and Dragon Inn 
and the CHd Bear are shown, and also the private 
bouse then occupied by Mr. Gkorge Sparrow, painter, 
&c. Unto my old fellow-citizens liring in that 
locality these are familiar names which wiJ be in 
their remembrance. The Old Bear had ncme of the 
essentials mentioned by Deering as belonging to the 
firFt brick bouse, for wood entered largely into its 
construction ; but as regards the George and Dragon, 
though it has been rebuilt during compai«4«ively re- 
cent years, it is shown in the engraving mentioned 
to accord in almost every particular wi4h the de- 
scription given by Deering of the first brick bouse, 
and the probabilities in that respect I consider to be 
completely in its favour when compared with tbe 
Derby Arms, and in addkion the change of name is 
much less from the " Qreen Dragon " to '* The Qeorge 
and Dragon '' than to the Derby Arms. The window 
frames of the George and Dragon in 1840 are shown 
to be (^ stone exactly as mentioned by Deerinff, 
and tbe house was probehlv nearly 300 yeam oRi 
when pulled down. About 66 years since tlie father 
of the late Alderman Thomas Worth resided at the 
George and Dragoo. 

I now wish to introduce to the notice of many of 
my fellow-citizens a bouse which was probably built 
75 to 80 jnears since, and is much noted, though for 
a very diflfereot reason. I mention it as a house 
because in the first instance it was certainly built 
for one, and in my recollection was for a considerable 
time occupied as such, though for many years it has 
been used as a lace warehouse, &c. It is on the 
Hiffh-pavement, and is the second building to the 
right when turning out of St. Mary-eate am going 
towards Weekday-cross. It is owned and in part 
occupied by Mr. W. V. Oartledge, lace manolac- 
turer. To the practised eye of a builder even on 
the opposite side of tbe street the house, which is 
four storeys high, has the appearance of neatness and 
durability. To the unpractieed ^ there would not 
be much to attract attention. Tet as regards the 
brickwork of the first three storeys above i& ground, 
when closely examined, it is undoubtedly one of the 



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55 

finest examplefl of the bnoUayer^t art ta be fovid 
aDjwliere, and possibly it may surpass all otibera. 
Every froot brick in tbe tbree storeys mentioned, 
and also all tbe brick ends, baire been mbbed and 
trued or thicknessed, and» if necessary, squared. 
Tbe joints are practically as thin as it is possible to 
make tbem, and average, I beLieve, but litde if any 
more than an eightih of an >nch in thickness. The 
work is, I believe, in Flemish bond. Of those able 
to judge of the quality of brickwork many have oome 
cooaideraJble distances in past y«eM to examine this 
hoose froot. 

In brgooe timss I have hesfd it asserted 
th^ each brick facing the street of the first 
three storeys cost four pence, and with tbe labour 
expended upon them that must have been necessary 
to rub and make them true I can easily believe it 
to be true. To many, no doubt, the fourth or top 
storey appeals to be built oi a different sort of 
bricks, tnough I ooosider this is not the caee, but 
that they are really the same bricks bu;t, of course, 
unrubbed. Tbe rubbing undoubtedly takes away th3 
hard face, and tihe action of the atmosphere upon 
the bricks is not then the same. Many years back I 
heacd who had buik this house, but it has now 
escaped my memory. From fifty to fifty-five years 
since it wbs occupied by Mr. Booth Eddison, sur- 
geon, though at that time this was not singular, for 
most of i& houses on High-pavement were at that 
period used as residenoes. 

To some it is probahle that it will be rather sur- 
prising to be told, yet it M cocrpect to say, that 
within about half a centcuy from the present date 
there were a couple of houses to be found in the 
town with thatched roofs. This to many wiU be 
interesting news. I was well aware of one of them, 
wikich at intervals I passed by. It was in Badcer- 
gate, on the noirth aide, and nearly two-thirds of its 
length down (on the left haod) when going from 
SUmey-fltreet. I have the impression that it was a 
house with two storeys, but if there were threa 
storeys they were certamly low ones, and I believe 
tbe houses on each aide were higher than the one 
mentioned. I am not able to demntely &l the date 
when tihis thatched roof disappeaired, yet it is pro- 
bably about fifty years, tbomui as being such an in- 
teresting reiic of old Nottingham I should be glad if 
any reader can supply that information and will do 
so through the columns of this paper. In "Not- 
tingham. Its Castle," &c., bv Mr. T. C. Hine, he 
informs us in a note at the bottom of the eleventh 



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S6 

page thai "The laat tbatched roaf was fotmd in 
Nafrrow-maivh, tin property of tlie Rer. Jm. Hone, 
and taken down about 1854." 

Until I saw this at a comparatiirely recetnt date I 
had supposed that the thatched roof in Barfaer-gate 
had b^ unique in Nobtku^ham, and from his non- 
reference to that house, which probably disappeared 
about the same time as the one in Nanraw-manh, 
I consider that Mr. Hine*s knowledge of thatched 
roofs in the town did not extend beyond the one ha 
mentions. If Narrow-marsh had been a wider street, 
and especially if, as with Barker-gate, one end had 
been considerably higher than the other to allow of 
the roof being seen, I have little doubt that many 
more of us would have had some knowledge of it. If 
it should happen, which is certaiDly but Httle to be 
expected, that there is still left in " Old Nottingham " 
such a thing as a thatched roof, or if <Mie wb4 taken 
away during the lajrt thirty or forty years, a know- 
ledge of the place, date, kc., would be interestnig to 
mf&ny. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM: 

ITS STEEBTS, PE0PL61 &c. 



XL 

Ab regards my previous letter there are a few 
poiiits on whddi I tbink it advisable tbiit I 
SihouKi make a little further ezpktDation, and the 
oommeiicement isJ'n refereiKe to the first tiled homse 
ia the towm. This 1 thioik I have thoroughly 
proved warn in 1397 or betfore, but respecting it« 
(vtufitdoci there is somertibiDf moo-e to be mid. 

I h%ve previously quoted Deering's remarks re- 
Rpeoting it, and I also wifcih to men-tion what "we 
are told iu Throeby's Thoroton, vol. 2, page 43. lb 
is as follows: — "Before the year 1503 there was 
no bouise idi Nottingham but what wqs thatched 
with straw or reed, and boAlt ol wood and plaster, 
lliis ye«»r the Umcom Inn, the last hou^ on the 
Long-row, was tiled, wihich circumstance is ex- 
pre^ed in the writings oif that house." Deerin^ 
infonxks us that the owner of the house was named 
StamUni, of whicAi TlkrocA)y makes no mention, but 
in other reopeote wbat tlhey tell ue is practically the 
same. The Date Book informs us that the Unicorn 
Ijtti wa0 sA the bottom oi Sheep-lane (now Market- 
street), at the sourtii-ea49t corner; both of our two 
best l^odaAs say tihait it wem at the end of the 
Looig-row, aihd neither ma^ any reference to Sheep- 
lane, which was a oonsiderabLe difltatnce, as I have 
before explained, from eitbi&c oi t^ ends of Long- 
row, which, in tlheir time, is shown on Deering's 
map of fully 150 years since, to reaoh, aa it does 
i-n oar time, fpom the bottom of Bargate or Ohaped- 
bar opposite to Bearwaird-lanie or Moamt- street, to 
Cow-lame or dumber-stoieet ; tiherefore, according 
to their assertions (wbic^ I prefer to believe). 
Sheep-lane wus in no way connected witii the bouse 
as praotooaMy — (on the ea^ comer of the lane) — ^it 
wo^ have been in the centre of the Market, and 
not at the end of Lonig-row, and unless the editor 
of the Dote Book can brin^ full proof of his asser- 
tion that the Unicom Inn was at the south-east 
comer of Sheep-lane, what be tells us appears un- 
trustworthy and vaiuekss. There were ths two 
ends of the Long-row east and west— «nd at present 
I think that CBPoumstances appear to fayour the east 
end as having been the site of the Unicorn Inn. 

I now wiA to make fuitber ref epeoce to the house 
^ Hi^-paTement witih t^ extra-worked bride 



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58 

front, for, wiiboat addatvaoel explanation, I fe«ir 
from wiiAi hem aioce been mentiooed to me that 
there may be some munufederat«iidiog. A geutle- 
mAzi informed me that tre had heard tbot each front 
brick bad, or would, oost isAxpence witii all the 
needful labour bestowed upon it, atnd I have not 
the leQ0t inclination to oontoaddct him, for it is 
quite possible, jud^in^ by present-time experiences 
as compared with this past of elg^hty 
yea«i sioce, that each brii^k would oosb 
eiigiiitpefice as oompaffed with fourpence in 
1820 or 1825. At that date the wege« of a 
bricklayer's labourer in No(Ain|^hAm were positively 
lefis thin h:uf of what, fortunately for bhenr, is at 
present the case ; the wages of the briekLayer hav- 
ing also been au^^meuted in much the same propor- 
tion. PractJcaUy t^ whole of tiiis increai^e has 
taken pac^e during the laat 55 years. 

A bricklayer's labourer in Notting'ham, who in 
1846 or 1848 received from 128. to 138. per week, 
may now obtain 278. for a week of five or six hours 
less time than he formerly worked for the smaller 
•um. Labourers now receive nearly Is. per day 
more tlr/\ bricklayers were paid in my remembrance 
in 1846 For twenty years or mane previous to 
that date the buildang trade in Nottingham had been 
in a stagnant state, and I have the fact fuilly im- 
pressed upon n^ memory of more t^an once at 
that period hearing the renuirk ttiat for some part, 
if not the whole, of the vear (1846) the most im- 
poitant piece of work :n band in the town was in 
connection with the house of Aldennan Thos. Her- 
belt, on the Rope-walk, to which he was having 
another storey added. When the house mentioneia 
on the High-pavement was built it was at a time 
during which wages were very low, and under those 
oooditioDi an estimate of 4d. per brick cost was 
made; therefore, afl wages have since so greatly 
increased there must, of course, be a somewhat pro- 
portionate addition to the cost of each front brick, 
when jud^ by the present time. In bygone 
years, as regards the amonnt of wages paid, Not- 
tingham did not rank very high, but oc late, ex- 
cepting London, there are few, if any, places where 
more is paid. 

In or about the year 1818 th« present Exxdiange, 
&c., in the Maiket-pilaice were erected, in pkoe of a 
less commodiions edifice, built in 1724, according to 
the Date Book. The old Exohange had about 
fourteen pillars on the front^ of which ten were 



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80 

clroolar, ae m ib% oase widi niAny oUwra in tbe 
liarket-plaoe. Atxyot 1818-1819 the Oorponitaan 
arranged lor the traiMler for building purposes of 
•ome of the land on Derbj-road (olUo termed ** the 
wests**), th«re being an undecvtandinff wifth the 
person taking tbe land and who bad porauuied three 
of the stone piUars once under tbe old Ezohen^, 
tlubt he woold, if he considered it deeiraible, oe 
allowed to bring tbe front of the upper poftion of 
the promises over the oatiseway and rest it on the 
piUars in a similar iroy to mat is done in the 
MMrket-plaoe. The pidacs were uf>on the ground 
and ready for the poipoas if wanted, but the gentle- 
man ultimately deoided not to rest any portion of 
tbe front of am building upon them. iWing the 
next half-eentury at leatft two of the old piUare 
were used for indiffereot purposes, a<Ki in 1868 I 
saw tbe same two old Ezohaoge pillurs lying in 
some premised on (be Alfreton-road, but since 
then I have lost all knowked^ge of them. Ihej 
appealed to be cut from the red Mansfied stone. 
I no<w dfisiie to take into coomderaAoon tbe sMe 
ol tiie sti>eeta and poads in and nea«r Nottingham in 
fonner timetf, and beloce Macadam's theories tberem 
prevailed. It is «mrprt«ng to what a recent dete, com- 
paratively speaking, the moat primitive notions of 
roadmakmg prevailed. Deering in bis hitftory of 
the town frequently refera to and gnves eztraote 
from an unknown author. On. pa^ 16 he saya *' I 
caonot forbear taking notice of my aoooymous 
auObor*s blamable partiality for lus native place 
with reeard to its beauty and cleaoliness. He is 
extremely angr]^ with the author of a leonine distich 
(in Latin), winch he fadiera upon some stall-fed 
monk. . . . tiie which he translatee thn*— 

I oaniMt without Lye and Shams 
Gommand the Town of Noiiincham; 
The People and the Fuel stink. 
The Place ae sordid as a sink. 

Since they (tbe lines) have so highly provoked his 
iDdignation, let us see whether the' injustice done 
the town by them be so great a6 be fain woold make 
it" 

"In 1641 tbe traveller, especialhr in winter, found 
the Treot lanes very dti4y, and alter he had passed 
tbe Leen Bridse, toe very foot of the town, oalled 
the Bridge End (Plumptree Square), deep and miiy. 
At his finit entrance into the narrow paasage, which 
used to.k«d between two high precipices* (HolWw 



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60 . 

Btooe) to -the uf^er pari ol the towti, he wm from a 
paixsel of little rockhooMs (if tbe wM, wtM ootibiaAj) 
»iiiat«d with a ToUey of suffooa^tiiig smoke, caoMd 
Irjr Uie banMDg of goii»e and tazmera' kiiob*. Ewy- 
body knowe Uw fragraocy and deanlineM ol taooen, 
feUmoDgero, and oorriere, many ol which were thai 
disperKd all over the towD ; the greatest Ukoroiigh- 
fare in the town — Bridleamrth-gate — was tben lined 
ou both sides with the nMighest kiods ol black- 
eukiths ; the Mad:kat-place, thou^ apaciotus, yet was 
paved bub on one side (Long-row), aiid on the other, 
called the sands, it was very miry. That place near 
St. Jf eter's Church (the Squajw ! !), where the Mon- 
day market was afterwards projected, was not 
paved, aini part of it was so bojggy that there was 
a bridge of planks laid across it with a siaoglfe rail, 
till of late yeaj^, over which people did pass not 
witiiout daugerr In tiie night time. All St. Peter's 
Churchyard side was low and drty (unftAced at til's 
date), and from tl^e rock of the Churchyard through 
Lister-gate to the Leen was one continued swamip, 
and the ground was not raised ai^d paved till the 
year. . . . when Mr. William Thorp and Mr. 
Lilly weire chamberlains. This is what Nottingham 
appeals to have been at that period, but in after 
yeaj?3 great improyemeiits took place, when Deeriog 
considered tliat ail would gladly suhscribe to what 
was said in the fotlowing lines — 

Fab NoUinghftan, with briUiant beauty sraoed, 
In andeni Shirwood's south-west angle placed. 
Where northern hilils her tender neck protect. 
With d<aiiiiy flocks of golden fleeces deckt; 
No roaring tempests discompose her mien, 
Her canopy of state's a nky serene." 

It is possible to obtain much information of an 
♦nterestiug character by carefully noting the old 
engravings, &c., which some may poawbly see con- 
nected with the town streets. In my article No. 
VII., relating to London-roed and the Trent Bridge, 
I remarked that on a future occasion I proposed to 
ttiy more respecting causeways, and I wish witih oth^r 
matters to do so in this letter, as forming a portion 
of or relatiing to the streets. In 1750 causeways do 
not appear to have been thought of, and judging by 
many old engravings aAd tlie silence of historians 
respecting th^, there can be little doubt that they 
were practicaHy unknown. This to us in recent 
times I have often looked upon as benig most unior 
tanate and as caoaiag, not only mnch trooible, bot 
in may cases an eocnnoas expeodttm^ in widening 



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61 

old streets, kc^ whidi in gome casefl would not bave 
be«n req-oired if our anoestors had been fully ac- 
quainted with causeways and had therefore pro- 
vided for them an extra width of a few yards only 
on each side of the street. If the tobal had beeA 
merely five or six yards, what an enormous differ- 
ence that would in many ce^ee have made, aind what 
a grea4^ amount of vaCuable property migibt have 
prohcibLy remained intact in place of being pulled 
down in mod^n times, had those who have gone 
before us been well acquainted with and provided 
for the pleasure and advantagee of oaneeways. 

I have previously mfntioned that "Chapel-bar" 
in the olden times was merely the name of the 
"gateway" into the town at that |)art, though the 
street was named Bargate. At this point I have 
before me a very nice oM engraving of the Bar 
(open), with a view through it of som« of the trees 
which were then in a row at the bottom of fhe 
Market-place facing Timber-hUl. As giving a good 
i-dea of the condition of the roads and streets at that 
period (1750), this engraving is an excellent one. 
When outside of the Bar and facing tihe Market, the 
j; round is shown to have a moderate rise on each 
hand, though to the !eft the turn of the road into 
Parliamewt-street is well indicated. The character 
of tlie road in each case into the Market-place and 
Parliftment-street may easily be judged of from the 
rutfl to be seen ca.used by wheeled traffic and a'so 
from stepping stones being placed aeroe« each road- 
way to keep clear of the mud ; in one case they are 
but a few feet on the out-yide the Bar, and in th« 
other a few yards after making the turn towards 
Pariiament-street. There is nothing on the en- 
graving having the least appearance of a causeway 
or curbstone to be seen, for at that date and for 
yeasrs afterward® they were unknown and therefore 
un-used in NottinghTTn, aTid nrobably to all in other 
places. At the turn rnto Parliament-street «ome 

Eosts and rails are shown to the right hand near the 
ouses, and these doubtless were fixed to keep 
vehicle* from the wal's. I expect to contimue the 
remarks upon this subject in my next lettor. The 
opening in the stone work for the Bar was probably 
from ten to twe'vc feet wide, surmounted by a Gothic 
arch apparently about fifteen to eighteen feet high. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM: 

ITS STREETS, PEOPLE. &c. 



xn. 

I wntfi <to cotntOdDce tbhs letter witSi fvidkeir 
reference* to the state of the streetfi or roads of U>e 
old town, aod the first part to be mentioned irill be 
the condition of and what wac in or near the Market- 
place about a centuiy since. Whilst I am writing 
thi3 I have by me a fine old plate of Notttn^^wm 
Market-place dated at the commencement <^ last 
century. It is shoiwn to be paved with large 
boulders. At this time a beginning had been made 
with caiMeways, a€ one may be seen on the Long-row 
reaching from the eafit eide of Sheep-lane to Cow- 
lane or Clomber-sti^eeit, bat this wba also pared with 
boulders, a« may plainly be seen. On the west side 
of Sheep-lane there does not appear to have been 
any causeway made nor in the other part of the 
Market, and it was possible for vehicles in most 
cases to get close to the houses or shops. Old Thur- 
land Hall in Pelham-street may plainly be observed* 
rising above the surrounding houses and showing its 
great size. Several names may be seen in the Mar- 
ket similar to what I can remeo]ft>er being there in 
my early days, such as Swan, Hazard, &c. It 
appears cnngular to us in recent days, Who in good 
tikoroughfaree are fully accustomed to wide cause- 
ways, to see a vehicle stopping against some preanises 
where the wheels appear abnost to touch the waHs 
or windows. It is when facing the Exchange that 
the absence of oeuseways is brought most promi- 
nently before the mdnd, as the roads to the right and 
left are to be seen at the same time. I have also 
examined another fine old engraving of the Notting- 
ham Market-place dating rather later than the time 
(about 1818) when the pre«ent Exchange was built, 
for it is fully exhibited^ upon it, but I saw no mention 
of its date, though I believe it to have been from 
1820 to 1825 : on this the Market-place and streets 
near are all shown to have causeways. 

In a number of eases, on examining Deering's His- 
tory of NottTngham, vjirious en^rraved plates may 
be found which give an excellent idea of the state of 
the streets, &c., &c., of the town in 1750. In my 
seventh letter I referred to the long Leen Bridge, 
and what is now known as Plumptre-square, which 
iras formerly (and ivtthis date) called '*Brid^ Foo^." 



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63 

In tiiM open space for aboot 500 years (qootmg Deer- 
ii^) tibero has been "The Hospital of the Blessed 
Vbrgin Maiy near the end of the Leen Bridge, eom- 
monly oaUed Plumptre*e Hospitall." At the date 
mentioned it coosurted of a mnicih older bailding 
which occupied its present site. It wem then at the 
extreme southern verge of the town, which followed 
the line of Narrow-marsii to the weat. There wa« 
at that time no Butcher-street or ouitlet in that direc- 
tion, bat all confli«t€d of flelda or other enclosed 
IaikU. On the west front of the hoefM^tal (facing 
Narrow-marsh) tlie ground appeaiB to be uneYen. 
Near to tike south-west comer two thick wooden 
po8t« are shown as leaning a^nat fAie wall aoxl 
reaching up its face perhaps four feet, but ataoding 
out at the foot coosidetubly to pTevent Tebides 
getting too near the waUs. It is altoge&er a quaint 
old buiklinff. There are no causewayfl to be seien 
anywhere, but at the northern comer ackl when 
turning into Fii«her-gate, where we should now bare 
a causeway, three poeta are fixed to guaixl tlie wall : 
rats caused by wheeled traffic are also shown, and 
to enable pedeetrians to cross the street witliout 
being obliged to go through the mud a row of large 
stepping stones are promineotHy seen. Aji far as 
can be perceiiyed from what is exhibited in the plate 
there had been no attempt wikateyer to make a good 
rood in the numner that such work is carried out in 
recent times, and this condition of things preTailed 
M regards other places which I have or may mention 
Mken dating back from 150 to 160 yecurs and more. 
In the square at the front of the hospital a portion 
of the ground ai^>ear8 to be ooyered with gni«s. 

Aj^nat Collins* Hospital, and fronting to the 
present Park-street, poste and rails were fixed to 
keep vehicles from getting near tlie walls, and tliese 
are returned for a portion of the distance down 
Spaniel-row. The road way. wbich with other 
streets, &c., at that date (1750) had no oauseways, 
is presented as bein^ic in a primitive condition, un- 
made and uneven. The County Hall of that period 
is shown as beang in a moat degraded condition. It 
was only one storey high, and judging from the en- 
graving it waa probably thatched, though a portion 
of it is off the roof, some of the front wall has fallen, 
and generally the building is in a rainoua condiition, 
being no better than many hovels. One plate reipre- 
sents a row of ^ve one-storey houses in and near the 
top of Barker-gate, which were thatched. We have 
few, if any, in Nottingham now which would rank 
so low in the scale as t^ie^e. In this case, as with 



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64 

ot'hers, tliere appear to have been mte on the road 
(no causeways), and a bank of eacth vrHh some tort 
of Tegetotion growing on it ia also leen. Two 
houses, with the roadway, &c., &;c., in a aiiiular 
conditiou to those jo«t mentioned are exhibited which 
were at the bottom of Barker-gate. There is a good 
representation of the old Charity School, which was 
formerly {tui some of os can yet remember) on High- 
pavement, nearly opposite to Brightmoor-hill (now 
Gkumer's-hiU). Even here the streeit is shown to be 
in a rough, uneven condition, though this might also 
be said respecting a number of oSber streets, &c., 
such as Warser-gate, Piicher-gate, Stoney-street, 
Coal Pit-lane, Fletcher-gate, Tolehouse-hill, Ac, 
&c., each of tbocte places being mrrre or less repre- 
sented by engravings in Deering's History. 

I think I ought not to refrain from mentioning 
Handley's Hospital. The present building is, I be- 
lieve, in the street to the we«t of the Corporation 
electricity works in Wollaton-street, and they are 
two storeys high, containing, as I suppose, twelve 
habitations for the inmates, suich having been the 
number when in Stoney-street. They once almost 
eocactly occupied the site of the great range of ware- 
houses, since burned down, on the east side of that 
street and to the north of the top end of Barker- 
pate, there being a small garden (no dowbt belong- 
ing to them) between the end of the hospital and 
Barker-gate. These dwellings are shown (1750) as 
being only one storey high and forming a long row. 
Between forty and fifty yeaw since (as I think) the 
ground which at that date had. comparatively speak- 
ing, become very valuable, and there being also a 
fair quantity of it no doubt realised a good sum, and 
this would certainly be not only an excellent thing 
for the charity but as I suppose by the erection of a 
new hospital, also release the town from a little diffi- 
culty. In hie time (1760) Dcering informs 
us ' tha-t •* These habitations of the twelve 
poov people have been for years in a very 
indifferent condition, and though the Corporation, 
moved by the late two hard winters, have caused 
the ti'.ing to be somewhat repaired, yet it is to be 
feared ^ey will in process of time (unless some 
expedient be found out) be suffered to tumble down, 
because the Corporation, having their turn ^ in 
placing a poor person in, and not one farthing 
being left towards repairing the premises, do not 
think themselves any more bonnd to be at all the 
charge for repairs than any other smffle trustee, 
notwithstanding the founder in his wil fixes U^ 



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>^ole charge of the repaira upon the town of Nofc- 
tlngiMn.*' a3u«, of oouwe, waa not a pleasant 
pontion to oooupy, thougi daring the century 
1760 to 1850, or rsuther later, many cases of repairs 
mart faaTe been attended to, 8o it is possilue an 
anwig««eiit was ttiade amongst ihe tnwtees, though 
it is ptobable that the funds derived from the 8at.e 
of the old premises and ground will for the future 
supplj all that is necessary for repairs, &c., in 
addition to finding all the mmotes of the hospital 
with at least "as much money, ond perhaps rather 
more, than formerly was the case. No causeway 
was formed nea^ the hospital in the oLden times, 
nor are any ruts shown opposite to tbeaqii, but the 
street was not very even and the roed was evi- 
dently unmade. Henry Handiey died in 1650, and 
has body is interred in Bramcote Church, Notting- 
hamshire. No doubt many will still rem^tmber 
this quaint old hospital as it was when occupying 
its former position in Stoney-street. 

I now wish to refer to a house and shop once 
situated on Timber-hill, whioih name, as some 
think, has been unnecessarily c^hanged in recent 
tiuMS to South-pairade ; also to two shops and 
houses whioh were afterwards built on its site, and 
to the owners of the property. On these premises 
in 1786, according to the Date Book (December 
12th), "a singular accident occurred, and there was 
a remarkable escape from death, both in and near 
to the premises of Mr. Wilson, bookseller, of Tim- 
ber-hill (as then naaned). Mr. Strettoo, builder, 
aoddentally met a Mr. Wood, of Eastwood, end 
sftood conversing with him in front of the ^op. 
Suddenly a violent gust of wimd overthrew a 
0ta«k of chimneys, wmch in their descent brought 
down with them a large portion of the roof and a 
quantity of the brickwork of the front wall. Neither 
of the ^ntleuMn had warning sufficient to run out 
of danger. An apparently solid mass fell upon 
the baak and head oJ Mr. Stretton, bub chiefly upon 
his erboulders, beating him to the ground, and cut- 
ting the back of ma coat into shreds. He en- 
dearoured two or three times to get up, but the 
bricks continually falling upon him prevented him. 
Mf. Wood also received serious iniuiries. They 
were taken away n sedan-cbairs, and both of them 
reoovered, though not without difficu'.ty." In a 
note at ^e bottom of the page (158) we are in- 
formed that '"Mi. Wilson's premises occupied the 
site of the house and rixop of the late Mr. Jonathan 
Dunn (faijfaer of the recently deceased Mr. J. N. 
Dmm). Mr. Dunn .... succeeded tho 



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66 

widow of Mr. WiUcHi, Mid entirely reboiH tbe 
premises in 1823. He had a lively recx^ecttoo of 
the accident referred to (now 115 years since), 
being Mr. Wilson's apprentice at the time, simI 
himMlf narrowly eeoaping from death by an im- 
men«e fall of materials at the same moment through 
tiie ceiling of the parlour in which he and Mrs. 
Wilson was sitting. 

Betwecm Mr. J. Dunn Uie ekkr, who died many 
yeairs since at an age mudi pest the ordinary spaa 
of humeo life, and his son, the fate 
Mr. J. N. Dunn, of Rakigii-sbreet, Nottingham, 
who also recently died at an advanced age, having 
retired from business a number of years previous'y, 
t4i3 oocnpatioo of booksellers, &c., must have been 
carried on for nuwe than w) years, and of that 
period probably about 50 to 55 years would be the 
time during whiidi Mr. Dunn the elder was more or 
less directly ooncerDed in it. I remember him well, 
and looking back between fifty and sixty years oao 
can to mind several occasions wtien in companv with 
various persons fully acquainted with the Markets 
plaoe aokd going thnrough the list of names of thd 
longest oooupiers therein, and for a number of years 
it was always conceded that Mr. Dunn tfie elder was 
the doyen of the shopkeepers, thon-gh a few others 
had been there considerably longer tbaji the average. 
Hie diops, kc,t are now purchaaed by Messrs. 
Wand, of Soutih-pairaidie. I am glad to possess an 
engraving of t^e old house as it was in 1740. ' The 
premises are ckraiUe fronted, have two gables faciiig 
the Market, aod are tftmee low storeys in beig-ht. a 
ito an iuterastiing boildiog in afifieiBrance, tfaMigli, oi 
oourse, vo-T" diflPerent to our modem notions of a 
sbo;p. The cbim^iey can be seen wiMoh afterwards 
caused tbe unfoitunaAiB accident. I imagine the 
house to have dated from the time of James I. or 
Charles I. 

I now wish to direct attention to two other shops, 
once in the Market-place, for one has recently been 
polled down. Tbe wnt I will mention was a double- 
fronted shop on tibe Long-row, which filled up a 
kutge portion of the space where other shops and 
premises are now in course of erection on the east 
side of Spencers, Limited, provision stores. About 
seventy ^rears since, and also in rather ntore recent 
tioftes, tflus e(hop was occupied by Messrs. Cooke and 
Foster, drapers. I think 1 mav very safely say that 
I remembeor tbe time when there was not e plate- 
glass sdiop-front in Nottingham, w'hich, of course, 
was a very different state of things to wbat exist* 



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. - - 67- 

at present. Messrs. Cooke and Poster Tirere tibe first 
to utie pkute-giasB m tbeir lAuofp wiandkywc, and 64 
years, as near as I can ^ess, have since elapsed. 
Thiey were speedily followed in the use of tlmt sort 
of glass by MesFTS. Sbepperley aod Pearoe, watdh 
makeire, jeweikrs, &c., who at that time occupied a 
shop on the Long-row nearly opposite to Bromley 
House, and wbich is or was recently being used as 
an office by the town authorities in connection with 
tlie traJiis. In 1837 or 1838 bbo«e having plats-glaos 
were not so ambitious respecting its size as is com- 
mon in recent years. From my recollectioin, and 
being conversant witi measuraments, I feel satisfied 
ihat the squaree were little if any more in superficial 
measurentent than tiiree feet by two feet, but pro- 
bably rather loss. I have no d-oubt that in spite of 
their small size tlhe cost was very great, for at that 
date the duty had not beesi taken off. 

For many years I hajd betm coovinoed that plate - 

flass bad fc/t been us«i by Messrs. Shepperley and 
^earce, but when speaking a short time back with 
Mt. Jamee Shepperfey, he informed me that though 
tihey were very shortly after, the credit of havitig 
the first pUtbe-g'lass fronit belonged to M^tsers. Cooke 
and Foster. These front* in their time were more 
tban a nine days' wonder ; they were, in fact, dujring 
some weeks ooe of tbe sights of the town, the glass 
being large and beautiful to what had previously 
been seen, and at time€ tbe gatherings of the people 
became so num^erous e^s to itecessit«tte their being 
"moved on." 

In concluddng ilbis subject I consider tbat I ought 
to mention two other shops, one of Whadh is on th<^ 
Looff-row, and in its present condition, from lack 
of change, is alnkost as noticeable as the others by 
the chanfSfM which were made. In position, &c., it 
is equal to most in that part, but on examination 
the windows, &c., wild be found to be in the pre- 
vailing mode e»rly in last century, having small 
squares, &c. The shop is occupied as a chemist's 
by our respected fellow-citizen and late Mayor of 
NottiDighafln, Mir. BicftMurd FitzHugh. On Gheapfriide 
Messrs. Harrison and Son have two circular-fronted 
shop windows with still smaller sq^utfies, which are 
nM>r8 anci<nt than Mr. FitzHugh s, and pro^Mihly 
date baek to the end of last century but one (about 
1795). Tbon woH serve aa saodpheis of t&yyp-fKmbs 
in the times of our ancestors, and may perhaps soon 
be tiuD(0s oi^be past. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM: 

ITS 8TBEETS, PE0FIS.1ic. 



XTIT. 

I desire in this letter to take htto cooBidera- 
tion the name* of Tarioos ati^ete, road«, '&c., more 
especially m tlie <rfder part of the town, ^nd to 
refer in yarioo* caMs to the thtmmg^y ixuSffereAt 
and tbon^tleM manner in which changes have 
been made therein at different times since 
1750, 0ome of them being in quite recent 
years. In the post we hare, I think, been as ri«b m 
most towns in the descriptive tnties of many oi omr 
fArecAff, lanes, plaoee, or squares, &c. Tet how 
many <4 them are now aeUiaUy unknown to the 
people geoeraily, l^ the ridionlous sod kieoosisteot 
mode in whioh the naming of tbemba^^'fteqiMQtbr 
been carried out? When in other old towns •r 
cities I have noticed that the lonaer designAtions «l 
otreete, &c., oft«ii mMur to have been-moflih more 
oarefuUy remembered than ia the case in .K«ittiBg- 
bam, and it would be poesiibk, witih a little tro«blev 
to give instaoMes^f this at Novwich,.Bi3«iiol, New- 
oastld-on-Tyne, LeioeaUr, Liaooki, and oomeMNis 
other old places in Eogland. 

To many it will no oooibt «eam st<mgfrwiban>tom 
that, as a fact, for exceeding 600 years aftsr 'the 
Nocman CVmquest NottinglMan w«0 <ma#e '«r 'kas 
composed of two to»wna <x bec^»qgh» ithe 'Ffsndh 
and the EogUA-^n whhsh diflsr«at*kw8 and vi^ 
prevailed. On page^ievao, Be«cittg in kw '^Hisitorv'* 
Stays : ** Here I mast not tnh to aoqnamit ttte 
reader, that as afMr the OMtqvMit 4hi9 town was 
divided into two bdveskgba, of weporMe jwiadsctiss, 
sa there wmt ateoiwo -town hattsi, *of whsdi tbait 
hitherto netaieDtioMd ^teemtf to iMive been Ibe bsst 
building, vis., of stoos. It stood in ilie iPreooli 
bormtgh on ' the spot wti«e wm tlM ¥mihgn lim 
in ; some nuDs sf the sftd 'wto n eww fc ave ^sfiU fiiiflia 
about tfae stabtia. Hm stre^ koteg fMm tfaitf 
ttmm up to the Oaetle, <ift6n caMed by €b^ pwpte 
FrMar4ane (so nanMd in Ihe top mrtion on hism«p), 
is in all leftMs t«nKd MM Hltl €NMe.'' Ilie 
Feaithefrs Inn was for nmiy years ki eldmtiMtB'a 
noted hostelry, and ooeupied tllfr Mw Ie N 3f^ HKi y i ts t Ut 
niortth-we0t end of WheeAer-gate, on wliicli the Moot 
HaU vauke have recently been rebnit. The blood 
ol a N<»inim for a long time was valued far above 



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69 

that d, aau En^jjiAmftH, for kk Hxe Eo^^ boroogli. 
(ta agnM^ €i|eDfc tbe iiortibeca:aml,ea0tenx partion 
U the- town) inraik affm^r, if aigr blood we«. spilled 
th« fine waa 69. 4<1., but« if m the FrecMb b<M<o«gii» 
l$fb ; a4»d tto oMiiiAo^ t^ be the rate paid a/t leasfe 
until the tkne of 0har.-e9 I«, ba^ ppesil^y kuter. 
Inhere wa9 a aheiilf) a^ bailiff* 09 Ghembeiiaani and 
9k coronw. for e^oh borough. I JX»f prhape appear* 
to have departed fpom my subject. in wiitipg tihe 
above» but in h^yinis: two.boroiL^ to 'deal with) the 
DQftme* of 8tr^eUl a^ places w^d not be lesKned 
in interest,, and to a largis degree it, proves thai Not- 
ting)ia4n must have been rich it old desoriptive 
ziame9 in pfti<t years. 

The aeoofid engraving ixL Deerioig's hastoiy is a. 
i«rpreseaitatioo,.of CSutpS Bar, t^umgh, saI harve be- 
fore., mentiosed,. it wao -« merer stooa. gateway ear- 
monnted by a Gotlhde- ar«^, a«d» beJoi^ a fQjduoo. oi 
tba old fortifioe^ioos of tli^ town^ it coald, if cir- 
cjonuiaiicee' ZHMioiired^ be ea^sly obopped v^ ol^ 
strengthened, bjst- tl^ rmm of tihe street or reed 
was Bar Gbte^ and a noost saitable ooe too^ for it* 
was folly deecn^ptiv^ ol.what it bad ooee been con- 
nected wit)b,.aiid waa e^rt (two syliablee), descrip- 
tive aod euplkonious.. Then w£y should it be 
altered? The old naoie oerta^fniy wqa hy far tibe 
best^.aod no safficientreasoci ooold be given foir its 
being, chaogod. Ba^r-gate. i» fir^ meot^ened in bbe 
*' Reoordfi " io .the ye«r 1256, or 645 .years since. Is- 
tliat.notiufngr At ti«& bottom of Bar-gate (or Oh&pei 
Bar) on itSrJKmthevfi. 8«de ,waft Be«tr Wacd-laoe (I am 
qnobi^ Deering from his map, &c., respectioi^. 
oames). Hue ie a tborongMy deecriptive title, 
ikmmg iMi wittt' it had bwp' a sase tto i A in past 
&§mf for it' ie>raforrei te as '* Ber^MoAwe *' in tihs 
''BeoMdiiy'' vol. It, p««e 279 (aok 1595), a 
ntMbsroi otibto iefoifoeu being also Aade to it In 
tlib swo o se d sng voiiunssL Of course its name even 
in 1395 was noi ihm fitst wied in oonnectioii with 
it) bvi oKniion is nwds respecting two men wbo 
hid' uvterfeved with a water^)oaf«e or drainage in 
it T%ii» is-dOd years since; bat then, befope and 
tffterwecdi, the Bear Ward, or keeper o»f the bear 
or beefs, weuld probably be located in the lane, and 
tbbt thtsre were bear-baitings we have fall evideDoe 
f^rrai the Town Records. In vol. 1., pp. 428 429, 
mentmi is^ made of " Berwardslane " in London, 
yet it a^ppears we oonld not bt aBowed to retain tihe 
oaae in Notti&gtam also;. 

J ima^e that if the lane wa4» transformed into a 



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70 

street no antiqcuurian wokM. hme coBuj^kaaed, 
far this was ckone witih the next, or St. Jamee-laiie 
(now St. Jame^s-sfcpeet). In vol. 3, page 390 <rf 
tbe " Reoorda," 5e. is nientiooed as a reward to tibe 
King's (Henry VIII.) "Benewaird," who probaWy 
had been eii^aged xn the town bear-baitiii^. Again, 
in vol. 3, page 449, year 1500, variona orders a»d 
cTL8toni9 are recibed, and one is that "Tbe said 
Mayre for the time being in likwise to give them 
(\A9 bredi'en) knowledge of every bere baiting and 
bull beibiDg withdn the to^n to see tbe 9poirt ol 
the game after the old custom and xuiage." I aaH 
hb mttoh orpposed to smdh cusboms m anyome, bat as 
a noAtter oif hnabory de^re to be aware of what has 
oocnrred, and bv the reteotion oif tihe M designa- 
tiona to know me ptaoe w4iere variooa peoiple lived 
or animals w^ere kept, &c. Hie 50. given to 
tbe King's **BeTew«Td" (1541), eetDtnated ny owr 
pre>?«Tvt valae of moiniey, wooM proIbaWy amoant to 
ful! £3. In tbis case it (Bearward-laneV waa moet 
aptly named, and by it all coaM fully owderstaod 
the ptirpo^e or "os^ atbadhdng i-o it, but Vhat can be 
Mid about the uiwtfeinikjn.g and ridiculous chai:^e to 
Morunt-strwt? What does it d-escribe in history, or 
even respeotinc: any individual, iti refereoce to thrtb 
street? I feeil warranted in asserting that it is 
utterly destitute of all siguifioation and inaippro- 
pria»te*. I think we ought to pity the ur.<n1vbt€oed 
beings who dhanged the name, wbose intellect 
waa too weak to enable tbem to see tbe blunder 
they were nyikiivg, and now reoame it Bear Ward- 
otreot. 

Until the year 1713 tbe Market-place was cKrided 
into two parts by a waXl wbdch commenced raiiber 
l^ywer down than tbe bottom of Bar-gate or Obapel 
Bar, ai>d wais oontinued until near tibe Exc^mnge. 
The highest ode (Long-row, ftc.) was in the 
Enopln^^b borough, wbrlst the lower side (Timber- 
bill, &c.) was in tbe FTench borouirh. It is respect- 
m^ tbe latter that I deoire to make some remarks. 
Tymberrowe is first brought to our notice in vol. 
1. page 149 (February 8th, 1551), when " JdhnPw^ 
makei^ pkint of Walter de Gerther, who boucht 
of tbe said John two stooks of timber for 4s. 6d.. 
wbidh be ousrht to have paid him at the feost of 
Easter." &c. Tbe first mention I observe ol 
"Tymberhill" is in vol. 2 of the "Records," page 
251 — 1463 — when there was an affray. It appeom 
that a wide disHinctbon was madie in the earlv times 
bftween Tymberrowe aiKi TymbeKhiiil, for the first 



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11 

referred to tbe hooBes oUy, TirSulet tftie ktter was 
tbe name of tihat portion oi the Market-p4aoe. ThtB 
duB4iiK4aoo kuated many years, bitt in tbe end tihe 
jMone of Tymberiiill preTail^d. In vol, 2, on page 
358 (1435), both naiDee oooar. On pa,g« 448, 
vol. 1, of the " Reoonds/' a statement 10 made witb 
wbidh I entdrely agree, lymiberraw and Tymber 
Row« are meniriooed, and thie editor desarlbin^, saye 
it was '*Tbe row of booses fronting Tiinber-4]<iU, a 
name it boa« in tbe early part of this oentury (18—) 
wbco it was superseded by tbe -anmeeolng 'Sonth- 
parade."' One or tbe otiber of these two names 
had be«n applied to that part of the Market-place 
for more than 500 years, aod a€W>c><M«d for cen- 
turies with tbe timber trade of the towm, of whicb 
it was the beadqnaoters, and yet tbe inoonaderato 
ide«« of some ig«M>raaaQfaM8 a^ie very nnfortimiately 
allowed to prevail, a<nd aoiotlber old and distio<gm4i- 
ing name is encooraged in dying onit. In this mer- 
ket thera were often 00 sale, besides timber, boards, 
&c., yarious articles which wiere ready-made, aind 
ape incidentally mentioned in tbe "Records." 

I will now ooodder tbe case of the tboroiaghfare 
which, in recent times, is known by the name of 
Friar-lane at the bottom end, and Park-streest at the 
toip end. Id Deering's n»p of tbe town pabldiihed 
in 1751, the name of tbe bottom end is oa^ed Moot 
Hall Gate, in remembranoe of the Old Town Hall 
of tbe French borough, whkJh was once at the north- 
west corner of "Wheeler-gate. This part reached up 
to Spaoiel-row, and the remaining part at the top 
is tl^re caDed Friar-laoe. Tbe transpootioo in this 
case was givat axkd thoughtless in the extreme. In 
oooversatdon with a gentleman a month or two 
since be m«nitioined a ca^ reepectkng tbe deeds of 
proi|terty in which be took sonke kiterast. Thej 
were pnohably made oat about tbe year 1750 or 
soon aiterwards, boi at any rate before tbe great 
(^nge in names ocnrred. Tbe property was in 
the upper part of tbe street a liittle bigh«r than 
Collin's Hospital, and, tberefore, in the deeds at the 
tinne it waif properiy described a« being in Friar- 
lane, but in the unwisidom of aoate one or more, 
the exceedingly imteresbine and descriptive name at 
the bottom of the street of Moot Hall Gate wa® d6s- 
oonttmied and the name of tbe top pc<rtion trans- 
ferred to the bottom portion, and tbe new name of 
Pan^L-street given to tbe top portion. This cam is, 
if pocisible, worse than some odbere, and has oaosed 
much OApleasamt and tborooghly nmneoessary con- 



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7Z. 

f iiaoo ki the case ol namenrao properties as re^ardi 
th« dteeds aod dawriptioiu^ thereij), &c., bj iotar- 
dbanigiiig tfae xkaas^ ol tikis tboroagihiCare. 

Tbere is also the caae ol tte street now c«Usd 
Paik-row, but yfhk&i on Deerii^'s map is naastti 
Btk'i Djke. The M town wall pMsod clMe to or 
through t^is street to the top of the bill, tftiere beaog 
a coimdciioo. with bh« foitti&oaJmiut ol the Chmtfte 
ia olden tunes by a pofiteni gate aod br:<di:;« near 
to where Postwn-rtceet nonr ia In that street we 
foitmiately retain a descriptiTe nsms ooiukected witb 
the town maoy ceoAnries sfinee. Why was not tflxs 
name ol the Butts retained m some lon& as a 
D^iMnento oi past agies? For in the dyke to tbe 
town wall in that part the old arcbera hare prac- 
tised with t&eir bowe and arrovs lor huDdreds of 
vears. In tibe "Reoorda," vol. 1, p. 429, is tfae 
ic^owing: "a.d. 1351.— The buttes in the dikes 
onbside Uie town walls." Mention therelore appears 
t-o hive been made ol them 550 jtetP9 sioce and in 
nLa<i>y inst^JioeE* afterw«d*da Aiboui 200 veers later 
they appear to have beeo occasionally called '* Dyko 
buttes, and in vol. 3, page 470, two occasions 
are me-ntioned wh^re suah was the case, buA our 
ancestors saw little inconsistency in sach an- 
alteratiom in a name. The postera is first nvsotioined 
in l!he "Records," vol. 1, page 123 (1536). In the 
various stress t« and pla^^es ukentioneid — excepting- 
Timber-hill — it \& probable that cbanigieo were road« 
in the?e niajnes before the tim-e of tlhcwe now living, . 

I here wis4h to niake a lew remarks respecting 
two other old places, Lanes, or roads, w^bdch, in- 
quite recent yena», I believe, h^^e had their tit^ 
entirely chajigied, and in ^dh a way tbat thear 
identity is, or n^y soom be, entirely lost, and witb 
one of tham as havinig been assiociated with t^e old 
town lor oeintfyuries aJjod loaming a bouixiBry lor a 
cons!derabl<e distance between it aind tibe pamh of 
Sri»°in!tan, such a cthange is mu<A to be deprecated* 
1 aan now relerri'og to I/ong Hedge -lanie, Vhkh hai§ 
been bhougWessily calied Grordon-roed. In olden 
times it was entitled Long Hedge only, the word "lane" 
seeming to be, comparatively speaking, a modem 
imnovait'ion or addition. The fiwit notice of Long 
Hc»d2}e. wh'ch I h-ave observed is in vol. 4, paye 134 
oltbe "Records" (1569), where there is the lollowing 
re^'pec'ting it: "Item, payd to J-dhn Hodyn lor 
kepyng the Long Hedge, 2?." On page 359, same 
volume (1619) tthefre is the IdUowiavg eotry in the 
•* Records " ; " Item lor dflkinge 27 ^eres at Long- 



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73^ 

badge At 8d. per aktr, 18e." In vol. 4> pa^ 439, 
Long Hedge ia mefntiooMxl as beu^ *' T^ tKHHidary 
betv^Mi* Soeiniban ajud Nubtioigiuun naw represented 
by LofAg Hedige-laiie." In some o^mt part I hav^ 
notioeid a ref<ereDQe to. the Pitodor or his f«A m re« 
lation to Longhedge. The fir»t mention of Long- 
hedgie is 330 years siAce, bat bow long before tbeo 
it 1^ been it name there is nothing to show. If 
diero mnBt be a change in ita title, why could not 
the " lane " be tiimed into a road or Htu^eet, and tibe- 
old and wiell-known place be caUed Ijong Hedge road 
or street, and so caDtinue to retain its hlMoric as- 
eo(4aition9, not ooJy witih the city a« it now is, but 
ako witb the paridi of Sneintoo, which is jnat a« 
mtidh iDterefltea in it? 

I^re is also anotdier road wbioh oitgiit not to be 
forgotten Vhere the name, jodigmg by the number 
who have spoken rmpeobioig it hae beco changed in 
recent 3rears, and as I have beard many persoi^ cay 
Tritibouit proper comculerattiiiOB It wa« not in the 
old town ifc is true, but it is noiw in a portion of 
ihe city. I am referring to a road which I remem- 
ber more tham sixty years since in Kadford, ite 
(narae being Oabgang-lane, aood w4iicih, freqoenitly 
with some, was oalkd Ackam, Ac^iani, or Akkem* 
Unie. It is probable that the name (Outgang) is 
one of the oddest, if not bhe oldest, tlhat we have 
for a lane or road, and takes u^ very likely back 
to tbe time of our Saxon and Daniel anoestora. I 
sbouid certainly be pleased to kmoiw and bear Wbet 
d€f{<ikce those who alteired its title could make for 
fo tbougMess an act ae to dban^ a &rood and 
descriptive oM name like that for HartWy-road? 
I Hhould have tboronehly agreed, and many others 
a3so as meotaoned, if the dbange had been from 
0atg8>ng-lane to Outsrang-road ; in fact I coneidier 
t.hnt any peTsoim nriJcin? wioh a cihange would de- 
s^ive our commendntoons, but what 19 Hartley-road 
to us? (That i^ many of t<he oW citizens.) It 
neither de^icribes nor reminds us of anytibins:, amd 
ufinir the womd applied by tbe editor of t.b« "Be- 
corde" when referring to South-pa«radie. it is 
aUoa«s^iher " ummeaniing." I have mentioned 'n tbas 
some instances of changed names, and in all cases, 
as I have frequently heard it said, for what was 
far ktfis apprx>iM*ia/te ; and if it is possible to reou««ci- 
tate these old and descriptive names and anT>|v tb»?m 
again to their former localities, I kno^ 
tha* those doing it may rely upon tbe t^ianlks 
of a oon{(def«ble number of their feUow-oitiKens. 



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74 

I will conckide this article by giyng some par- 
ticulars respecting the change in name of \iibat 
is DOW cue oi our l^ra^ tborougM«u%e. There i« 
a reference to it by Tnrorfy in t5. ii., p. 136. Ac- 
cording to DeeiiE^s old xuan of the town (1750) It 
extended from the top of St. John's-street or the 
cods of Broad-Btreet and GlasahouK-street to the 
top of B&r-^te or CbapeC-bar; and by him it m 
ctfled Badc-side. Thro*hy says (47 yeers later) : 
*' l%cs passage ie now called Parlienwot-streety and 
obtained its name from the foUowistf oircnmstanoes : 
One Rouse, am iiAohitaiit, a man of some property, 
bat a little deram^ed in his mind^ offered hamMlf as 
a candidate at an eleotdon to serve in Parliament 
some few years sLnoe m one of his mad fits. He 
tireeted his companions, the lower orders of the 
electors, with ale pari aiod sometimes i^Mibarb, which 
he stroD^lv recommended to ail as an exnelleoit 
thJnff for the coDstitut4on. He not liking the naiiK> 
of t^ place he lived in — ^'Tbe Back-side '—-mkI al- 
ways thinking of the dli^itr he coveted, was at 
the expense <S pkdn^ boards at some of the oon- 
spacuous comers of the passf^ges on which was 
written * Parliameat^stteet,' whence he ww to pass 
to blis seat in Westminster Hall. Soane of tneae 
boards (1797) are stiM remaining ; the man has sank 
into the grave, bat tibe street has effectoally got a 
name peraaps for ages." If in other imrtsfioes 
there was no more cause for objection as regardb a* 
change of nam? t^n in this case no one wooM com- 
plain, bolt probabT.y commend the alteration^ 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM 

ITS STREETS, PEOPLE, &c. 



XIV. 

I cbaiird to stdU doolt&irae J^y i^iiiiarkia in 
reference to the tradiDg centre of tihe oid town, 
and to further consider the streete, buildings, and 
places abutting upon or near to tibe part well 
known m Weekday-croas, though befoae doing so 
k ie proper that an ezplanatioii shoiuld be finMb 
giv<en respecting 90ine of ita uces. I have often 
stood in that open space aod wondered how in 
olden tinK9 they managed to cany on all the 
bu0lne«9 and attend to numierous other nkatteni 
upon that circuniBcribed spot with which they are 
accredited. For at- Wast several ceoturiee thero 
ran be no doubt this was the buaief4 part of the 
town, and in that reepect it muft have ranked 
even before the Marke^-pkce, whioh to momy 
persons in reoeni days will appear singular and 
almost impossible. Yet there can be no doubt 
that for hundreds of years in the pa^ the Greait 
Market-place, as regards business purposes, wa« 
used on Saturday only ; and fcherrfore we find it 
referred to in the " Records" m the "Forum 
Sebbati," or Saturday market, and to Weekday- 
croee as the "Forum OoUddanum." (Tran^latod 
literally, "the daily market" or "the weekday 
market " is meant.) 

From the above the importance of that oom- 
paratively small seotkn of the town as regards 
business matteirs wiU be perceived after furtftner ez- 
pla-natiooe. I oonsider that Weekday-cross in size, 
after tdke recent changes mfid« in connection witlh 
the new railway, and judging by what can be 
gathered from old mepe, &c., ie at the present 
quite as large as in oiLd«n times, and I am inclined 
to think it is even a little larger. Great changes 
have occurred in oonn«otion with the streets, &c.. 
in its immediate neig'hboudiood in the couroe of 
centuries, but before referriiD^ to that subject I 
will explain what is said hj Deering on page 9 
after having nftentioned the Hen-croes (at the top 
of the Poultry as now named), be remarks: "The 
Weekday-cpoas is likewise a oolumn standing on 
an octangular basi^— larger than the fonner — (tihe 
H-em Croi«\sK with four steps plaoed alnio«»t in the 
midst of an ofpen space between the High and the 



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76 

Middle • pa vemeot ; b&re tibe Wecln««day and the 
Friday market ie k«pt for bmbter, eg^ pIgeotM, 
wildfowl, and all kiiKl? of fruit in seaaon; befiides 
on Fridays here are sold jaa and river fiab. N«ar 
tbia cro«9 stand other shambles placed nortb and 
sovti), wbere all the we<k, ezoef>t on Seiardays, tftie 
butciber.* sell all kiod;s of fresib meat. Over and 
abov« all tbese market* a Mondi^ murkct wa« 
(1750) lately en^eaTonced u> be €flt4bltididd on a 
piece oi waste gronad ( !? !) between the. weet ead 
of St. Petcf.s ChiiPoh-y«rd» Wl)eeier-«a4e, aod 
Hoondegate^ wiiich atteonpt, ftMKigtiL it did ooi 
answer the end, becaoae tihe ootmtay peoqp^ woukd 
not take to it, yet bee pnwed an adtanbage te the 
town, for thi» ^^e, wtfkh iie in the beert of the 
towii, wa« a meve sink belore and dangetoue to 
pase, especially in the night, ia noiw HMwla goad 
and as well paved a^ aqr otitutT part of . Noitins- 
bom; the crote, with a roof soppofted b(y fo«r 
piUan>, ie now welled iu, and pnyvea a very, oen- 
veoient receptacle for the townee fire eo^nee, aod 
oti Saturday it is the eheep notrket, the folds 
which were formerly placed in the Qreat Market- 
place b»ng now removed to thoe. Th^ stand along 
the weirt aod north sides ol St. Fetter's Oburch- 
yaid and at the east end oi Uoondagate." 

'* On the south side of Weekday-oroas ie the ancient 
Town Hall, staodiiD^ upon part of the old (town) 
wall, caikMl Mont Hell, probably beoanae it waa 
situated on the top of a lull wibich leads up to the 
Weekday-cros?. It hm given the Lane goia^g close 
by it (to the west), down between the Marehee, the 
name of Mont-lane (mxw Malin-biU), and the street 
opposite to it (late Market^streei) that of Mont 
HaiU-gate, no>w oeiiled Blow-Madder'Stiteee. 'J^ 
hall was very lately a low woodto-buildBng (Thk-ofhy 
give? an interesting engraving of it), wearing the 
badpe of antiquity ; t&e first room, and w*hich was 
anoiently all the hall, is Mpadone ; in it ui>ed to be 
held the a«mzes and ses0i<M)s for the town, as bee 
been ju«t now mentioned. Over the seat where the 
jud^e in the circuit, and the mayor at other times 
weed to sit, are the King's arme hand«miely 

paint€d Within this hall i$> a band- 

oon>e wainsooUed chamber called the Council Honee 
(which anoiently dfS not belong to the hall) where 
the Mayor ana his brethren and the ren of the 
members of the Oorporabnn transact the baiPifteas 
of the town, and here ttte» ^^Recorda-" and all' other 
writings of the town are kept under three lockf 



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4nd kc^ ^ nidali the Mayor ior ^e time beifl^ 
ham on*, 4iMi ]F(Mi^g«it of^ibe aktormFw jkot beio^ tbe 
JBayor> tbe 8«cosid aod tibe Beaior coroner bho 
tiMnd. . . Under it i3 a pcisoQ boUi for dabtoni 
«boi?e and for ieloBW axkdergroaad!" 

Fnm tiiiB a good kka laay be ga.tiiei«d reopect- 
iBg irbftt we oftU Wecixbj-croM, thoogb by onr 
•AoetloTff, "witfi tbeir indiffereoee to any rutos of 
oribogMn4iy, it bad a Duaber of TarioiMy spelled 
namef, wybky MftMtat, Wykeday Merbeylib, Wike- 
day MariBUt, ftc. I h»?e seen a popper tokai unned 
m tbe ITtii eentoiy by aoiDe one dwelling in tbis 
locally, and it Sm «bei«oii aakl to be i»oed from 
Weke -dntom. Tbe ftwb menfama of it in the 
**Reooidr" is in voL. I., p. 73 (1311) in an aotiou 
lor aanolt, alao on oHier oooeMns at a later date. 
In Tol. II., p. 35 (1406) -a messua^ is mentiooed 
" wbicb Kee in tbe fleaob'amelies in tbe daily mar- 
ket." Ic Tol. in., p. 382 (1641) tbMe is ^ entry 
'* to Jobn Worlirfiigton for mendyng ol tbe tfUx^ee 
at tbe Wekedey Orotse 2d.** In toI. TV. oif tbe 
**Keoord9/' p. 202 (1583), tbere is tlie foik>wiB.g 
entoy ** Hany W^eiie for a 8bop in ye Weked«y 
8bambelle0 due at Caodyliiiaa, 9b." Tbwe waa for 
•ome eatttories a wdLl in Weekday^cnMs from wbicib 
water was dra^wn np. It mo^ bare been in ooo- 
•taMt ose in K> throoig a part, as it is fre^ently 
HieniioMd in the " Renwda '* as needing repairs. A 
pamp was afterwards ized, and many of my eUer 
fellow citizene will, witb m^wif, eaSity remember 
it. It waa, if going from Middle-paTemenb at tbe 
eotttib-we»tem ooiB«r of tbe street wben turning to 
tbe left to get to Flatdber-gate, on tbe caiwewey 
near to the wall, and facing &e old Town Hall. In 
tbb place also waa 6he ring lor baiiting bulls, and 
in tbe "Record^" toI. IV., p. 216 (1887), tbe 
Mickicftoo jniy report or ''Present tbe Bull Rinffe 
to w«Dt Raylmge.^' In tbe aame yolvme, at p. 194 
(1560), «bere ie tbe Mkimrii^ entry, **Payd to 
LoroBce Wortb for meodyne tbe Bull Byng at 
Wekeday Croae end, fer men^ng and stelyng of a 
pyoke, 3s. 6d." In ¥ol. IV., p 139 (1572), is 
tbi» entry, " Item gevyn to Wyle of TiVyoMeolde »t 
Ma.iBter Maii^s Comandendikt for paatyme (?) in 
beyt^ing of a b«ile, 28.^' Tbis, in all probability, 
would be equiraknt to 208. in tbe preetot times. 
In tbe same voimne at p. 142 (1572) we are informed 
«bat.Lor0B«« fiynde was paid 15d. " for a gabyll for 
bea<4^3mg of Dulles." -In 1573 fife sbilliAge waa given 
unto My Lord Vooee Berward, and 68. 8d. " tbe 



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78 

28th May oniba tbe Erie of Shroebeny Benmrd." 

It m probable thait thiese meti were profeeeioiially 
engaged when in tlhe tcmtn, aad if so tihat the Bull 
I -i in Weekday Cross would be uAed by tbesn for 
baitiD^ bears. Deering telb us (1750) tbat "bbe 
butohers in timefl* past, whenever tbey had a mind 
to kill a bull, they were obliged fiwt to bait him 
in the Market-plaoe, for which puTpo€«e there used 
to be a ring fixed in the ground, and Mrs. Mayoress 
was to find a rope for whkb she has tiie cofi6id.era- 
tio(n of one shilling off everyone who takes up has 
freedom (A the toym. At this time the bull-baiting 
is disufied, aod instead of it t^ butdhera pay to the 
lady of the Mayor 38. 4d., called pin money, for 
every bull tbey kill." A movement bad commenced 
a long tin^ before Deering's d«te to aboliedi these 
bailings, and beiing oootnnxbed it was ultimately 
SDcoesHful, aod Uie buU-ria)^ was ordered to be re- 
naoY^. In 1576 69. 8d. was given "to the Quen's 
Maiesty«s befrwa>rd," and 5s. '* to the Erie of Darbye 
berward." In 1575 138. 4d. was given to ttKe 
Quen's berward. In 1577 58. was given to Wand 
the (Nottimgham) berwaod. In vol. IV.. p. 195 
(1580), is the following in the dbaanberkim's a£- 
oount of expenses : *' Payd to Okeland for dresBiog 
the bulk alter tbe doff, 3d." (An equivalent at 
talis time (1902) for about half-a-cro«wn.) In vol. 
IV., p. 201 (1583), oiie of the items in the ohanL- 
berUun's account is as follows : " Paid in Wyne, 
snigar, and beare-baytiag at Maiater Scotte's wed- 
dyog, 16s. 8d." Jnne, 1627, p. 123, "For nHOjdTog 
a seat at buUringe 3d.," and aooording to th's there 
was an opportunity at tbe baitiokgs for at leaf«t a 
pwtion of the audience to b* seated. In the 
"Borough Records," vol. V., p. 373, April 3rd, 
1691, aippears the foliowing resolution of the Coun- 
cil : — " It's fbis day ordeired yat ye Railw about ye 
bull Ring be taken up and parte cd yem sett downe 
before Iliomafl Aluey s. doore." (In a note we are 
info(nned tiiat Aluer nkeans Alv^.) From this it 
appears that the bull-iing in Weekday-croes bcwi 
been removed for neariy SSl yeare. 

I now desire to make some reoMuHos reepeoting 
tbe Town Hall, though it ougtit not to b? forgotten 
that there were formeiiy, tue oMfitioned in my 
previous article, two bocxwiglis composinfl: ffbe town, 
and that the Town Hall of tfbe Frencih borougfa 
was at tihe north- west corner of Wheeler- gate, and 
the Town HeAl of tbe En^ieii boroadh was ib 
Weekdtoy-cross on the sootfiem Me. I have above 



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70 

maoUooed tiiat in anoieot times k wae caikd Mont 
Hall, and 1 tbiAk dbero k cause for believing tibat 
iit ranked reaUy before the abher ball. As Deediig 
8u^g€eiUs, tibjfl luune may posaLbly bave originated 
from tbe boiJidAng being on a bm tibo^b, as tibe 
town was oompoeed of two boroagfiis, there were two 
town ballay eaab of wtbicib reqoirMl a distinguidiing 
name, and tbas was oailed Mont Hail and tbe otber 
Moot Hall. It ifly I tbink, almost certedn tbat 
0eT<erBl oeotnries bave pa«Bed sinoe tbe name of 
Mont Hall was nrach used, tboug^ a^in» for severail 
centuries after tibe Kooman Oonquecft, tbe definite 
artide oonM not be apspJ6ed to eitftier of tbe balls 
wSku reffenriiDg to tbem; nor woukL it ttben* have 
been appropriate to call one of tbem the town or 
j^oild bail. As regards tbis ball there is certainly 
in bistory moob moire to oonmeot it with tbe town 
generally t^an is tbe case so far as we aro afware 
wit^ the Moot Hall. 

In foonaer times, according to Deering, '^Tbe 
3fayor bad a serjeant-at-mace and a camanon Ser- 
jeant wbo i9 ooanmnnriy oaUed the Mayoress's Ser- 
jeant. Tbe sheriffs faaTe also eaab a serjeant-at- 
mace. There are soveral inferior servants of tbe 
Oorporatkn wbo wear the town livery; as tbe 
csryer or Belknan aod tbe Master of tbe Homse of 
Correctim, these have red liveries with blue cnffis 
trimmed with silver lace. The Pinder and Wood- 
waxd both bave green liveries with silver laoed 
cnfEs. On tbe 29th September, in the morning, tb^ 
aldermen and all those npon the ckithmg, that is 
afl w^ bave served tbe office of dhamberkin or 
sheriff, or both, assemble at tbe old Mayor's honse 
wbo entertains tbem, besides tea and colfee with a cold 
coUtttion (fonnerly with hot roMted geese). About 
ten of the clock they all go in their formalities to 
the Cfanrch of St. Mary; the Waits, with scarlet 
cloaks laced with silver, marching and playing be- 
fore them, where they attend divine service. The 
oereaDony (of Mayor-dbooeixitg) being endled' tbcy 
march in order as before to the Neiw Hall, attended 
by such gentlemen and tradesmen as have b€«n in- 
vited by the new Mayor and Sheriffs. In thedr way 
at the Weekday Cross, over aganist tbe ancient 
Guild Hall, the Town Cleric proclaims the Mavor 
and Sheriffs, and the next ensuing market day tbey 
were again proclaimed in tbe face of tbe whole 
mariMt, at the Malt Cross.** (Then in the Market 
Place.) At the present time Weekday Cross is, I 
believe, tbe name given to tbe whole of the space 



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80 

bettvieen tfae lower ends of High Pttreinent lUid 
Fteteb«r Ga4^ aod the ea«t eod of Middle Pavement, 
thoagih in long pMt times tiie lower end of Ftetdher 
Gate, which waa known m my recodeotion as Market 
Street, wa« then called Mont Hall G«tie. hi 1406 
(paffe 438) Walnenlone is uKntioned a« connected 
with a meesua^^e in the Fkochameles in the Week- 
day Market — aiid frequeaitly afterwardfl referred to. 
This is almost nndoabtedly what we now know as 
Byard Lane, and which was 00 called by Deering in 

The next street to which I wish to refer is the 
one which we all kmow by the mame of FJotdher 
Gate. In the 14th century, and no doubt before, 
the modern equivaient for the name oi this street 
would be Butcher Gate or Street, for at that period 
it was the headquarters of those foUowing that 
bttsinefis. In "The Records," vol. 1., p. Aw (see 
Glocflary), Fksbewer, we are ioifonned, was a 
butcher. In the same volume, on page 
205 (1379) Flesohewer Gate ia first mentioned and 
•various persons reported by nmie a« sei^g ale 
agaJnst the assize. In vol. II., page 35 (1406), of 
"The Reoordci " we read of ^tbe Fk^ch'saiike in the 
Daily Market of Notting'hwn," and on page 185 
(1446) of '*the *'^tte Fbesshamde in the Wykday 
3£arket." On page 404, vol II. (1415) Fkeoschewer- 
gale is referred to. In vol. III., p. 259 (1486) there 
are \ariov0 items oi expenses dbarged for briogiag 
'* bakkrs " (boakkrs) from Bulweil for Flessbewer- 
gate (cost 6d. per load!) In a lease vol. III., p. 
442, dAted 1528, it is oolLed Fkochar. 
gate, and tm page 371 Flessiher'gate In vol. IV., p. 
174, P^esihergate occurs, and the same on .poge^SOd 
it is teimed Fieshargatte (1563). In vol. V., p. 
251 (1654) it is called Flecher Gate. I ha^e in this 
oose given ratheor more particulars than usual to 
explain whai I consider may be termed a very 
peculiar change of name and to a certain extent by 
the force of cireumstancee. In this case the '* Be- 
co«id& *' do not yet bring us down to a later period 
with that street than 16^4, or about 250 years since, 
but even then the name had become very much the 
same as at present. In the different volumes of 
' The Reoordfl,** an<d in a number of coses names are 
ffivei) of those following the calling or business of 
fletchers. In 1460 John Mumper, fletcber, is entered, 
an<l Henry Clerk, fletcher, in 1479. These and 
uamerous other persons at that time also were 
arrowsmiihs or artrowmakers, and in that form of 
considering the case not only is the name of the 



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81 

street altered, but it is practioaly changed from 
Butdier-gM« to Atro^aaUik or ArrowmeJDer-gttte, 
and a€ re^rds ihe name all ytM M and inteireeting 
aMuciations are lost. I have shown that the change 
wa8 gradual and took a c^^ntnry or two in accom- 
pli rhing. 

I consider that there was alao another cause 
w^di might be silently jct at the aame time effec- 
tnalW working to consummate the (flange of name, 
which more especially ocourred in the 16Si and 17th 
centuries, and that was the substitation of firearms 
for othel* wea^ns of warfare. It is time tlu0 was 
gradual, and we have evidence in ihe "Borourii 
BecoiVis '* that those concerned in the making of tne 
old w^a|Mvns on various occasions did what they 
could to xevite a djing industiy and cause a greater 
interest to be taken in it by all in authority or posi- 
tK)n. To n« hi modern times the word Fletcher has 
no signiflcatiofi with it, but going back four or five 
hutidired yean the case was entirdy different, it was 
an importludt bosiness or ca)!ang in which a number 
of persons weire engaged. In 175 years, as men- 
tioned, Fkmberwergate had (from 1480 to' 1654) 
gnuluaily ohanffed to Fieoher-flaibe. At the latter 
peiiiod the trade of arrowsmiths, arrowmakers, or 
fietchers, had neaiiy died out, if not quite so, and 
fletcher as describing a business would then \oee its 
meaning and value and represent nothmg with thb 
public, and thei^dfore the change from what, was 
leaOy onoe Buttoher-stfeet or gate to what also at 
one j>eriod woukl be understood as Arrowmaker's- 
street or gate would probably not be noticed by the 
people generally when it took place. There is also 
aoiother point well deserving attention, and that is 
^^pecting the word fleoher of fleshewer, which has 
no doubt for two or more centuries ceased to be 
used, and the place of that old Anglo-Saxon word is 
rince taken by ** Butcher," which is the F'-eurh word 
"Bouchier" h^^iMmOL 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM: 

ITS STREETS, PEOPLE, &c. 



XV. 

I desire to ooastunie my renuvks aiespectfois 
the namee, &c., at tibe old sti^eU or roa^k, aod in 
at leavt one OQ«e to mxpp\emetA what I b&ve pro- 
YKMiffly said. Thie is in relatioci to OotgttQg-lane, 
DOW ui^ortonately oban^ to Ha<rtley-ro^. T%& 
xnoi>e this alteration in name is ooo8idered» the 
greater becomes the itegiret that cpooh a uniqae and 
.valaabla ooooeotion, I ndght akoost aay, with an- 
tiquity, shoald have been so heedlessly severed. 
Almost everything points to the nrobainlity of the 
name of this lane or road being by far the oMest 
connected wit4i tbe dity, for at one bonnd it takes 
US back to the times of our Anglo-Sezon aooestors, 
and wiitih but little dottbt previous 1x> the time of 
Alfred the Gre«i<t. I consider we should be within 
the boutids of reason in stating that the word '* Ont- 
gang'* in England dates back nearly fouiteen bon- 
dred years, or quite douible the time which I have 
noticed respecting any fttiher place. Tlie present 
QeniAan eqiMvulent for OutganJ^ is "Auag»ng," and 
the Dutch, whioh in many respects in sivmlar to the 
German, comes still neairer. t^ir eqaivaleot being 
"XTitgao^." In both oa«e« the last syllable is the 
some as with ourselves. In a periodical for 
Jawiary 22nd, 1902, two verses are inserted, en- 
titled "(Joii^g Home.*' ITiey are to a conaider- 
able extent Mentioail with wiiat is at present being 
considered. I wiTl tberafoire give the first eight 
lines : — 

Heimgan«! So the Q^ermaa people 

Whisper when they beair the bell 
ToUinc from some gray old steeple 

Deaiih's familiar tale to tell. 
When they hear the oican dirges 

Swell ii3« out from chapel dome, 
And the sin«ers' chantinc surges 

" Heimgang !" Always going home. 

In our railway stations, Ac, we frequently see 
such notiofs op direotions a« "The Way Out.** In 
the Dutch 8t«ti'>n« it ia ** Uitgang,*' and those of 
(Temuuny ** Auagaag,*' and when giving information 
5n reapect to Uhe embrance it is *' Eingang.** 

I now propoBe to take into consideratioo various 



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83 

roadi, »treet«, lanes, or gates, and ofaaof]^ which 
In the coarse of oentorieB baye taken place in their 
names, &c., oommencitng wHAi what is now 
known to ns aa Yt^eeler-^ute. lb is very ioiiiereat- 
ing to follow foi a few oein«ba[rie8 the vtarkoua obacgea 
^v6ch have ocourxied in connection wdith this 
thocoagihfture. An early reference to it is im the 
Borough ReoopdB, VoJ. 1, p. 378, A.D. 1313. lb 
ha0 been known by several names at various dotes. 
At that time the name was Baker-street. On Feb- 
ruary 6th it 18 recited, "Grent from John, son of 
William de Novo Loco (Newatead) of Nottingham, 
chaplain to Henry Darel, of Nottingham, of a tetDe- 
ment which he had of the feofiEmemt of Sbepheai de 
Whatton in the Bakers-street (in Vico Pisborum), 
between the tenement of William Le 
Cappeo: and the bakehouse ('fomtia') of the 
Lord King ; and also a plot of land together with a 
vine ('Yitni') gronrmg upon it in the same street; 
by the service of keeping a lamip burning in the 
dbapel of the Holy Oroas befoo^e the altar of S. 
Laurence in ti:y& Clinrch of St Peter, Nottingham." 
Witnessed by the Mayor, two BailiiBfe, and six others. 
A sbill earlier reference will be found on page 374, 
vol. I. of the " Records," 1306, May 1, where there 
is an aococtnit of a release of land, &c., in Baker- 
street, " upon which Hugh de WoOoston has boilit." 
Prom these extracts it will be perceived that Baker- 
atieet wae an early name for Wheder-gate. I have 
on an occasion or two in the Borough Records 
seen the word "bakeeter** applied to a baker, and 
from that word to baxter the change is not great, 
and it seems to have occurred. 

In former times the Mayor, who appears to have 
been assifited by some experts, periodically held an 
assize of bread, and, judging by the price of com, 
he ordered for the time being ^at chairge should be 
made for bnead, and this system prevanl^S, I believe, 
less thain two iMindred yeairs since. We are informed 
in the "Records," vol. I, p. 291, 1396, that "The 
assize of bread taken before the Mayor and Bailififs 
(before the Apporntmenb of Bberiffs), and in the 

preseaice of other trustwontihy men 

bv the oath of John Jolivet, William Turner, Robert 
Ostiler, and John de Nuttal, who, being sworn, say 
that the best com was sold in the Market on Satur- 
day last for lOd., and the middbe quaJity of com for 
9d., and the poorer quality of com for 8d. There- 
fore the bakers are told to bake according to the 
assize of 36. And hereupon John Bond, baxter, is 
fotukd wanting in his weight in white bread of a 



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84 

^surthing .... and OY«f. Ttiereloie lie k here 
adjudged to be in ' miaericordia.' He oomea here 
and places hinuself upoo tbe favour of the Mayor 
and places himself in misericordJa (or mercy) aiid 
pays 6d." On amotiher occasion "William Brekpi^, 
baxter (or baker), is found wanting in his weigbi in a 

loaf of wiiite tourt bread of a fartbing 

Therefox^ he ia here adjudged to be in mi«enoordia : 
be comes here aod plaoes himself uipon the favour 
of tiie Mayor and plaoes bamseilf m mieericocdia. 
He is forgiven by the Mayor because be is poor.** 

In th06 Asmze Hugh Baxter ie found want- 
ing in his weight of a w4ute loaf of a farthing 
by the weight. "Therefoipe he is hew ad- 
judged to be in m'isiericordia : he ootoes hare and 
places himself upon the favour of the Mayor and 
pays 3s. 4d. for m'sericordia." Fnom these ex- 
tracts interesting partncularB may be gathered of the 
quaint customs of our anceMors, though at the same 
time it will be percenved <lhat those we now know as 
bakers wei>e five or six hmidred years since and 
aft'ftrwards callled baxtiprs. 

At that time the thoroughfare now called Wheeler- 
frate was known by tbe name of Baxter- gate, and 
it appears to hav« been the headquarters or moot 
frequented spot of tbe town bakers. Here also, as 
before n^ntioned, the King had a bakehouse. From 
w%at can be (fathered in the " Records " and hi^tocy 
I am inclined to believe that in tbe course of years 
the bakers or baasber^ in that street ceased to 
maintain their predominance, for at times 
afterwards it woa called Qweilewrigthgate and 
Qwdlewrightrgate. This in its turn gave place 
to Wclwrighfc-J?ate, WhelwrygWit-gate, and Wheel- 
wiii«[ht-aat«. It appeanr to have been oaQied Whel- 
wrigJit-laDe by Speed, probably between 200 and 
300 years since, and after that period it gradually 
acauired its present name of "Wheder-gate. 

T now propose to oonrtder the can* of an old street 
which during nearly six centiiries has fairly main- 
tained or retained its old name, and that is the one 
which we now know bv the name of Bridlesmith- 
crate. In the "Rpoords" (Vol. 1, v. 429) we are 
told that in 1321-2 its name was Bridilsmethis-firate 
and Brvcht«nvt-prate. On T>8ure 176. in 1360, a 
case of assault i^ mentioned ns takinj? place in 
Bridelsmyth-ornf**, the verdiot being "Guiltv to the 
damage of 40d.*' On pa<re 203, several persons, in 
1379, are reported for selling ale ac^in^t the Assise 
and three atv reported as not in the Ubertr fnon- 
burgesses). The«e events are oaid to have occurred 



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8S' 

in Brydelanyt-gate. On page 429 we are also in- 
iormed, re«peotiiig these vaxioos ways of speiiiiif; 
tbese abret/tm, ihaA the Ladn equivaieDt is Viciui 
Lorimenoram ; and on page 440 tbeiQ is the f urbher 
inloiiDation that translated literaiiy ft is "the 
Lorimers street." On page 151 (in a deed) mention 
is made of ** that tenement which William de Uoim 
holds in the street of the Lorimers, in Nottingham." 
On page 281 (1395) are a variety of reports 
with the Street of the Lorimers in Nottingham. 
On p{^ 365, vol. I. (1281), the sale of a messuago 
lying in Lorinwxs-street appears to have been regis- 
tered. In a numoer of other caMs in vol. I. men- 
tion is made of Lorimers'-street (in Vico 
Lorimerioram). 

On page 136 remarks are again ma^e in connection 
respectmg encroachmenti<, &c., in the town, and in 
one ** they say that a porch in Baxter-gate belonging 
to Margery Oolier staiods upon the oommon soil to 
the serioos detriment of the neighbours there pass- 
ing, and to thn great prejudice of the liberty of the 
town aforesaid,' &c. The enoroachments by our 
anoeston upon the town land, streets, &c. , were in 
very numerous instances both determined and bare- 
faced. In vol. I., pp. 293-94, the "Records" in- 
fonn us that "John Lorimer and John Wyrhail, 
Decennaries of Bridilsmyth-gate, present (or report) 
an affray made with blood against Adam Cooper 
upon Richard Sykot, Spurrier, becauee the aforesaid 
Adam struck the aforesaid Richard on his side with 
his axe against the peace of our Lord the King, &c., 
wherefore he is attached, kc. And hereupon the 
said Adam oomea and places himself upon the 
favour of the Mayor and pays 12d." "John Lorimer 
and John Wyrhail, Decennaries of Bridilsmyth-gate, 
present (or report) an affray made without blood 
against Thomas Fox, draper (1396), because the 
aforesaid Thcmias first drew his unsheathed axe, 
and afterwards went into his own house and took a 
club in his haakl against John Hodings, against the 
peace of our Lord the King, &c., wherefore he is 
attached, &c. And hereupon the said Thomas 
comes and places himself upon the favour of the 
Mayor and pays 12d." In each of these two oases 
one of the Decennaries was named Lorimer, end, 
judging by other and similar cases at this date, the 
name also probably represented his tmde, and in 
that street a spurrier would very likely be one 

The next thonytfghfare to be considered will be 



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the OM now known to ns by the name ol Go6M- 
gate» and during the course of centariet it it in- 
terestlng to note tbe chaogee wiiicfa. ocoarred bere aa 
well as in varioiLs other places. — ^In the "Reooddi/* 
vol. I., p. 451. a *' w«iker" is described as being a 
fu^r,* and so called from the practice of falling tbe 
cloth by walking upon it. On pa^e 440 we are toki 
**so Walker-gate is no doubt (from Walker — a 
fuller) the Vicua Fuiionum (or Fullers'-street) ol 
page 46 (year 1266, February 15). — ^In v<d. I., 440, 
Walker-gate ia twice introduced, namely a.d. 1310 
and A.D. 1525, in respect to land ahotting upon the 
Walker-gate aiid the Gerard well. On pa.ge 376, a.d. 
1309-10 (February 26), we are informed respecting a 
** Giranb from Simon de Blythe, of Notting'ham, and 
Ann&betl^, his wife, to William de Mekesborugh of 
a rent ol 6d. issuing omt off a ourtdlage in the streot 
leading from Robert Qoe' towards GerawkweU of 
the town of Nottinigluaa. Witnessed by the Mayor, 
John Kytte, WiWiam de Croipphul and Robert le 
Orfevere, Bailiflfs," and three others. The recital of 
this Grant from Simon de Bly^e, and specially with 
the nam«s of Witnesses attached thereto, is nwst 
interesting as regards the hdstory of Goose-gato:— 
(1) In reference to Robert Gos, it is. I ooosider, 
practically certain that he resided in toat thorough- 
fare, and from him, by vaaious cihanges which have 
occurred during the course of about six hundred 
years, that street has acquired the name which it 
now beers. Respecting a goose, or ^2[ee6e, they do 
not appear as a fact to have had any connection 
whatever with the name it is now known by. No 
doozbt, fixnn the position he occupied as one of the 
Baili£fs, Robert Gos was a man who ranked high in 
the social soaie. (2) Robert le Orfevere is also 
mentioned aboye, in the old Norman-French, nuean- 
ing Robert tbe Go'.dsmrith ; and from wha€ can be 
gathered in the " Records " there is, I consider, bat 
little if any room for doubtdng that Robert Gos and 
Robert tlie Goldsmith were the same person, and 
this idea is in a great measure proved by an entry 
in the "Reooids," vofl. I., page 386, respectdng pro- 
perty "lying in a lane caMed 'Robert Lane Qold- 
smath.' " 

On tbe same page in connection with another 
property we have a rather peculiar variation in the 
name of the street, for it is there called "Robert 
Gategos." Ihis was a.d. 1328. As I hav« before 
mentioned, our ancestors in long past times wtmU 
not be bound to obeerve the ordinary rules of ortho- 
graphy, for instances may be found where the name 
or names of the same person - or stceets, ftc., 



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a? 

* within ft line or two have aonie variftptioD. Robert 
le Orfevere wa« one oi Hie two BaiiiflEs of the town, 
according to the "Records/' during the two years 
1310-11 and 1311-12. On page 377, vol. I., wii«re 
he is mentioned as a pu-rcmseo' in connection with 
properDy in Lorimers'-street^ he is described as 
Robert the Godsmith (*' Aurifaher "), of Notting- 
ham. At this lime (1312^ July 8) be was, as mentioDed, 
one of the Town Bailiffs, and therefou^ oooid not 
sign his own deed as a Witness ; but this is done by 
the Mayor, "John le P«umer, Hu^h de Stapelford, 
Bailiff of the same town in ths £ig]iish Borough," 
together wiith four others. In 1^ the way is 
called Goose-gate. In 1639, vol. III., p. 377, there 
is the foJ" owing entry : " Payde for a lok to the 
St^Lkes in Gosse Gette VId.'' In 1579 it wa« 
Go»gate. In 1641, vol. V., p. 202, it was called 
GocLsgate, a<id from this a few years alter wa>rd« 
(1648) it was no great change to make it Giooee 
Gaite. and this was fully effected. 

In my last letter when referring to a passage on tbe 
West of the Town Hall, which many yeans since was 
oalled Mont-lane, I entitled it Malin Hill ; this is an 
ecvor, its praseot name being Miiddle Hill. Respect- 
ing Malin Ha'll, the bottom end of it is entered from 
the nosth-weat corner of Phunptree-sqnai^ (at the 
end of Loodon-roed), and the top end is agadnat 
the top of Lofig Stairs and necir to High-pavement. 
This nanow foototwd is, no doubt, amoogst the old- 
est tbocoughftucs in NottingtMun. About the year 
1303 we ane told that a Jo^ MaXin randed in the 
town, and probably th's hill was named after that 
family. The firat mention in the *' Records " of any 
occarrenoe coooected with it was in 1396, on a com- 
plaint of the Mickletorn Jiny, which wras: — "Thait 
a common lane is Uocked up in the Hegthpament 
bv Randolph Berker, to wit, between the tenement 
oi the aforesaid Ran<bo}ph, and the tenement of the 
Vicar of the Church of the Blessed Mary, and the 
aforesaid lane extends towards the south upon 
Malinhill and towards tbe north upon Hegthpament, 
and so throug;h him the lame does not now exist. 
Tbsrefoce bet it be inqnil:%(d, &c." 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM: 

m STEEETS. PEOPLE &c. 



XVI. 

It is poanUe to find o4faer stKoebB and plcboee 
in tb& otd towa hB/vin^ moet kAav^ tim g asso- 
ciations with the past, or re^ttting to wiioch I wish 
to make furtber remarks. There are fortuoatdy a 
few sbreerts, kc., whidh^ wfiiSst mdkxBg full a£ow- 
anoe for oliaiitgee in the mode of speltiag, have re- 
taMied tbeir names for many centanee, aad it is ooe 
of ih'is class thdbt I propose to fim notice, nsmelyi 
Stoney-stpeei. 

In the "Borough Records," V<d. I., p. 371 
(November 16th, 1301), we are told that there was 
(?regi«t&red) a '* Gnuvt from Riobard de Wbattoo to 
Robert de Maunfield (? Mansfieid) of Nottingham 
aixl Joan his wife of a messueA<e in Stooistrete." 
Witnessee, Richard le Om)per2 Mayor ; Robert le 
Orfevere and Hugjh die Wollaton, Bailiffs, ^., &o. 
The date here given is probably the esriiest reference 
to fitoaey -street to be found in tbe " Borougb Re- 
co«>dB," yet it should be understood that the street 
may have been known by the same name a ceniury 
or two before that period. On page 396 (1335, 
Apri^ 22) there is an entry o< a " Qnnt from fik'xa* 
bHh, daughter of Robert Upton of XottinglMm to 
Wiiliem de Amyas of a messuage and open place in 
Stonstrete (with otbcr property elsewbeie). Wit- 
nesses, Rooer de Boteha^e, Mayor ; Robert de More- 
wx)od aiod Roohaid de (AtUlewiell, BadliffB; and M 
others." 1361, August 13 (p. 407) "Grant from 
Richard Oolier of Nbttiiiffvam, merchsjiit, to 
William, son of William de ^Hiurgeiton of Notting- 
ham of a messuage in the Stonstrete. Witnesses, 
WiMiam de Oophull, Mayor; Geoffrey Pk)t and 
Ralpb de Calyeirton, Baafifis ; and four otbers." It 
will be seen by these reiterences tbat Stoney-slreet 
is an old tborougbfare, and that during a ooonse 
of six hundred years theie has really beai Uttk or 
DO change in its name. 

Tlie rise of tbe ground at the sontb end of Stoney- 
sbi>eet .8 by Deeriog called St. Difary'S'hiU on lus 
map of the town, a.d. 1751. Wben looking round 
the southern and eastern sides of 8t. Mary's Oburdb- 
yaid, and noticia^ its height above tbe level of 
the High-pavemeoty &c., I have b^Ueved Hhat in 



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89i 

tioMs now kog pa«%ed thte roedB in tbat p«Et ba.T« 
been lowieiwl to aJdow of an easier gmdaoni, to 
HoUow-ertone. Some of mv older UilSfiw-akizesm will 
with mywJf reftoin a reKXMliection of oM Plnmptree 
House, winch oiice faced into Ston^-streei, and 
with its grounde peaching to Kaye's-nnB^, inchtded 
the aitee of the waicfaoaKa, &c,, to Broadway. 
According to Deering's JOug of tibe town it is pro- 
bable that any one at that date atandnng in the gaite- 
way of the old Pli]n^[>tree Houae would be ahle to aee 
throagh an avenue o^ trees and over open grotmd a0 
far as Oarter-gaite. There was ab that tune a field 
on the opposite mde of Stoney-streei. In mv time 
there were many Rouses in Stooey-sfareet, whicn were 
occupied as dwoLUngs, and there was one terraoe of 
hoiLKs on the west side towacds the middle 
called King's-place, with the end abutting to 
the road, the ground of which was pro- 
bably from edght to ten feet above the 
level of the street. I also remember many houaes 
being occupied as residences in St. Maxy*s-gate, 
Warser-gate, and Piloher-gaite. The warehouses in 
the neighbourhood of these places more than sixty 
years since were few in number, and much less in 
size than many which have since been erected, and 
nearly all had previously been used as houses. 

On various occasions oetween a.d. 1500 and a.d. 
1700 there were attacks of the plague — ("Visi- 
tacions") — in or near Notbi.^(;;ham, and precautions 
were taken in different fonns to lessen the danger 
of such a visitant. The Town Cooncdl had die 
matter under consideration on many occasions. On 
July 29th, 1611, they decided —{see " BorouRh Re- 
cords" Appendix, p. xxix) — that "This company 
(the Council), having conference about some good 
orders to be conceyved for the visitacion, ytt is 
agreed that an assessment shall be laad according to 
the fonner rates, the same to begin this weke, and 
to be accounted for everie Coort Day in the mominge 
hsncefnrth. And a Watchman to be set at the 
Playnes every night. And one Alderman taking 
to him 3 or 4 sufficient men, to be overseers by 
wekely iumes.** Under these circumstances the 
Grammar School appears to have been much inter- 
fered with, and it was. probably after an attack 
of plague, when the Council Pe«)lved "TTiat the 
School be sett a f oott agayne and to be kept pro 
tcwpofie in the Ghaunoell of Saint Maries, wherennto 
Maosfcer Aldnd{9»—( • the headmaster)— hath as- 
sQotod. And Maister John Freeman hath gyven 
leav^ tbsli the chydreo sbaH have liberiy to make 



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their oampo— (plajgrooixl) — in his dose M Ho&CMr- 
9toD neere to the Church." To us in recent i i mm 
the notion o< there being "a clone at Hollowston 
near the chnroh" ic no doubt very strange ; yet by 
old maps we know that it was a faithfnl statementy 
for even one hundred and thirty years after the per- 
mission mentioned there was a lield reaching from 
BeUar-gate to Stoney-street, one side (the sooth) of 
which was bounded by Hollow-stone. 

The next place to be mentioned is Oreat Smith's- 
gate, the first reference to which appears to be m 
" The Records," vol. 1, p. 381, on June 29th, a.d. 
1317, on which date there is an entry of a " Grant 
from Thomas Steel, of Nottingham, and Oecily, his 
wife, to William, son of Simon de Lenton, ot Not- 
tingham, of a messuage in Qreat Smith's-gate, Not- 
tingham. Wiitiiesaee: William de Mekeissburgh, 
Mayor, John Bryan and John de Driffield, bailiffs, 
and 9even others." I think it is probable that 
these so-called grants were as a fact sales of pro- 
perty, and that the bringing of the case or cases 
before the Mayor, etc., was really a mode oi regis- 
tering the sales or transfers. On November 13th, 
1325, release by Matilda, widow of Richard, the 
Constable d Nottingham (''Constabaiarius "), to 
William de Blyda, of Nottingham, of her right in a 
messuage in (>reQ*t Smith-^te (in Vico Magnorum 
Fabrorum). Witnesses : William le Cupper, Mayor, 
Ralph le Tavemer and John le Cupper, bailiffs, and 
five others. On June 29th, 1340, there was a grant 
from William de Kirkeby and Alice, has wife, to 
William de Amyos of a plot of land in Gkeait Smith*s- 
gate ; John le Collier was then Mayor, and John de 
Baeton and Richard de Halum bailiffs." Thia road 
in recent times, for the most part of a century has 
been known by the nam^e of Pelham-street. 

The spelling of the street's name in the three cases 
mentioned has no doubt been modernised by the 
editor in the " Records," for in various other entries 
chanaes occur. On page 203, vol. I., it is Gret- 
smythgate (a.d. 1379.) On page 317 it is Gr«it- 
smythgate, Greytsmythisgate, and Greysmithgate 
(see alio page 4&). In tl^ oourae of time the name 
of this a&eet was gradually changed to Gridlesmith 
Gate, and it is so called by Deering <m his map 
since. In toL 4, page 112, when in Ine quaint Ian- 
goage of the time — ^▲.d. 1556-Hfi a report by the 
Con0taUes they say, "Forther we doy prywent 
Wylliam Nyx becass he doth moke a comone nK)cke 
hyll in Grylsmethe Gatte." This in the **Reooidi," 



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flirange to mj, is a moet ordinary oanae for oom- 
plaint, even agauist all claflsee ol the commiuiity, 
ol whiob xuany 9oore9 oi iiwt>aiivy#i oould be men- 
tioned. On pa^ 170, voL 4 (1577) it is reported by 
Ukb Miokietorn Jury, and tihey "predieiit Grydeii- 
cmyth Qate to be mdeibey for laicke of pavyng." On 
page 206 (a.d. 1583) it is calkd Grryiesmytn Gate. 
In Yoi. 5 (tiie lust iasued of tiie ** Records "), page 
*zl5 • July, 1643) the ohtfuige is praoticaLiy elfected, 
for it is there called "Gridiesmyth Gate/' acd this 
with but little doubt was its title for nearly, if not 
qiute, one hundred and hfty yean after the last 
<lar6 giveii above. The change I have frequently 
thougnt must have proved objectiotiable on numer- 
ous occasions, for Gridleonith Gate is too much 
like Bridiesmith Gate not to cause coiifuAoo, and 
frequent mistakes in taking one name for the oither 
in oonveraation, kc. The dietincticii aJ0o between 
Greatsmith Gate and Gridlesmith GUite is sufficiently 
prooounoed to render the aubstdtution of one for the 
other aJbokost surpnaing. 

Some coQAidemtion will now be gdven to Barker 
Gckte. In vol. 1, page 444 ol the Aecords we are 
tokl thai a Barker is a tanner. On page 428 the 
LaUn term of Vicus Tasioatorum is given for Barker 
Gate, and reference to thai old thoroughfare from 
what is there entered appears to be as eiuiy as A.D. 
1309 and 1310. This o4d sitreei has pnaoticaiiy re- 
tained its naioe the whoJe ol the time, or at least as 
nearly so ae our anoestom couJd menage — lor they 
were not particuiar to the niceties of orthography. 
On page \685, vol. 1, A.D. 1325, May 7, there is 
registered a "Grant from Baohard de Fiissby, ol 
Nottingham, and Margeiy, hie wife, to WiUiain de 
Mekisburg, of Nottin^ihHjn, ol a meee^age in the 
Taamers Stroei (in Vioo Tacnatorum). Witneases, 
WiUiam de CrofhuU and John le Cupper, Badiiffs, 
together with five otheas.*' In vol. 1, page 203, 
A.D. 1379, ''Roger de Beespton, sole Decennary 
(? Ooaatehk) presents (reports) that WiUiam Ship- 
wright sells ale a«njnst the Amnze" in Beffker Gate. 
In voi 1, page 275, 1395, the Mickletom jury re- 
port "that one Richard Maeaon, layer, who dweUa 
in the BeriLer-gate, took unjucibly from John Blyth, 
fleshewer, for working two days at the cnalt of a 
otonecvtter 12d. against the AoBUie oi our Lord the 
King, &C.'' On page 297 and 299 we are tohl tlMit 
Richard de Linby (1396), Deoennarv ol B er fflrgai t e 
presento an alfray agaansi Randolfh TayJnr, 'v^ih- 
oQi blood, because the aioresaad Randolph raised a 
fttkkeforth against John He, iboemaker, and againsK 



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Che peoM o^ a«r I^oml the King, &e, w bane fa i tf b» ii 

atitadiad, &c And the alooenyd W*lt«r ooowe and 
yiacm hjameU upon the feiToar of the Mayor and 
pijB 6d. The atoeesud I>eGeniiar7 of the eamo 
0U«et aiao pcemite an aif ray agajuvt John ile, ohoe- 
maikery wttn Uood, beoauee the aioc«eaJd John nueed 
a okib nod also thiew hie baeelard with hie hande 
against Bandoiph Taylor and agajoet the peaee oi 
oar Loird the King, &x:. Wheieiore he ie attached, 
&€., and hereujwci the aame John oomee aad plaoee 
hiineeif upon the favour oi tbo Mayor and pays 12d. 

In my letter No. 10 I nwntion an old thatched 
houee, ^iiioh I have a full leooUection of aeeing ahoot 
Hfty yeofs since in Barker-gabe. I am glad to say 
thait my request for inf onnation hae to a moderate 
exteoit been anewa^ed. An old occupant informs nke 
that theie were two thaitched houees adjofioing eaoh 
other. I was also infonned that the ceilanng under 
one or both of the houses wae extensive, and con- 
nected with a tunnel reaching a oonsidenihie distance 
from them. The present owner of the property also 
made himeelf known, and said that he had heard of 
the thatched roofs, but from his a^ he could not 
remember them. He has made considerable akiera- 
tions to the property, in cadcryang out which one 
bouse, I uoderatood, was polled dbwn. It appears 
that the old honaes were two stoceye hdgfa, and were 
oipposke theend oi Bediar-gate, or nearly so : the one 
left is now slated. 

There are two ways into or oat of Barker-gate, to 
one oi wfaftch at least pelerenoe is made in the Re- 
cords ooosiderably meie than five hundred years 
since. I am now refemng to the thtorougMa^e known 
to us as BeUar-gate. In a sumlar way to Barker- 
gate it has t5 a large degree kept its name for ahout 
six hundred years, and peihaj)s more, for in YoL 1 
of the "Kecoaxis," page 696, A.D. 1336, five cottages 
are mentioned as being ''in the Taoners-stfeet 
(Barker-gate) near the highway which leads into 
BelwordgaAe." On page 203— 1379— the name is 
entered as Belward. In Voi 2, page 39, A.D. 1407, 
in a report of the Micklsboni Jury, they sav **tbat 
William Spooer azkd WiUiam Bmdmere have blocked 
up the end of Belwardane witth the throwing up ol 
eartli on either side so that they prevent carts 
passing through the said ktne." In the reiport fusdMr 
on at page 41, " They also say that Nicholas HoiiMr 
hM made a dunghill in Belwardlane to the nui oan oe 
of the Deighboars.*' 

!nie other thoroughfare leaifang in or out of 
Barinr-gaite, to wImi I wi«h to xefsr is the one 



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93 

Dcyw kniowai to us as MaideD-kme Hui has larg€^!y 
retained its old name, yet not quite so. M tk 
road it is, of ooorse, not $o important aa Bellar- 
gate and many others, no>r mentioned at so early a 
date; gtiU it is referred to m '*Tb6 Reoorda" in 
1543, and no doabi it had borne its name an ind^ 
finite time previously. EUzaibetn GeUestaKip in ber 
will of 1M3, vol. 3, p. 397, "beqtiytbee one 
gardyn lying in Fareamdeci Layn of ye yerely 
valew of iile unto ye seid Mkiior and burgesses fcr 
tbe tyme being, and their suocesMnrrs for etver 
nrope.'' On page 67, A.D. 1600, Fakremayden-Iane 
is mentioned in oonneotkm vrith a horse-nnll tiiere. 
On page 470, vol. 3, we aro told tibat— "A.D. 1460 
Thomae Thurland gianta to tbe Trinity Goiid a 
bam (granffhim) in Feyremayden Lane." From 
this ift wil! be seen that the cha^iffe in later Umee 
has been fromr F^maiden-kne to Maiden-laiie. One 
hundred and fifty yeans ffince the bottom end of 
Barker-gate read^ quite to the outside of the 
town as regards the houses, for beyond it all mm 
fields until *'Old Sneinton" was reached. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM. 

ITS STREETS, PEOPLE. &c. 



XVH. 

In the ktter No. XII. I Doticed BandUsfa 
Hospital, which was formeiiy in Stoney-sti>eet, bat 
is now io obe street to «be w«0t oi the eleotnc workm 
in Ta3>ot-stPe6t A few <kyt bock » gentlemen, 
nlwD spettiuog with me, expi^OBed dome donbto re- 
spectiog the accuracy of the mode of spelling tiie 
name of the foimder of that boenital, and Um]^ 
it rf^Mikl be Haole^. I aiterwarda examined Deer- 
in£*t '*UiAtonr ol ^lottingbam," w^nch had been my 
ref«renoe, and found that in two placet on page 144 
the najne ie apellad BtatSkif, 

In Sioney-etreet, in the centre of the low row of 
habitations once forming the hocpital, I haTe a re- 
collection of there being a small and rather orna- 
mental cecitral gable in the npper part of which on 
marble wac the canred coet of anna of the founder, 
and VDder it was a long inscription giving an ac- 
co>ont of tbe obari^. A fall copy of It is prolesaed 
to be given by Deering on page 151, and it was this 
wbich I took as my aathoHty. I wiU give the first 
few lines. He says: — *' Henry Handler, Esq., 
whose body is interred in the dnoroh at Bramoote, 
in the ooQDty of Nottingham, caused this a^nriumse 
to be erected for 12 poor people," ftc., kc. I then 
examined the will, &c., of the founder of tfliis hos- 
pital, as recited on pages 321-330, and ffliere in many 
places the name is spelled '* Hanley," that is, with- 
out a '* d." lUs appeared veiy singular, but as the 
coat of anns and the insoription which Deering once 
saw and cqpted (more tiban 150 years since) are still 
in existence and to be seen in the front of the present 
IkMpita! in Hanley-6tree4 — near the Electricity 
Works — ^I determined to go and see them, after the 
lapse of ha'f a cemtnny, aiKi to mv sornrise (and per- 
haps so with other*) I found that tne description 
bad been incorreetiT copied by Deering and that th3 
name of "Hanley'' wias plainly engraved upon the 
marble, so t'bere can under these circumstances be 
no doiAfc that it is the proper mode of spelling it. 
I ought to have stated that under Deering's engrav- 
ing of the long and low tow of oM habitations in 
Stoney-street they are esriHtled "Handi«iy*s Hoe- 
pital." Hbe insorijptnon on the maible is in the 
quaint wording w9ndi was in vogue two or tbpe^ 



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96 

. cenhiTMs since, thoo^, strange to say, it is not 
so oopied by BeexaDg, 

Aooofidui^ to tbe *' Date Book " he died F^hrwaj 
25th, 1749, and his ** Hisptoiy of Ndttmgbam '* -warn 
published after bui death in 1751. On se^ral pa«- 
viovui occasions I have connnented upon the way in 
lAnth our ancestors igno>red all niies of apeling or 
orthography, and been inclined *to wonder whether 
the two ways of spelling tbe name of the founder of 
the hospilttti, "Handbey and Hanky,*' might not 
possibly be lix)m indifference, and Dot an unknown 
efrror, and thtU; 160 years since they possibly had 
not freed themse^es of the habit of spelling wocds 
in more ways than one, as prsvioiMdy mentioned. 

I will now further consider the old Kottanighsm 
streets, commencing with the one which is known 
to us as War8©r-ga*e. In "The Records," vol. 1, 
p. 441, A.D. 1331, there is reference to " a messuage 
m the stre«t called the Wadlsete," and in a.d. 1362, 
"a cbie^ messuage in the Wallsete*' is mentioned. 
This is certainly an old street, and Warser-gate is 
said probably to be a coo^rap^Llon of Wallsete- 
gate. In vol. 2, page 339, there is 
a report, and Richard Stevenson and John 
Wooden, coostablefl of Walsedl^te (1484) say upon 
thear oa^ tboc Jlohn Daod^ weaver, made an 
easaoilt with bloodshed upon Henry Birantcn«g|ham, 
agadnst tbe peace, on Toeacbay nig|bt befone the feast 
of tihe Eipipoany, ini tbe first year of the reign of 
Kins; Rkihiaii>d the Thord. din page 359 various 
properties appear to be n^ntioned l^iooiging to the 
town, and one of them in the curious wor&g of 
the cbie — ^a.d. 1435— is as follows : " A oomonon lana 
ynt gos owt of Walsed Gcute into ye eet end oif 
OaindeW Lane yat Hugh Lydbe has bjiged (bud^t) 

.on and oner." A "kne," asannetimesmentioneid 
We, was prohsiblly the mode at that period of de- 
fxjnibDng a nairrow piece of ground even for build- 
ing xnuposes, bat in this case it is oaDed "a oooi- 
moia lane," and as being between the two places 
mientioived t»He«re \s good recison for coDcliKfing th9t 
ft was the narrow footway called Quean -street, which 
will be reme.TrJbered by nwuny old res'Kien«ts as once 
jo^niing the end of Fktcher-gate with OauCifcon-street. 
(Swinegrwfli) before Viotoria-sbrs^ w%% formed. 

In A.D 1463-4, paifire 448, we are info<nned that 
tbe sti^et under comsiderafbion was called WalleeAied- 
gate, and in 1478-9 Walsetgate. Hie name ap- 
peems to have gradiaally chansed aJb long intervals 
into ?ts prfsent form. In Vol m. of the ** Re- 
cords," p. 478, we are told that " In a.d. 1509 there 



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96 

18 an alotiicn on a bond y^AA. menldeMM 'WMTMt- 
gate/ but tbe Oourt Book has 'W^A^dlgekii.*'* In 
A.D. 1527 it appean to hm^ been Wiateerfate^ By 
1573 a fuirtlieT chajace had ooourred, for in Vokfliie 
IV., p. 154, it UP oaUed Wborae^^. In 1578, page 
174,' tbd name given is Walie^gate. It ooobmed 
with but Mttte cbaoge from ttm name for ft coo- 
aidopable number M yww?*, tiwcugjb in Vol V., p^e 
111, tb^<re ifi a oompleiint in Appi', 1636, by tme 
MioWetom Jury, of "tbe loer end o< WaJtoer- 
gate for want of pavioig." On page 281, a.d. 1654, 
the MiHo.etom Juinr complaan of "Mister Doctor 
Hutihwioke for anoyiog and incpochnoige in "Wbwter- 
gate mth porch and pales." Th« at premtA a|>- 
pears to be tfae Istest. referenoe in tbe ''Borough 
KeoordB " to tlnis street, and the gradual dhefi^ ha* 
been shown from Walisete to W^J^edi^BJte and Wal- 
set^te to WaJsergate, &c., nntfl it is in 1654 oalkd 
Worsergote, from wbidh no great effort was required . 
to traorform it into Warser-gate, its present name. 

Tbe next old sdreet or pLaoe to be notioed woA 
be the one i>ow known by iftke nadne of Oartbon- 
street. In my younger days nearly ail tbe ekkerly 
people called it Swine Owen, and that wa« the 
gsoueirailly accepted title until a numlbeir of yean 
Qifter the oomanenc€oneint of laflt oeotory. The 
earliest date on wfbidh I have at pneeenit foond a 
reference to Swine Green is in the "Reoords,** Vol. 
II., p. 63, A.D. 1408, wl^ere the liEdkletoinie Jury 
report "that Edknnnd Whea4l'^y has made a wbB* 
uipon tbe comonon gaxnind on the Swynegrene.** Oa 
p3^e 185, Voil. n., 1446, in thse enrolment of a 
gramt to John Dediam, mamtioQ is made of "one 
garden lying upon Swynegreoe." In Vol m., A.D. 
)bV w^ are infonned re?pecting "the Ootte^ on 
ye Swyne Grene in ye hoMyn^ of Myles Wyffee." 
In Vo»?. IV., p. 161. 1575. the MicMetorne JiJry re- 
port " Tbconae BQioifl^ham for annoryiiur the street at 
tbe Swyne Gren with timber.** In Vok IV. of the 
•Reoords,*' p. 395, we are infoimed, "1548, Apifl 
26, that thare wa;s a "Gmait flrom Huoiqwey 
Quemfay, one of the AlIdermeD of Not- 
liinghflm, end EUzabeith tim wtfe, daughter and 
htekrees of Robert MeJTlours, to the Kaynr and 
Budvesses of Nottingham of a tenement or burgage 
in the Freer-row (now oaUed Beast Mar^ethai), 
between the kAd of John Browgltew, alias Bnm- 
feld, on the west and land belonging to Heffiibeth 
(Trent) Bridges on tbe east, (land) of lliomas 
MeAkMSPB on the aonth and thb bagliiway on the north, 
in exchange lor a ttftemfent or b^viga^ belonging to 



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97: 

the; bndgM lying m Swynnegrene.*' The MeUoum 
here mentioiQed wero probably deflceodaniti of 
Richard MeUeos o<r MeUcMirs, ami Agnes, his wife, 
the foimder o^ (tihe Free Grammar School (now High 
School). He wa0 a beUfoomdea:, and Robert Mellours 
aJao, but Hmmxmib Medlours appears to hare been a 
merchaait. 

In 1624 tihe town wa^ vistted by King James I., 
aod a ffhoct tinne before has arrival efForta were made 
to have aU pofis in order; the varaouA Aldermeo, 
Cousncillors, &€., being appointed in the different 
wards, &c., to see timt tbe orders ol tihe Council 
were properly carried out. In the part of tihe town 
now be»ng remarked upon the foUowiog is the order 
respecting those ohcflen: "Manoter Leonard Nixe, 
Maiflter Hynde, Mai«ter Oxky, Maiaiter Perrie, 
Maiater Masijn, Maister Dedi>isihire, Maister 
Dodsley are ap|X)doted to oversee ttie backsides, the 
GuUowe H(dk>wefl, the way nere the Pynfould, the 
Broad Lane (now Broadnstreet), tlie Cow Lane 
(Clnmber-streeit), the Swyne Greene, and the back- 
syde of Thurland Howse." The backsides mentioned 
are the oiker streeits or Lanes of the town. Deer- 
ing, on his map dated 1751, shows several places 
na^ned Back Lane or Back Side, and this was 127 
years after the King's visit. *'Manster Robert 
Parker, Maister Soott, Maister Baguley, Maister 
John Stanley to view the whole towne and pave- 
mentes and to remoae oaits and lay heo^ppes 
(rubbish) and otber anno^noes with all convenient 
speed. Richard Bttllyvaii to be Post Master for 
thds time. And Maister Maior to have the £44 re- 
maining in ^ hands ol Maister Gregoriet Aldeconan, 
and to disburse owte from that as occa^non shall 
arise." In the first half of this year (1624) there is 
an interesting eotiry in the Bridge Master's accounts 
showing that there had been a severe winter. It 
is as follows : " To John Fktcber, Edward Baittye, 
RicAard Oker, and other for breafcin the yce after 
the grea* frost to prevent the bridges from danger, 
6s. 6d." 

Resppeotimg Swine Green, I have read tlhst in his 
younger days Lord Byron resided in or near to it. 
In 1798 he, with his mother first used the family 
house at Newstead, but it must have been much im- 
paired and greatly in need ol renovation, for this 
together with her lack of money appears, in a large 
degree, to ha.ve influenced Mrs. Byron in leaving 
Newstead aaain within a moderate interval after 
their arrivaf from Scotland. At the same time 
there was tbe misfortune attaiching to one of Loid 



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ga 

Bypau** feei yvhUh. no doubt hftd coDmderation, aai 
it Wis decided to rejride at letust for a tiine in Hcn^ 
tLDgham. At tiiat period tlh^re wm & pevBon iHtfied 
LaveDrder in the town, who yniemed tb§^ be cooM 
cure Lord Byron's lameness. He is aaid to have been 
the truas maker to the Gknerai Hospital, wbdch bfui 
but little aasociatioD with deformed lianibe. There 
appean to be no doubt that the young lad was sab- 
jecybed to m»ch useless torture, whdch he is credited 
with having borne bravely. 

Whi]0t in the totwik he was placed with Mr. 
Bogers, a Notton^ftmrn «choo3iina«ber, wftwee nesi- 
dience is asdd to have been at the Hen Croee (the tx)|^ 
of tihe Poultry in oUien times), wfaich would pu4i 
ably be withui a huikliped aod fifty y4ad» of the 
house whiei*e Byrcm then resided. Tnii wae do^e to 
the thoroughfare now known as Oarlt(ni-6t<reet, bait 
at that time, end fior centuries pneviousiy, caltled 
Swine G^reen. It was in conneotaon with this place 
that he made hi^ first aibtemipt at poetry. During 
Mrs. Byron's stay on Nottingham she is said to 
have been viedted by an eJdieriy lady of a some- 
what remarkaible temperamient who eobertained the 
notion that, after her course had been run upon the 
earth, she i4iou1)d be tranfihited to the mioon. It 
e.ppsaro that on one or more oecasionB ^ referre<3 
in a tbouglb(tle0B manner to the young lord's lame- 
nie»s whiich greatly provoked him, and oau£>ed ham 
afterwajpds to avoid her when poastble, and to give 
expression to his thoughts in the foUlowing lanefl : — 

la Nottingluuai ooimty th«re Ires at Swine Gr«eo, 
Ae cureed tm. otd lady aa ever wa« oeeo, 
Aod yAima. dbe does die, wliidh I hope will be soon, 
She flnnly belieres sibe wifl go to ifae mooik 

Badley , in hi^ aoDalB of NottdngihamtfJbire, vol. iv. , 
p. 319, memtdons that the oM lady who so greatly 
offended the young Iiord B. was ihe Hon. Mrs. 
Byron, and that she "died at her hlouae, top of 
Pelham-etreet (dow — ^1853— occupied by Mr. Sibley), 
on 13th June, 1822, aged 86 years." Bailey mys 
furtlher that " the old lady in her frequent vi«te to 
Lord Byron's mother took the liberty of finding 
fault wi& ium, and this freedom put him in. a tower- 
m-Z peB«Qon, and goiung one day into the kitcibien he 
told hie nurse, Mary Gray, that he * oould not bear 
the sight of tibat oid womeni,' and broke out into 
the above doggerel which, nmch to bis delight and tihe 
(relief of his passion, he repeated over and over 
agiaiin, laughing and exalting aif though he had 
found in hiimMself a new treeierare." I tbink 
Beoley's aoaouait of thid old lady jb the correct one, 



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and tliot she w«a Byron's great aunt. Moore, 
in hia Mfe of Byron, calfe tihe street "Swan" 
Qpeem, in place of &wtne Qre«n; thitf is very 
etngTjtaar. In reiferenoe to Mr. Rogen», it rfiould ba 
OMiutioDed that his sdbooj. waa in Lower Parliaimefit- 
sta^eet, alboot nwlway between the iM)rtbem and 
lowier eoiKk of Broad-fiftreet and George-street, amd 
it wai* tihere wSere we a«re informed that Byron at- 
tended. We are aim toild that he resided for a 
time in a htooiEie at t>be «outh-w<est comer at the 
top of St. James's-street, abo^ the outside of w«hich, 
at tbe pre«^it time, mnidh ivy 1^ growing, to which 
the tiamie of ^'N^wstead Hou^" has been given, 
jHMKrLbly beoa'use of his omoe occupyiing it. 

In olden tunes there were undofiubtacUy a large 
numiber of swine kept in tihe toiwn, and nxuiMTontf 
comipkints wiere at intervals made of tihe annoy- 
ance caused by them, and iiMtanoea may be found 
reported in tihe "Records," of swine cotes or pig- 
stye^ bein^ 'kept in promiineiDit streets, &c. Cases 
are mentioned of several in HoUikywsbone and obhere 
in Pe'pper-^fcpeet, Cow-lan«, St. James-lane (niow 
street), Bearward-lane, amd other places quite as 
Twiicenbfe Swine Ghrefn, from its name, giv^es the 
idea^tbat it was a place constanttly frequented by 
fiwine, and, aociordBnig to t.be " Records," with much 
truith. In vol. i., p. 161, a.d., 1352. tihere is a re- 
port of the Conncdl that "Ait this Court John del 
$Hȣipu11, of Oxton, wnas engia^ged for the office of 
keeper of the swioe for one year." This may be 
taken as proving that there was undionbt«dily a 
oanwdewible nnmber to overioiok. On various occa- 
s'«ns there were oomplaiints of the want of proper 
supervision and of damage done by the swine. In 
JttW. 1641. Robbert Kiing is oomiplaiined of and 
fined Idd. " for keeping has swine in the streete to 
the •(rreate amnyamoe of his neoiighbodKs." In vol. v., 
p. 136, tJhere is a cJbargie against "Anne Hind<e, 
widdow, for willfoflT puttan^^ hire swyne in+o Saint 
M?»ipie'j» Ohurdbe Yardc, wWdh die^ierves a preat 
pnnrshmtent : " fined 6d.-^eqniv«»knt to 4s. ^^)t more 
in recent timefli 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM 

ITS STEEETS. PEOPLE. &c. 



xvm. 

In " The Recoa^," Vol. 4, p. 190, a.d. 1579, the 
Miokletom Jury in ih«ir presentment or report, 
say, "We desyaf yone Mauater Mayore and out 
brethren thatt Edward Wbereon may keype tlie 
townee kaye (oows) bym selfe, and tbatt Oklande 
and Looklaye niaye keype tbe Swyne." Tbey also 
«ay, ** We deayar youe Mai<«ter Mayore Uiat n/) man 
lAvall let an«y Swyne go a brode in tbe towne or in 
tlie felde butt onley a fore they swenande (Swyne- 
herd^ or ell«8 to pay 4d. for every defol-te." In 
vol. 4, p. 354, A.D. 1617, see extrocto as foliowe 
from the minutes of the Town Council (October 
31), "Ytt is agreed by thi« compoaiy tiiatt Maister 
Maior i^iall have 403. payd him from the towne for 
thatt he« paled to Hancocke fyue yeares agone for 
a howse at Fislliergate end ; and herewith he is con- 
tented : and the towne to dispose of ytt att theire 
pleasure. And the Swyneheard thatt nowe ^ to 
have ytt att 408. rent soe long as hee carryeth him- 
self e honestly in bis place as shall be fittinge, or 
elU to avoyed att a quarters wanninge." The 4d. 
mentioned above would now represent abowt three 
shillings. 

In 1408 Nicholas Swineherd is charged with an 
aflfray and bloodshed upon Gilbert (the) Carter of 
John Fletcher with a gad, ma<le unjustly and 
against the peace. Therefore he is in me«rey : — 
(fined) 6d. In "The Records." vol. 3, p. 91, a.d. 
1504, that tbe "Soreity of John Robinson, swioe- 
herd, for well executing his office this year, &c., is 
Richard Esott, litster, sworn" (Litster or Lytster, 
a dyer). In a preeentmeot of the Mickletom Jury, 
1575. tb«6y sey, "We request that their may be a 
swiuieheard." At that time the office doubt'ess was 
vacant. In 1646 all swine were ordered to b? kept 
up for fear of infection," on paine of 12d. apiece 
pinebippe" (if placed in pinfold). In Vo!. 5, p. 
383, A.D. 1693, it was "Ordered that such of the 
oouncel as shall thinke fitt, to informe themselves of 
a fitt place for gathriag the swyne together instead 
of tbe place in the Swyne-Greeoe, and give their 
opinions therein the next hall." This undeniably 
I^oves that the rilaoe was properly named, and the 
chief spot in the town lor the «wu)e, "1678, 



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Serpteim[b«T l(>--iM«iiK>randum--4iii8 ^ a home 
wit£ wiopsted trimmipga was deldvered to Jehu 
Beooet (?) whom thus coimoell have seti^ed in the 
office of Common Swyneheard daring the pleoauje 
of thU cooncell." The Mickletorne Jury in their 
presentment of 1593, May 11th, say, "We request 
you Maister Mavor, that theare may be sum man 
to pin (put in the pinfold) the swyne that nines a 
brod before the swineard goeth and afbear." In 
1606, October 2, Vol. 4, p. .277, the Jury present 
and request yat swyne be better iokid to for they 
never ly out of the streets." In 1620, p. 371, the 
Jury say, '* We present Thomas Jorden for keepinge 
a tfwine cotte (pvgoty) iin t(he Womano Markett (the 
poultry) veirie noysome to the msirkett and pas- 
sengers." Fined de. 4d. ; equal to about SOs. in 
recent tiimee. From t^he insitcmces mentioned it 
will be plainly seen tlhat swynecotes or pigstys 
were not conmied to the more ordinaiy streets of 
the town, but more or less to all parts. 

The next place to be considered will be Oow-lane, 
now dinnbw-fitreet. This is a road which is fre- 
qnetntily mantioned in the '* Records," tihoiigh in 
times long passed it may easily be pereedived from 
it as much as most places in what an objectionable 
atobe the streets ol the town were allowed to re- 
okain MS oompaarad, fortuinately, with their present 
stat«. The first meotion I find of it is in the 
"Records," Vo. I., p. 368, jl.d. 1297-8. The latter 
figures proye that tney were connected with some- 
thing oeoiMTiing in the first three months of the 
yesff, for with our ancestors, until several centuries 
after the date memtiooed, their years ended on 
Lady Day, the 25th, or Mlairdi 31st, and not on 
the 31^t of December, as with ourselyes. At the 
da;te given we are infoirmed that there was a 
** Grant by Thomas le Peyntour, of Nottfingbam, to 
WiUiam de le OLay, of Nottingibain, aind Matilda, hi« 
wife, of a messuage lying in Koulane, betweeo the 
l^nd of Hugh le Peatour, cleik, on the north, and 
the land of Peter Morowode on the sooth. Wit- 
nesses, Domifnus Michael Auritfaiber, Mayor ; Waiter 
de Thornton aind Hug^ de Woloston, bailiffs; and 
tlhdrteetn others." Respecting the name giyen to the 
"h/Sew^, it is the Latin term for " CkT.dsini'th," and 
dunxi^ his mayoralty it is inbetresting to trace the 
entn^ matle respectinig him in other grants, &o. 
In 1281, when not in office as Mayor, he is tenned 
**Mkhrj€.l th? Go!ldt.mnth (Aurifaber)," which is re- 
peated during the same year. In 1284, in the 
tlran*»f-er to htn»ellf of rent or pro|)e(rty, there is ai4 



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^try of MkafaBMl ie Orfev^ete, <yr OrfaiTre, an old 
French ivx>rd for Goldfimoitb. Dazing, or oloae to, 
(Uia yanod naonecl tbero -wiwe two otben bayizig 
siuiilar varoeinefl att<achad, namely Robert and 
Tbiomas, and I hme bat lititile dodbt tlui tbey wcce 
bi\>thieirs, and tJvit tbeir propar naone was Gos, for 
it waa from Robert Gos, or le Orfevera, or le Anri- 
faber, or the Goddamitb, that tibe name of Grooee- 
gate is really derived, as pneviously noticed. Re- 
spectiiD^ llKmiASj in one oaae be ia named te 
Oifevre, and in anotiber Aunfaber. 

In 1309-10, Vol. L, ** Record*," p. 376, there is 
registered a ** Grant from Anabilla de Beaton and 
Cecily de Beston, dau^jbtexs of Wiliam de Bestoo, 
of Xottiingbiim, to Rolpib Peverwicke of a plot of 
land in tbe Cooikne near bis tenement. Witoeases, 
John Kyt(te, Mayor; William de Qrapphiin and 
Robert le Orfevere, baiJdfEa; and three cmm.** On 
p. 384, A.D. 1323, Deoember 14di, there wsm a 
** Grant from Robert de Bronoeby, of Nottingham, 
to Wik'iam de Mekisbnrg, of Nottingham, of a 
cefftein p-ot of land in the Oomlane. WBtoesaee, 
Robert iDgrsm, Mayor ; William de Orof^uU (deA) 
and Elias Balle, baiCiffs ; and five otbere." Here 
ample evidence that Ooulane, or OowLaoe, or Gnm- 
ber-Mi'eet is one oi the very old thorouiriifarefl of 
Notitingham, aoid that it had reeily retainedits name 
during the course of many centurkes until about 
1812, when a change was made. At thai date the 
lane was very najrow at the Long-row end for a 
Aort ddBtonoe, tbougfa it widened gradually until 
towards the noiith emd, -when a poition of it waa 
probably oipproaGhdnig its pnesent widibh. It haa 
been aadd that the Dukei of NewoacAle gavo a strip 
of land 16 tfeet broad on the eacibem etdie for the 
purposB of increfeumng the spaoe, aind, taking Deiering'e 
map aa a guide, I am quite willing to beliievo that 
at kiaflt 9Uoh an oddSition irould Ihe required at the 
souith end to inareae» itb to the pneaenit widlth, but 
4>owardiB the opposLte end I coneiider that Ifttle or 
ootbdng would be i^udred to voBka it what it 
now is. 

At the Long-row end the lane appears to have 
been much the same in width, as many of my 
elder fellow-citizens will remember to have been the 
case with the bottom of Sheep- lane before the for- 
mation of Market-street, and wiiere it waa impossible 
for two vehicles to pass each other. It may have 
been in consequence of the pfift of the land men- 
tioned that the new road waa called dumber-street. 



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163 

Tbe more a^ persons belonging to the city, or 
many oi them, wiU remember the old " White Lion 
Hotel " as it was more than sixty years since, stand- 
ing back a dustance from the street. A rece«B of a 
similar kind is shoiwn by Deering on his map ap- 
proaohing 160 years since. At that date only about 
two-thirds of the Eastern side of Cow-lane, com- 
mencing at the Long-row end, was built upon. It 
was then possible for anyone to walk from nearly 
opposite the spot in Cow-lane where the top end 
of Maypole-yard now enters it, to go by Backside 
(Parliament-street| to Broad-lane (now Broad-street) 
and then to walk via Swine Green (now Carlton- 
street) without passing one house on the right hand, 
and even in Oarlton-street there were no buildings 
for probably from twenty-five to thirty yards, or 
near to where the lower part of the GJeorgje Hotel 
now readies. Three small fields at that time and 
apparently aome gardens with many large trees gow- 
ing on the land, were included in the space men- 
tioned. 

In some respects Cow-lane is comparable to Bar- 
gate (now called Ohapel-bar). The town wall, after 
coming down by Postern-street and Butt Dyke (Park 
row), crossed Bar-gate and Toll House-hill and then 
went l^ Pariianaent-street past the end of Cow-lane 
(Clumber-street) by Broad-lane, &c. Cow-lane and 
Bar-gate were alike, in so far as at each place there 
was a bar or entrance gateway through the town 
wall into ^e town ; Cow -lane Bar hemg on the nor- 
thern sride and Chapel Bar on the western side. 
"The Bar" in each case is exclusively applic- 
able to the gateway and not the street or roadway, 
and the present mode of using it i? certainly impro- 
per as regards the western outlet— the old and ex- 
pressive title of the "Bar-gate" being by far the 
be«t. 

In the "Records," vol. L, p. 275, a.d. 1395. the 
Mickletom Jury report "Tbat Isabella de Widinor 
always carries and throws her ordure into the com- 
mon ditch outside the Coulanbarre. to the serious de- 
triment of the town aforesa<id, &c." In March and 
April, A.D. 1379, William de Th«rampton makes 
plaint (first) against Thomas de Bothale and {second) 
against William de Etwall of having broken their 
agreement that they would "help him to repair a 
street called the Cow-lane here in Nottingham until 
ftill making of the said street had been finished." 
&c. Their notion at that date and ours in recent 
times of a V finished" street would undoubtedly 



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io4 

differ exceedingly. In an enrolment ol » Gkant of 
lAiid, Ac., to John TacDesley m vol. U., A.D. 1416, 
mention is made of *' the King's highway that leads 
from Cowbarre to th« Gallows of WhMton. Tliis 
was oooe a hamlet near to the top of Mansfield-road 
(several centuries since) which caused the road oi 
old to be occafiionally called Whiston-gate. On p. 
401, A.D. 1400, a Release is mentioned of a right of 
20s., issuing from a piece of wa«t€ land in Cow-lane. 
&c. Waste land in such a place has a curious sound 
now. In a lease granted in 1476 of yarious properties, 
throe cottages ( !) m Cow-lane are included. This 
is somewhat different to our mod-ein ideas o€ pro- 
pea-ty in that locality. In the Cliambertejn's account 
for 1486 thene is an item on 10th April tha4> tftiree 
men from Bridgfoffd, each with a boiBeand oant, were 
employed two days in cleansing Cow-laoie, for which 
they raceivied one shilling eadi per day for them- 
selves, th-e»ir hocses, and l&eir carts. 

In tibe Chaimbedain's expenditure for 1496 there 

are some very iatereeitiDig particulars of "Re- 

panaoions made upon the hie wye befaiixle 

John Qotham boose ostd ibe hie way 

with the Oowe Barre henaiter apperitfi, 

&c. Riohard Symson was paid 9d. "for maJdng of 

160 kyddes to the same wark.'' This is a maiberiaJ 

that does not now get included in the " formatico " 

ol roads, though it is true we have muoh wood 

paving. One item is as follows : " Paid tihe 20th 

August to William Colswayn and John Adanunn for 

leying of kiddes in the hollowe places of the same 

gates (streets) by the space of a day and a baH, 

eider of them takyng by the day to ntete and hire 

4d.— (total) 12d." Item, "Paid the some tyme to 

3 warkmen for fylLing of graveil that cam from the 

Howes to Cowe lane by the space of a day icheon 

ich one) of them takyng a day 3d." In 1604, Vol. 

p. 320, is aJso an item : " Paid un to John Oreoe 

r clensing tbe dyke withonte the Gotwkne for 4 

ys 16d." This would be the town dyke. On 

1^ 383, A.D. 1541, ttbere aro thr^ items in the 

lamberiam's expenditure as follows : "For 2 0tooi>eK 

osts) for the Cowlane 6d. Item for 4 stoopes 

ofltfi) for the worke in Cowlane 12d. Item for 3 

►wlwB (poles) to make reylez (rails) in Oowkme 

i" These no doubt were used to pro4eot foot 

u»eng>eirs, but also the wails of the budldings, there 

ling without doubt no causeways at that date. 

n page 399, a.d. 1543-4, the Oooebable's Report 

"Present John Smyth, oorden (? Oondwainer — 

oemaJcer) for stopping the Kynge's bye way witfti 



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106 

muk and nniiUe ai Cow koe eod/* ThaB eippearo to 
be ooe of the ooumnomst modes of breakiiig tbe l&w, 
aod aippiicabk to aJU daciseA of people. 

On p. 377, A.D. 1539, tibef<e ie a smgnlaf asMl most 
iMiiceable entiry in the ObMnberlain's aoooant for 
tbai year in the peculiar language of tbe time ; it is 
aa foilcwe : — " Item payd to Ro^b (Rom) for fvying 
of Cavkkjn wban tike moones (monks) of Laotoii 
(LeatoD) sofai^d dayet (soffened death) 2d." Thia i« 
not maoh to pay, thoogh at tbait period it nepme- 
eented tbe equivaieaDit for seyeral hoora' work of a 
labouring man. A few years previoiiwly Paj*liamezit 
bad forbidden all paymente or appeals to tbe Pope, 
aaid in We place tne King (Heiory YIII.) wbls mcLde 
sappen^ bead of tbe Ghun^ and gave many orders, 
but tbeee somie of tbe eoclesiastics refused to carry 
out, and tbe King waA noi the man to allow anyone 
to interfere witb what be had firmly decided should 
be dooe, asid tberefore, as was the oaoe at luuneroiis 
other places in the counitry, some of the monks at 
Lenton Priory were exiecuted. Mr. J. T. (Godfrey's 
History of tbe Paarish aind Priory of Lentom may be 
reconmienclied as givoig an exoelleot account of all 
connected with the pkoe, and will be read with 
mnich interest. Nicholas Heth, or Heyth, appears to 
have been the last pcior, and there is a tracy<faiion that 
be wos hung above the gateway to the Priory aiboot 
the date la«t meotioned. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM; 

ITS STfiEETS. PEOPLE. &c. 



xix. 

IQie intnoducitlion; olf eileoUio tnuniwagrB into dke 
ciitrf ibaa neoeasitalted some cbanges of coobe, and 
yarioofl aikilitioiLs tx> Uie widlh ol aur streets. A 
new thorougiifare has beea made from the lower 
end of Par.iameut-street at an aAgle acix>98 tlie site 
of the old house of oocrrectioti to St. Aim's Well- 
roa<ly from the bottom of which by the side or end 
of the chod^ra buiyuig-gToand, or Foxe*6 Close, ^., 
where Bath-street runs to Sneinton Market, it is 
sadd will also dtimatelj be enia]::9ed to a first-class 
roadfwaj in widdi (60ft. or moK), throng which 
trams may ee«ily run to that side of the town. The 
fioiahing touches are being given to the alterations 
in Milton-street ncceaaitat^d by the addition of 
about seven yards to its width, which has added 
materially to its appearance and uaefulness and 
greatly to the safety of tibe trams and passengers in 
aUowin^ of a much, larger ooirve whep taming out 
of Parfaament -street into MUton-sti^et. 

At the preseDft time, and also hi connection with 
the electric taunus, great changes are being made at 
the 8outh-wie0t or iQ)per end of ParLiament-street> 
neair to or against Deiiby-road, w<here a oomsiderabie 
area witlh many Wiklmcs upon it is in course of 
being cleared at its nartn-eefit ang>. The same as 
with Mi'lton-stneet, this will be the seoood widening 
at that end of Padiament-atfieet which will have 
been carried out in my time. As mentioned in my 
third k'tter, Miiton-street (previousliy caUed Boot- 
lane) was widened in 1829 for the first time, and the 
end of Parliameot -street in 1852 or early in 1853. 
Previous to that date the entraooe to the upper end 
of the street was exceedingly narrow, vehioies not 
being able to pass each other ; in fact if the cauM- 
ways on each side had not been narrowed there 
would have been barely sujBBcieat width for one cart 
to poos. In m^ early reooJdiectdoo, and unti^ about 
1852, the Doliphoo Inn oocupiied the ground recently 
forming a poition of the site of St. Qeorge's Hail. 
The Dolphin, which was a somew^hat old-fashiooetl 
inn, stood back several yards £rom the line of the 
street, and on the enlarged oanisewBy in the fnont 
was one of the old town weUs, from whscli iin fomver 
ages the wBrtler woudd be diaiwti up in a backet, but 



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107 

for a coiDai<ki«ib)e peat of two cetOnneg, jadgine by 
-wihsut occiBTed at other piaoee in the towm, tbeire 
wooiki bd a punw. Whilst engaged wiith this I have 
Gpoken to on old and reapected feUow-cdtizen abo<at 
tb» pump, aiMi foond that he not only KoaeaJoeted 
it quote as tvvII afl n^aeif (being several yeaiB older), 
butt that the work of making and fixing the wood- 
work for this and a number of other pnanpe aboot 
the town had aotnajLy been carried out hv himself 
between fifty and sixty yeans since. No doubt for 
good and sufficient reasons this pomp had been re- 
moved adod the weU fiUed up a few years bef o(re tbe 
DdLpfain wem polled down, and I ha/ve a vivid reool- 
leotion when the exoavatione were made for the 
foundations and sub-storey of St. Georse's Hald of 
looking for aind seein£ the spot which the well for- 
merly occupied, as ^ hali was advanced on the 
front to the lev^I of the stre^. 

Whilst these changes were in progress the town 
anthorities took advantage of the ooca^on to prac- 
tically double the widt2i of the street at the end. 
This, of coaree, was a veay^ greet impcovemeot, and 
it was generally looked upon at the time as having 
been fairly consiidered and oanrLed out, for there was 
proportionately to its size but litt\e traffic in the 
street, though it was theoi, even as in some didme 
it has been of late, a handy plaoe on market and fair 
days for ocmrier's oaits and other conveyances to 
find a resting-pkbce for a few hours. Thectg may 
ppobaibliy be some interference with this arrange- 
ment when electric treans run throo^ tihis street 
reguiarly. The doubling of the width of the street 
end was proportionately great, and has acted reason- 
ably w&jH since, or for most part of the time, but 
the present ohange will be enormous, and it ha« 
tToat appearance to those wiho for three score years 
or more had become accustomed to the former state 
oif affadro. As an old inhabitant of the locality, 
there is, perhaps, a pointl may suggest for covisiidero- 
tion whidh some may not have tibougibt- of. In past 
years there have been many runaway horses going 
dowtQ the hi!il, and in meanly all cases the course 
taken was down Oba(pel-bar. In a number of these 
it was on a market (ky, and mostly Satorday, wttich 
was very undesirable and mooh more liable to cause 
damage ; bat wiitii the long rounding off of the north- 
east comer of Parliaroent-street it may perhaps 
allow of an alternative course for runaways, and, 
pooBibly, lees liability of dama^. I have a reiootiec- 
tion of a good-siased pony running away down Derby- 
road from forty to fifty years since, and that it 
juBD^d tifaoxw^ a narsow window in the liquor shop 



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108 

now oooapi«d by Mr. HickUag aod facaog v^ Dedbj- 
road. It wa0 aaid to h&Te gone compSbtely ofrer the 
counter and of the back of aomeone wbo moat for- 
tiMMitely baDpeoed to be bending down between the 
counter and the w«U, aod I believe, tboegh nuoat 
incredi!b)e, that bot little furtiber diunage was done, 
yet if the street had then been a8 wide as it is ex- 
pected to be and a« well rounded off at tbe end, the 
pony peiiiapa migtbt have Micoeeded in turning 
down it. 

The **Date Book" tells us that St. George's Hall 
was opened on the 16th May, 1864, "by a concert, 
in whi-ch Mr. and Madam Weiss, Mr. Lockey (re- 
oenblydead), Madame Arabella Goddajd, aod o4her 
eminent artistes took part. The pnxeedA were deroted 
to the fund in aid of the families of soldiers serving 
in the Ruiasian war." This was deolared <m the 
28th March previously. These cincumetances are 
thoroughly in my recollection, and also that during 
the eneotdon of the ball on the 26th January, 1854 
(wintw) there was a heavy thunderstorm with hail 
and rain in the day-time, when a piece of wood was 
blown from the top which killed a girl a0 she was 
p«u»aiti^ Thend was also the Little l^rhouse called 
the Hut. It wa4 one of the oldect houses in that 
part of the town, and when bnilt the ground geoe- 
ra|4y in the near neighbourhood outside of the Bar 
and town walU was open and called the waste. 
Therefore as such it would belong to the Liord of 
the Manor, and fortunately as representing the town 
and Corponution this woujd, I expect, be the Mayor 
for the time being. It was in this way, I believe, 
that the Corporation acquired so great a portion of 
the land on Derby-road and the southern side and 
iQi|per end of WoUaton-street. Seven^ years since 
a Mr. Parr lived in the little house -since called 
"Ihe Hut." He was in comrfortable oircuanstanoes 
and one of the very few in the town who at that 
time removed fiumiture, &c., &c. He did not live 
long afterwards, nor his wile. She was frequently 
inebriaited, and in one of hed* drunken boots, when 
alone, fell ufpon the fire and to some extent her body 
was consoDed. The house was afterwards taken by 
a Mr. Henson, who commenced bnfiiness there as a 
barber, and fcr a number of years he appeared to 
carry on a proaperous twfcde, but possabiy he did 
too well, and beconmig unsteady, bis customers left 
lum to a kuTffe degree, and be made the plaoe into a 
beeihouse, wich it remained until recently. 

When outside of ParVanMit-eitroet at the Derby- 
roiad end and pamng westwaaidB towBcds Toil-street, 
there i« a nocrow way caUed Pctnton or Poynton* 



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109 

fltreet. I can r^fnember at kast ImH a oentary sincd 
woDdenng bow itt acqitired it« name, but I be- 
liere, as in a number of odiesr cases, the Borough 
Recxyrdfi vmU aid ns ioi cocnjuff to a satieifaiotory eon- 
cluAosi in this also. Many of tbe gtpeate, knee kc., 
bsbTQ in tlM pa«t derlTi&d tbeir nomee from old 
famiHee in tbe to-wn, and <me oi ihem is Fointon or 
FoTntoo-street, for eoich. form wa« n^ed, though I 
consider tbe latter mode of spelling it to be pre- 
ferabk, and from Tv^iat may be gathered in the Re- 
cords I belieye iJbem to have been owneira of pro- 
perty, but judging of tlj«tn from vairious crrcum- 
8tanc«6 wbkih caused seycrol of tiie family atdifiEeirent 
dates to have their names brought befoire tibe public 
I have but little admiiration for them. Hie first 
mention is in 1575 by the MickkiUni Juiy, who 
soy: — "We present Randall Podantoffi for laying 
manure at Ins yard end on tbe backside 6d." 
(fine). In 1619 tbe constebles " preaent Wedo Poyn- 
ton for a skould/' and ^^ was " ducked." In 1^6, 
June 19, Jobn Poynton, who appeaTS to have been 
elected upon tbe Town CJouocil but did not afctend, 
was summoned to attend, buit again refused oir 
faaied. and at tbe kutter xxurt of a resolution tbe 
Oouncil say — " Ytt is therefore ordered that tbe said 
Jobn Poynton shall pay to tbe vse of tbe Ooqwra- 
cion 6s. 8d. (tbis would probalbly represent £2 lOs. 
to £3 at Obe preseini time), and tben bereaiftetr to be 
dismissed from tbe said place and some other honest 
Commoner to be elected in bis place." In a note 
we are told that " Nicholas Collton was elected and 
sworn Counsellor in bis place, June 21, 1626." In 
July, 1643, Randle Poynton is mentioned as living 
on tibe Long-row, aJnd payin«r as assessment of 10s. 
in connection witb tbe Oivil War. In 1688, October, 
tSiere is a repoirt against "Widdow Poynton for a 
dunfrbill one (on) tbe backside," and for tbos fiA>e was 
fined 6d. It is a namie I have seldom beaid of else- 
where, but no doubt tbe street derived its title from 
Hvis family. 

The far end ol Poynton -street, where it reaches 
wbot was oalldd Back-lane in my youn<^ 
days (but now WoJlaton-street), was at tbat 
time namod MiU-eitreeit, tboogh I have 
much fear tbait it has been cban^^, for 
tbe name was a reminder ol what is saad to have 
once been situated in that street, and that is tbe 
first spinning mill in Nottingham. I shall be very 
glad if my fea-rs prove to ^ groundless, though I 
have tibe noi4on that when parsing a year or so since 
I saw » fnesb name afilxed, and if so tbe knoiwledge 



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no 

ganerally be lost. Of couree, it must be nDdefBtood 
tktsA such milk oi a cenUuy and more «noe wewe 
not compambfe to the pr^eeait ones. 

I DOW wish to bring ucd^ir notice a subject not 
only applioable to NoMicgbam, but aleo to tbe ooan- 
try generally. Severai oentnries arnce tfeere were 
bat tew opportnmtiefi of finding a supply of 8ait4>etre 
ocmpeired wutih what we at present possess, and by 
way oi enalbling it to be obtained a stringefit kuw 
was passed and powera ffiveia to certain indflyidaads. 
See The Recotds, vol. 4, p. 218, a.d. 1588. In a 
note we are toM tbcut saOtpetre, befome tlio im-pocta- 
tion of Indian nitre, was made from eorth saturajted 
witih animaJ matter. Tbe saltpetire nten had patents 
empofwetrvng them to bv^eak opeai aH prenMses and to 
dig up tibe floors of all stalMee, Jwaagbter-bKrases, 
&c., in searcb of ecurtih yiekDing saltpetre. Tliis 
power tiiey frequeotiy abused. See R. E. ChesteiB 
Waters, Pariflih Registers in England, 1883, p. 65. 
Tliat the oooduct of these saltpeiti« mai wm not 
above reiproach is pivml by an entry on tbe saane 
page from wtiich tfoe extract is given, where one of 
thOTi named Jofiin Prestiwyeg<e is fined 5s. (equal to 
about 508. now) " for walkinff in tlio etriet^es at un- 
lawful times and mdsvsinge t£ie Queine's anibiecttes.*' 
It wias undoubtedly .very undesurable to have any 
powea* vested in men of this class. On p. 226, a.d. 
1589, we find the following in the Ohaonbeirlafln'e 
account — *' G-iven to two salt peiter men for easinge 
the towne of ccurriage to goe to Mannsfield 28." From 
this it would appesbr tftiat the towns, &c., had to bear 
some of the expenses of thetkr carnage if not all. 
In the same year 28. is given to John Vnet, a Queen's 
messenger, for hrinffing a pnoGiamaittiion reapecting ib^ 
"sakt peter men.' 'Hte Town Council in many 
instances appear to have enforoed their decdsoons 
with a high hand, but prudence aippeams to have 
caused them to be much more oonsidemte with 
saltpetre men. Respecting; crtrangers about thneo 
centuniies back, the cost of being made a burgees was 
£10— yet in 1638, and, as it appears, almost Hke a 
bribe, they agreed that "William Bnrrowas, the 
sakepeeter man, eOial] be made burgees without 
payinge anie thinge to the towne savinge 6s. 8d. and 
the other smaiH fees usually paied," Ac. For this 
BurnyWBs agreed with them both for himself and 
othere that tihall succeed him for four years next 
ensuing to free the toiwn and townsmen from all 
dhaingcii and expenses toochkigtheaalte-peKter wodai 
in kading Uquoro or any other moteriads wlu^tBor^, 



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HI 

aod the tofwne to geve bian 40b. 
(MidiaflajiuuB next). TotiUiiWiUM ~ 
and was awoiiM bn 
pany. 

la tke ontinairy ppepeiro.tioii of com for tbe matrket 
it mTOt uDdergo tbe prooeas of wmnowaog, and the 
Borougb Reocmk may probajbly aasiet vm in deoodkng 
bow tfaaft word was acquired or becaiDoe pad:^t of tbe 
EngJnflh kngoage. In vol. 4, p. 190, a.d. 1579, tbe 
MickltertoiQ Jujy pretsented or recommended "tibatt 
no ixkan flball wyndo aney oomo m tibe 0tireitt«B, for 
bey tbaft is talsen so offending ^haiU pay Ss. 4d." 
Tbifl wiQ give ufi a notion of wbait was oocomring in 
the town between tbree and fo«r bandred yeairs 
since. In a note we are informed tba/t "Tbis pre- 
sentmetit refers to tbe aiM^ient cuBtom of winoowing 
com, whicii consisted of letting the com fadl from 
an upper door or window to tbe ground and tmsbing 
to tibe wind to wiinnow tbe cbaS.** At page 264, 
A.D. 1603, tbe Miokletowne Jury present or report 
"Mafieter SprentaJl for windowing in tbe lanne 
going from tbe Townes Hall to tbe Marcb and leving 
it very fowl " ; 6d. fine, equal to fotur or Gt^ sbnEings 
in iib& present day. In 1605 tbe Constables say— 
" We do present Robert Sherwin for windowing and 
annoying tbe atrett witb tht cbaflf, 2s." (fioe). Tins 
would w nearly equal to a soverign in tioA present 
day. There is, I believe, but littJie doubt thatt thiis 
Robert Sherwin was a member of the fantfly fpom 
wlKnn the Sbecrwins, late of Bramcote and Harlaxton, 
are descended. Robert Sherwiin was one of the 
town ObamWlanna m 1600-1 ; in 1602-3 one of the 
l^eriffs ; in 1615 he w«« elected one of tl»e Ooaroners ; 
and in 1623-24 be was chosen as Mayor. In 1625-26 
be became an AldermaTi. He was Mayor on two 
other ocoasfions — namely, in 1630-31 and 1637-38, in 
w4uch yeeA* a John Sherwin is ment>icned as having 
a seat in the Conncil. He miight possibly have been 
a sen of Robert Sherwin 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM 

ITS STREETS, PEOPLE. &c. 



XX. 

Sir, — Id this artide I propose to give flom« aMen- 
tioQ to a street wbieh, thoiig^ not a throog 
thorougblafre, is frequently meDtiooed in the recordii 
of the paflt> a-'od wose modem name is Hounds- 
gate; tois will include some refereooe to Spacie]' 
row, together with what is now oaUed St. Nidkolas'- 
8ti>«t, aod alM to St. Pater's-aquare, St. Peteir'e- 
gate, &c., &c., though to a large extent this will 
be in relatioo to the old system of drainage. 

The first or earliest ref^noe to this street whdcih 
I find in the "Records" is in Vol. I., p. 385, a.d. 
1325, when a grant is registered from AgDes, relict 
of John \e Piper, of Nottingham, to Ro^rt, son of 
William Gastel-eyn, of Nott'mghAin, of a messuase 
in Hundegate, rendering tthereaor tempence annually 
4k> the MtuM of the Blessed Marv in the Cburoh of 
Saint Nicholas. Witneasee: William le Cupp<?r, 
Mayor; Rajph le Taveroer and John jc Cupper, 
baiUffs; avkd &ve otheirs. There is little doubt 
that tbis 0^ atce«t to a laoge degree has held its 
name with but amall propoationate change for eix 
hundred yeans, aod proibably longer. In 4ihe past 
its titfle has token many fonns, such as HaiDgaf^.e, 
Hundlgate, Hundegate, Hujiddiagate, Hondgate, Hon 
Qate, Hoqgat, and *by 1669 it bad become so far 
modernised a« to l:e caKed Howndgate. Yet in 
1687 the autihorities, in a repoit of the Middetome 
Juiy, so far re<verted from thedr former mode ol 
apeliinig tA>e name «« to onoe snore entitle it Hun- 
gate. Thw is probably as late an inMauce a« can 
be found of it in the mth aind last volume of tbe 
" Boroitgh Reooi^iB ** wlhich has been issued. In all 
casKs, as I believe iu (dbe year 1700 and before, 
4bouglh probably aAso later, tibe iMume of the street 
appears to hsuve been in the einigala^ num'oer, though 
in after yeaow it was dianged to tihe plufal. The 
foroe of eircuanatianca» appears to hatve (tiui»ed this 
dhangie, and Ikiie or nodung to have been oone by 
rttoe town to forward or retwd it. 

Tbe uppor end of tbe street is, as manv w-^j know. 
near to tbe Oastle entraooe, and traifttion is re- 
posted to hanre sood tihat tbe King's 1iou:id« we>re 
kept in it for many years, ready far use in Sher- 
-vrood Foreh:t, and that Kxme of his doga of another 



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115 

0O(t W€r6 h&pt in Slpaoiel-row. Tliere '» uo doubt 
that this alaa is aoi oM Dame. In Vol. IT., p. 447, 
of tlie ** ReoocKli '* veietKtice 10 made to it in a d. 
1463 as "SpaonyeCl Steete." One hnndred and sixty 
years since tbe street connecting Hounds Gkvte and 
Castlie Gate wa« called Jew-laaM, and tius is what 
Deerinc calk.it on Ins map, thougih for many years 
mtoce mat tiooe it has been kncwn as St. Nicholas- 
street. In Vol. II.^ p. 441, memition i« madie oif 
Jew-lane as eady as a.d. 1411, Jnkne in 1414, and 
JiMdane in 1443. It is very probaible that aome ai 
that oataonoiity hcud i^e^akkd in or near to it. 

Tbe notioDA of our ancestors three or four buDdred 
years sinoe resjpectiiD^ tlbe maJdDjg^ and repairuig of 
Toadh were of the mosit primitave chfeMracter. I 
tbimk it onijjbt widi our modem idieas of rocul-making 
be saifd of tbem ttbat tbey reaJly ne^er 
did muloo a road. There does not ap- 
pear to have ever been cny iMtterial usdl 
ivi^idh was necessary to foim a reel foundation for a 
road. It is troe that they pat gorse or o4lber kidds 
in the hoUows on many occasions to fill them np, 
and tbeo covered it over with soil. It was most 
fortunate for them that as compared with onrselves 
there was so little heavy traffic, though it is very 
lakeJy this was not their opinion at the time. We 
certainly have sTgreait advantage over them in being 
albte to compare oar ntach more perfected system 
with their mo«t elementary mode, and I think tbs 
Domber most be few who would be inclined to coo- 
tvnue the old system. We can easily perceive the 
great benefits to all wihidh aiPe dedved from good 
roads, but respecting our ancestors I think I shall be 
withdn the bounds of truth in staging that tbev did 
not know what a really good road was, and there- 
fore were unable to oompare one with their own. 
In the Obamherlain's account for 1573 tfaeire is an 
item r»pectin^ a lane whkh had been m^sded (?) 
as follows : *' For leying of gorse in tbe lane by the 
Piaiy Olose and coveryng of yt wyth earth.** I 
think most will say that as a fact that lane was not 
rea39y mended, whatever may have been iht opinion 
of our ancestors. To a considemble extent I have 
explained the condition of the roads fn and near the 
town seveiml centuries artnce. This state of things 
was continued rn the rural districts to times far 
mot>e recent than many will imagine, and even into 
tbe previous century. 

In my younger days when in the country I have 
freqiKCtly spoken wiHh aged farmera and ctber 
peo|)tle about the past, ^ stat^ of the roads, ^c, 



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114 

and in moat caaes tine infonnaitnon conrejed wm to 
tihe effect that during a portion of the 'wniter seemoo. 
it was tulmost impossible to ^et about with a oon- 
veyaiDw, and if, as it frequently happened, tli^y ran 
short of flouiT, &c., for houM'hold purposes I have 
often heard them aay that they put some com in a 
bag and were obliged to put it acroca the back of a 
horse and g<et to and froon the mail as well a« they 
could, for occaaM>DaIly they would have to go aeveraJ 
mike to reach it. In the Borough Reports, V<^. 4, 
p. 188, 1579, the Mickletom Jury report a roa^dway 
ae being in an undesiira.blie oondition, and " hit is 80 
deepe-womiB that hitt dotibe ovarthrow packe 
homsee." Thi« is uaeful a: asserting the me of pe<ck 
haP8«8 325 years aince, and that th^ were required 
because at sotne places and seasooB veihickfl wefe un- 
usable and inappropriate. The Jury akio report the 
want of "fltepping-stonea to be sett between Frear 
Poole and gaynatt, Gene Bryggea." The case just 
n^ntioined is an apt illuatiration of the staite of the 
roads at the time, but as it appears to have been on 
London -road — and tiberefore away from the centre of 
the town I will give a case respecting the road at 
tIhe top of List-er-gate and between tfoe end* of 
Oastje Gaite and Low-pavevnenit in A.t>. 1607 (dhere 
was no An>ert -street until about ^W) years laber), 
when tihe Micklfetom Jury Report or Present " Yat 
the stepping stooies near Jan>e« Perrie's d^or over 
t^ wadn (wagon) way from Oaflptle €ktt to tihe Loo 
Pavment be mended. Ordered that it be done. 

Li reading such a report as tibis the thought ooines 
to our mind that the remedy might peibaips prove 
to be as bed or worse than tbe disease. In oar time 
the quiestion would be about tlbe possnbiHty of con- 
tnuuing the traffic of the town if large steppiflog 
stones weire allowed to remaiin as fixtures 
across some of the throngest piaoes in our barest 
sfareeitB. Deeiring shows them at the top of OhapeJ- 
bar and end of Parliament-street, also at the 
end of Fidner-gate, &c. It mnst have been a trouWe- 
sofne time for dirivens on a dark night to steer quite 
dear of them, though with such poorly-kept streets, 
together with the very nunterous dung heaps, &c., 
&c., thepe would not from choice, I thank, be many 
who drove out when it was dairk. In addition to 
these most objectionable matters there were also in 
nutny streets and places large open drains to contend 
vpiith when out at night, and probably one of the 
worst places in the town in that rei^pect was St. 
PefterVsquame, itncXuding the streets running into it. 
It is reepectii^ thds p&rt with Oastite-gatie, Lyster- 
gate, &€., alxut which for a sboci tune I dtesuie to 



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115 

malDe some renMutlui. 

In olden times ovr anoeakoffs xmed the wocd 
**ixfwf^,** wbich to ibem jBOggested tike idea of a 
omail straam, and it is in oonatant wpo for sereral 
oentointai. fVom what we are told on p. 453, tcL 
TV., it has been a name for a broo>k, bat in most 
of the cases mentioned in The Records it means an 
open sewer or draiin. It is very probable that "tlhe 
roiw«ll" became the eqmyaleot for a sew«r in the 
oooreie of a coap&e of oentuiies, and pemaaued so a 
long time, thoogh gmduaUj diaeMppeanng or be- 
connng obmAelke. Yet its vm had some effect, em 
will be 0een Tdieane I nveDtion art the oommeooemeiit 
of my thnd letter a Mr. RoiweU, who wtm a 
meohattcal engineer, of Deihy-nMid. I have at the 
p a< c e cut no i«eooUection of ever beanng of snch a 
name being applied to any other person. Comonenc- 
ing mth St. Peber^A^oeire and the stneetB in or 
ns&r to it a report or pnesentmeot is mede tm fol- 
kwB: — "We present tlbe CSiamhuiieyns that ye 
Biyg in Hnngaibe end is not made and yat the 
pamentes is not mended in many pbyoes of the 
towne.*' Thns is exoeileot evidence of the un- 
deoirahle state of the streets at that period, a.d. 
1515, though modem notions wonld, I think, aay 
that the oir^ needed much moc^ secions considera- 
tnon than it had i^oeived. We do not want nor 
wiU we now have except by compaMon soch oh- 
stroctions in the Att^eets of the town, though from 
what nuy be loand in The Becofds respecting the 
danger of oorasBing St. Peter'^^iiaiPe, &c., in the 
nig^t time there can be no denying that 
it was tugh time "sontething" was done. The 
MTx^kktorae Jnry in voil. iv., p. 216 " Report and 
piesent the RowUl in Hxmegate (1587) end, to have 
a nuyle sett up that people take no hoote of it in 
Wynter nyffhtes." In 1617 there is an item re- 
specting "me mendinge of the roweU near Saant 
Peter's Chnrch." 

In aome presentments at the Sessions, July 19, 
1630, is the foUowiog : " We desire yat the waye in 
Hungate may be maided yat the'r may be poBsage 
to carry ye dead oorpes to the CSharche, and allfloe 
caimidgSBs in ve winter tyme." In 1632 10s. was 
paid " for half a thousand ol bricks for the RoweU 
at Hungate." At the same time, Robert Baker 
was paid 5e. for three stoops (posts) in Hungate. 
In 1640 the Mickletom Jury, vol. v., say: "We 
reqtiest that there may be a brigse o«er the RoweU 
in Lister-gate." Am being closely connected with 
the subject spoken of, I wm aJso ^ve a cop^ of i^ 



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U6 

report mads 1641, July 19, which mje: "We n- 
queBt tbat tbe bye wayes agBoiMit Saint Joiie^« 
(Jofan's) may be repored for wrerall onttie hatii ( !) 
been in peai danger of epoylmg, anl one honw had 
rue leg brofce with tbe overthrow of a cart." In 
1701 tbe "Chamberlains were aathorieed 
to arch over the Rowell ai the w«rt end of 
Saint Peter's CSrarch yard, aod kveil tbe ground 
over the game and tbepenborota in such a maimer 
a« they vhnli thmk propper." This wm very likely 
the begrnmng of tbe end, but several effort* were 
afterwards required before all could be completed, 
and the square be said to be even moderately 
finished. I am surpiieed to find that in oldeo 
thnes DO naone appears to have been appbed to the 
open ^noe now seoeraUy known by us a« St. 
Peter's-wiuare, and think this i« fully proved by 
Deering*8 mode of describing it as adopted on 
page 9. There had been many repairs carried out 
on th is ground about that period, and after re- 
ferring to two other markets, he says : " Over and 
above all these markets a Monday market w«« 
lately (1742) endeavoured to be estaWarfwd on a 

Siece of waste ground (? !) between the west of 
t. Peter's Church yard, Wheel«rj]rate and Hound- 
gate, which attempt, though it did not answer Ihe 
end because tbe country people would not take to 
it, yet has proved an odvioatage to the town, for 
tlufl place, which is in the heart of the town, was 
a mere sink before and dangenras to pass, especially 
in the night, is now made good and as well paved 
as any part of Nottingham." Our notions of 
"waste ground" mny probaWy differ with those 
of our ancestoie. 

In my early days I have a full remembranoe of 
seeing in St. Peter's-square the stone Obeiiric or 
Pillar which, though c^ no remaikable age, bad 
stood there probably from 60 to 70 years. When 
Deering died about 1750 there was a small struc- 
ture in the square under which, he tells^us, the 
town fire-engines were kept, so this, of course, had 
been cleared away. As an open i^pace St. Petw's- 
square has within the memoiy of many of the older 
iimabitants of the city been entirely altered in ap- 
pearance, and, as a fact, much enlarged ; two 
narrow outlets — ^Wheel<?r-gate and St. Peter^s-gate — 
have been nuade into finst-ciass streets. In Albert- 
c^eet we have a comparatively new and wide out- 
let on that side. Then a good slice was taken from 
the west side of the churchyard and added to the 
square. In appearance, and assisted by the ends 
of the wide streets runnmg into it and the piece 



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m 

added, I conaid^r tJiat the square looks almost 
doul^ie its former size of 68 years siiice. The stome 
Obelisk waa rcoKxved m 183o ; it stood upoo arches, 
and wha* I may truly oaU tihe " Old RoweM " could 
fffcill be seen flowing under it, for it almost appeared 
sm though our ancestors would not ooofient to be 
quite separated from their old open sewer. For 
some time the Obelisk had been iUujninated, and 
therefore assisted in lighting the square at night. 
Twenty-five years since I was both amused and 
interested hy the receipt of a letter from a valued 
old friend in OamJbridgeehire, who left the town 
abottt 1826, in which he fully inferred that the 
Obedisk was still staodsimg, and wiedied for informa- 
tion (1877). He had frequently been in the town 
since 1836, when it was removed, but does not 
appear to have gone by tihe square to notice its 
aibsenoe, or to have heard of its reanoval. Speaking 
from nvesnory, I have the impreesiooi thai it was 
eDoirded by an iron fence. 

I have o^^en wondered in whiit manner our ances- 
tors oarried the drainage of the town from Wheeler- 
gate or Hounds-gate umder the old condition* to 
Liaber-gate. Was it underj^ond by Ohuroh-lane, 
or did they ckim any right to follow the natural 
outf aH and oat through the buildings where Albert- 
streeli is now? In 1640 the MwMetom Jury re- 
qoeflt that there may be a bridge over the Roweil 
in Lister^gcite. This soonde odd to those living 
in rocenfe timee, end would undoubtedly be objected 
to by mamy, or protoabiy aJl, aa being enftarely un- 
suitable. On an oocasdon or two I have read oif 
the objectiotuible state of lower Lister-gate and the 
streets neaor, and seen it stated that the roads even 
at the bottom of that street were marshy and very 
bad. In a number of cases camanencing more than 
six hundred years since St. Peter's-gate is referred 
to in the Title Deeds or graaits of property as " a 
lane leading to St. PetePs Church," the earliest 
pnAwUy dating back to 1286-90. 

In Vol. I., p. 281, A.D. 1395, the Mickletome 
Jury report, and "say that Thomas Fox, 
draper, blocks up Pepedaoje with ordure to the 
serious detriment of the neighbours, and also hol<fe 
there in the same street a oeiUar broken and open, 
to the serious detriment of the whole people there 
pamng, and to the jrreat damage of the liberty of 
the town aforesaad, &c.*' This refers to Pepper- 
street, and the kst— except Peck-lane— running into 
St. Peter*s-«qu»re. Peck-lane is an old footwuy, 
and in Vol. I., p. 437, it is referred to, a.d. 1336. 
On yarious oooacioDfi there is reference to tij« 



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itowcU (in St. Petor^s-sqixare) as n^dcKiig wptin, 
or haying been repaired, near to Peck-laae. In 
1414 (aee p. 445 of Vol. 11.) it is deKiibed am 
Homptre-laDe, bat foitanately the old name revived 
agaon, and oooliixnied down to the preaeot tkna 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM: 

ITS STREETS. PEOPLE. &c. 



\T1 

In this letter my subject mil be varied to what 
•hafl peoemrtiy been tlks case, aa I cbenre to take 
into coDskleraitdon a matter cooneoted with the 
gOTCCDmeot of tiie town m tdmes long paased, -which 
I ha<ve olteo thioa:^gfat nrast in its resudt ha.ye been 
most deleterioiw to its welfaire geoffmlfyj^ tflkoogh 
apparently quite ignored or impen^eptaible to our un- 
enliighftened atncestors. It is the aknost forcible 
expulsion on many oooasions of those who were not 
burgeasej, and therefoi^ termed at the time for- 
rainera or for>reynie«r6, aod in oounectloo with whieh 
was tbe hea7% fimn^ of many who found them a 
house or lod(gings, and alao some who, by new 
buritlcUDgB or aitertutions, added to the miimi)er of 
bouaee. Tben theiie was what in recent tames we 
flboold oaU the abominable interference with the 
lilberty of the people in pirenrenting anyone oarrying 
on a businefls unless th^ had served an appremtice- 
A6^ of seven yeeirs to st, even if it might be a 
Bmall grooer's shop, such as is to be found in our 
back fftreete and alleys. This would even ap>ply to 
a burgess or his wife. I have often thouig^ that 
the word *' {reemam " wbs moie eipnessive and suit- 
able than tbe wocd "burgess/' but when it is con- 
8iid)ei>ed in relation to <jbe state of afifaios generally 
at the petnod tibe diifitilnintiian was more eeipecially 
made or observed (about or soon after the Norman 
oonqueet), the appropnate woird to use, and one 
whidh carried its own meaninig, was " freenkan." 

At that t«ne over a great poot, if not the wfbole, 
of England ihsre were bondmen \vho reonaaned with 
the land when sold, and, for aught I know, oould 
not Ifgally leave it without permission. In com- 
peaison wiith these the others were freemenj and 
not merely burgiesses, for thiut word was applicable to 
tbe town ontly, but freeman appiliied to the whole 
of the oountiy, whioh to a wori^ng man of the time 
was most importaot if he was really free ; that is, 
free from aay legal blaim of another person to his 
services. Qoii^ bac& 800 years, there cannot be 
any «air?tnJfie that the iiwfaitiitiofi of towns and mnini- 
oipaliitJfes in various partiEt of the oountcy where all 
w<«« " freeoaen " must have acted favouraUy tg- 



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ii^rde tiboM who were in booda^. Am a town, 
Nottioc^iam w«e very jeaJkKia t&ut tfae iibecty ci 
tbe peopbe should not tnffer eveo in appeanmoe, 
aakl it was contanry to law aod niiie for aaoty tree- 
man or buingcfls of Nodbi^g^bam to wear tftie Imry 
of an outsider. Several ezsmdles are given in the 
Recodxis " wihere thi« rule or law was broken, and 
I will meotaon one case relatiBig to tine Prior of 
Lenton, in Vol. m., p. 346, a.d. 1516. One of 
the ppeBentmeats or report« to tibe seanoiM m as 
foUows, "We preaeot Heny Sfaeper for taJ^pg a 
Ijroerey oote of tibe Prioor of Leoton." (Ttus was 
an oiff«nce against the Staitutee of Liveries and Idlain- 
tenance.) " We present tbe Piioux of Leaton for 
mejoteouig of Herry Sbeper in weyryai^ bia 
lyueoy oonirary to tbe Statute.*' A troe bul waa 
found against tlfee Prionr Thomaa of Leoton. Tbe 
cbaiige contimiea as follows : " We preaeet Hienre 
Steper, Meroer, for weyrying ye same lyoery 
yat (ye) Pnoor ol Leraton gyffles to bw 
bowBold aervantfl, aod so resayved it of ye 
oayd Pnoor." Hhds wair on the pnociple that wben 
free we should keep free. Anyone resiiottog in Not- 
tingbam witboot exoeption for a year and a day in 
time of peace and watibooit olaim, no ooe but tbe 
King bad any ricbt in bim. This is embodied in a 
charter dating aboiat a.d. 1189, and whaAeiver King 
John's c(bortcomingB may be in otber respects, this 
wiU stand oat as a vBlnaibfe addition to tibe litbertres 
of tibe people. Its concession waa in the eariy d«ys 
of tbiose wtbom we may tenn freemen. I will now 
gt've a copy of a grant or conveyance of property, 
ic.f reglMered at Notitingbam, January 6th, 134(M1. 
It was from " Pain de Vilers, of Kinaibton, KnigSut, to 
WaUiafln de Amyas, ol Nottingham, and Mi^gery, 
his wife, of GeoflBrey HuD, Ralph Hull, and Geoflfrey 
Aylmer, afll of Kinalton, bondtamen (*na/tivi'), be- 
longinff to tbe sadd Pam, witti all tlheir dbatteSs and 
* sequelfiB,' and wiitih all otber profits to wit, fisberies, 
paflbana^es, meadows, wvys, waiters, and turbaries 
within the town and withaot. He also grants to 
the same WnUiflm tihree messnuAes and six bovaitss 
of arable land in KyneuKton wbi(£ tbe said bondemen 
hold in bondage of bim." This is folkywed by the 
names of many wiftnesses. In vol. 1, p. 405, a.d. 
1346-7, anoither grant or conveyanoe was ax^uoged 
and made between tbe same parties. On this oooa- 
sion two bond«men were turned over or tranflferred, 
namefy, John del G>rene, oif KinaAiton, and Roibeit 
Huberd of tibe same, bondsmen. Tbis wias witnessed 
amon^it othen hy Tbomas d» fidweKno, Mayor of 



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ISC 

KfittJn^MMn, and WimiMn de WAon smd WHlkum 
de Oopiroll, baiau&. In June, 1348, p. 406^ th.d 
same WiUiam de Amjvm pwrobaaed of BartiBolomew- 
de Oot^gmye fads manoa: of WatoaJI Obawortk, NotlUi., 
and also his maoor of Riddiiiigs, near Alifreton, 
Berbjahire. Ttas purGbAce inclndied bondflmeo, &c., 
Ac., in each majior, and with tibe ot^ber caees wnlLl be 
an^e to show the state of mtuiy who unfortninabely 
were not freenteu. Heone we have some aocouni of 
each of the two lower orders of tbe people, bood and 
free, aod wil^h bat ILtitle doubt I oomatder tiha4> the 
inflaenoe oi tbe latter would be mainly in faTOfar of 
the former being freed from tbeir bondage, which in 
time wa£ fortunate!}r tftie case, hel,ped as they pos- 
sibly mii^ht be by residing in Noittin^^ham or petihaps 
other places for a year a^ a day. There can be no 
two opiiJcaa that six or seven himdined years since 
the towns (which then were generally very small 
ooanpared wiit<h present times) were tne centres of 
personal liberty m this country, though in course of 
time, judging from Notitingham, tbey appear, as 
wiU be shown, to have loat mudh of thai enviable 
distiDotion. In 1577 there was a requ^est from tAie 
Miokltrtome Jury ** that there be made no mo fernin 
Bordjgses (nonwreiftdeflQite), bat thtut they may i>ay 
£10 aod no money batted (abated) fore there is to 
many abedy." In 1589 the juiry requested *^that all 
■tnLDgers, idle and vagraait pezBooB shall be dili- 
gent!(y examdned if they remain here ahove three 
days, their state to be known, bow thejr live, end 
can nwmrtiaigi themselvee, and that sach as yon 
find saspicious to drive them from the town or 
otheoiviAe l<et lihem rentain in ptnaon." It i« mnch to 
be feared that one oif tbe two latter altematdvea 
wodd generally be put jn force. In vol. 4, pp. 
274-5, A.D. 1605, there Ib the copy of a petition 
from a number of non-burgess weavers asking the 
Mayor, Aldeinnen, &c. , that justice and eqaitv may 
be mieted out to them, tbey daam to be well behaved 
InUMubitanttB desirous of earning a living for them- 
selves and families if permitted, ana ready to 
bear their jast share of ezpend^es, &c., &c. ; but that 
tbey oamot satisfy the weavers who ane burgesses. 
On paffe 301, April, a.d. 1611, " Ednnrnde tbe Hatter 
30 called in question tondhknig bos trsMiing here in 
town. Upon conference the connpany (Council) hath 
given hun time till Laauanaa next (Augu^ 
14) to molke answer wfaetheir he wdH 
pay £10 fine for his freedom or leave 
the town, and in the meantime not to infrins^ the 
liberty of the town by his trading here. Ih*1613 
tfaero waa a pet^km fivMn the burgesses of the town 



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122 

reqiieatdng dMt Don-boirgesses under the Oosporalioo 

may be da&gamemed ot tbeir b(MU*ee and Inot bfor- 
gesBes Dmy oocupy tUem. Tbere appears to be im> 
question whateyer respecting rent, but umbk^j to 
exclude tiM>8e wlio were not burgeases. In 1614-15 
the wife of Riohard Brookee wa« fined 38. 4d. f)or 
taking in a stranger, but tbie woo a mere trifle to 
what was afterwards ordered to be padd ; for, in 
1625, Maister Alton is reported for taking in Thomas 
Webb, a stranger, in the sign of the Cock and fined 
JB3 6s. 8d., which, compared with our present money 
value, would represent more than £25. It will bo 
seen, from the amount of fines imposed, that ttie 
taking in of strangers wae once considered to be a 
crime of great magnitude. In the "Records," vol. 
IV., p. 192, A.D. 1579, the Mickletom Jury, in their 
report, say, "We present all such as nvike aney 
buildings in aney lane or back syde of this town 
and take in aney tenantes to them (hat then the 
linde lorde shall be bound to Ma.i«ter Mayor and the 
towne in a good rounde somme of monty to dyschaxgj 
the lowne vf thev leve anv children be hinde them." 
On pages ^7-8, a.d. 1593, a complaint is made in a 
report in which is said, " We present MaJster Alder- 
nMin Peter Clarke for making his barnes into dwellyn 
houses and taking souch pepell in as is a great 
decay e to the towne." At the same time Nicolas 
Nubbuld is also complained of for keeping three 
tenants in a house. On p. 254, Vol. IV., a.d. 1600, 
three weavers are reported, namely, William Bar- 
ton, William Ward, and Nicholas Webster, "for 
occupienge the oocupation of a weaver, contrary to 
an order set down." They were each fined lOs., 
which, as compared with our present rate of money 
would represent about four pounds, and for people 
in that sta-bion of life was an enormous and dis- 
proportionate fine. In the same yea-r Richard Fyeld, 
wheele wryght, is reported for makynge ware, not 
being Burges. When he was fined 3s. 4d.. which 
in the present times would represent about 266. or 
27s. In this case the Magistrates were much more 
lenient than in the other. In their report for 1577 
the Mickletom Jury say: — "Maister Maier, we 
desire you and your bretheryn that eveire Alderman 
shall saaxch his warde evere fortnvght at the least 
to P^e w<hait straJig^rs oame to th«town." Strangers, 
or foreigners as they were often called, were ter- 
rible bugbears to our ancestors, and all means, just 
and unjust, were employed to rid the town of them ; 
and doubtless in a number c^ instances to the great 
loisB oi ^ town m preventing other trades settiing 



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m 

in it, a>ud the following appears to be one of iibat 
dam which was diiyen awaj iiM>8t unjaa&ly thrmigh 
the blindoew of those in suithority in 1624. In thait 
year theji^e wofi a preaentm&Dt or petition to the 
aesflions by the weavers oif the town, in which they 
say : *' Humbly sheweth that wiiemi« there is one 
Robert TomdiniBon, a stranger and coverleit-weayer, 
and using the tiude of a woUen and Unnen weaver 
lately oome to the towne to aett up his trade iiere, 
and yet is noiliheT BuTgeese nor free of the said Ucni- 
pany of Weaveirs, who if be be suffea>ed to contynewe 
iB ilkiely to be veoriie gprejudiciai and hurtfui to the 
said poore oompQaiy, your petationeis, thedi* wiveft, 
and chlkkien, md by reason thereof they fba^re tl«y 
neafiher shall be able to pay the King's Miajesty iiiis 
due nor .to maintain theDOsBelvies and theur fanifllies 
wittbout being chargeohle to the town ; besides the 
sadd Tocn4anson hath a wife aoxl three crhiMreik wLoe 
yf he comtynewe ace like to come and dwell hei« 
aJso, end soe in time pioye to bee chargea^bLe," 
'Hms doss not folbow, nor was it necessary , for the 
trades of a wollen and linnen weavea* weare as regards 
the probabilities of the case, far mcire likely to bene- 
fit aikl enrich the town than otherwise, as iit is 
almost oestam that tlheire wras no such trades being 
osurried on in ii at tdw time, and a nuoober of years 
afterwards an endeayoor was made to commence the 
tradse of linen weaving, buit apparently wrthout soc- 
oess. Our town government of the period weaw 
** blind leadens of the blind " to the serious loss and 
detrimemt of the town and public generally. At a 
meeting of the Oouncil or Corporation in November, 
1635, it was " Ordered thaitt everio ALcberman ehauU 
once in 14 days with the assisttsoce of some of his 
ward, walke his ward to see whaibt strongeie or in- 
mates do come in, thatt some present oooise may be 
taken to avoyed (remove) them in time, according to 
the ocder." On 17th July, 1626, three different 
peiTBons wepe all fined £3 6s. 8d. for taking in in- 
mates, which is equal to £25 each in present mauey. 
In 1629 thi«e persons were fined or bound over for 
using the trade of a wheeJanaker, to wbkh the 
petattioner asserts they had not been apprenitiaed. 
So that they could clear the town of strangera the 
aut^horitieB appeair to have been quite indifferent re- 
spedting the loss that might be incfuinred with empty 
houses, &c., and this is proved Pesrpeoting houses on 
land which now forms a most valuabk and important 
part ol the town. On March 5th, 1635, the OouncJi 
nesohred that " Ihe cotAagies without Obapel Bar to 
be >«A7ed, and the tensottf in being to have notiioe 



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not to rec4eav» ande oitfaer tenamts hejieafbor ; and am 
the teduute dye tbon the btywees to be obopped up, 
a<Dd Dott to be iu»ed for any otiber babiitaeiciis or 
bowsee." Tbis applies to aU bousee then on Toll 
HoojBe-ball or D^4>y-road, and also tiiofle in thd 
uppar part of wbait wae tben called Btbck-kne, bo* 
now WoUaitoo-sfcreet. On page 184, Vol 6, A.D. 

1637, k the foUowimg— " W€ie (tbe conetablee) pre- 
aent Maiaber Tbomas Atldn for erecting a new tene- 
ment. Fined/* No unoont ifl Bta*ted. In 1638 
Henry Hill ie fined lOs. for taking a man and bifl 
wife as inmatee. Under oirciuntftainoee sacb as tboae 
jnst mentaooed tbe sorpriee will be reepocting tbe 
town ; not that its progrees wa« slow, but that there 
abould be any advanctement wbaterer. In October, 

1638, ih&TQ i« a report at tbe Sessions, w^h^ it is 
©aid " We present Henery Armesone for K^inge of 
a dumbe boy that oometh out of the conntrie." 
Fined ^Os., or about £4 in our preseBit value for 
money. Continuing, tbe report says : *' We nequest 
that yon (the magistrate*) will be pleaded to speak 
to Richard Wood that our paansh of Saint Maxyes 
maght be discharged of Mi«tae» Laaenbey and her 
cndidraD. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM. 

ITS STREETS. PEOPLE. &c. 



XXTT. 

lb tlie " Bopoagh Reoards," rod. 5, |)(p. 192-3, 
A.D. 1638, Octofbeo-, tihjeiie ame ttitieid noitiveat/le 
reports at the seasiooe by tiie constabjefr; in the 
fiilrt they aay : " W« preBant Henry HiU for lately 
ereotiiig too teoMmeoitB in a hovf^ taken of tbe 
towT!*, in th« parbh of St. Peter's." Fined £4 68. 
8d. In the second tbey say : " We present li^lsteT 
Atkin for erecting divers teoementa in CasteU-gate. 
in ti>e pari^ of St. Nichoks." Fined aleo £4 6s. 
8d. In the oiuie of the fiivt the hoiDse may have been 
tfl>e property of the town, and we do not know what 
power tne tenant may have had over it, but in the 
second case the property appears to have been the 
freehold of Maister Atkin, yet none the less, the 
Council wonld not allow him to add to tibe number 
of houjses in the town for fear of the possibility of 
enabLing strongers or " farriners " to gain a lodg- 
ment therein. As regards the fines, they were 
monstixxusly disproportionate and unjust, and in 
comparison with our present money would for each 
i»preaent nearly tftwrty-five pouniw (£36). In the 
third case the cowrtables say : ** We present Thoma« 
Asihby, Millner (miller), for taking a child, a far- 
riner." For this he appeals to have been fined 20s. , 
or about £8 of our preeent money. It would be 
interesting to know how long relatives. &c., from a 
distance, when vifriting the town, were allowed to 
tMwiy with tftteVr fnends before the authorities inter- 
fered with them, or ordered them to return? On 
page 196, a.d. 1639, the Miokletoni Jury say : " We 
present Robert Ba3!, ch&ndlare, for letting a heme 
on the town's ground to a farrinare." For this h? 
was fined 10s. , or an equivalent for nearly £4 of our 
present money. 

Fortunately for the world, grow acts of tyranny 
do not always last looog without their Nemesos, and 
such was the result at the time mentioned, though I 
fear that the minds of our ancestors were so pre- 
judiced that they were unable to perceive or under- 
stond the cause of the retnbution which 
followed clo0e upon their unjust acta 
In meotioiuDg the amocmit of the town 
debt ci 262 yeaam stnoe, which to the Ooondl 
of the time was a great bmrden, some amfosement 



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126 

may be caused to many of my fettow-citiicM ; 
tbcJugh before comparing it with cm present money 
it gibauld be multiplied by about ei^t, and further, 
the town of that period in size was probably not 
much if any more than one twenty-fflth of what 
No>ttiiigham ijs at ti^ preeeot time. I will dow give 
a-n extract from tiie minuite«> of the Common Council 
of Wednesday, April IStli, 1640, and vol. 5, p. 197, 
of "The Records." It is as foflows :— **Thi« com- 
pany taking into oooaderaoion the towne'c detta 
and thatt they doe amount unto £550, for which 
or the mo9t part thereof the towne payeth interest, 
and the chamber of the towne by reason of those 
and such like payments is not able to sobsBste, nor 
the Revenewes sufficient to defray or bear the same 
chardges and expenses." They then proceed to 
put a charge upon the land for which burgesses 
previously had paSd little or -;o ivnt, Uc't th* incom- 
petents could not see that they had caused the 
trro^le themselves by practacaJ£y stramgling the 
town or stunting its growth. Judging by wiiat is 
(mentioned on other occasions in respect to borrowed 
money, the interest payable for the £550 mentnoned 
wouid be £10 per centum per annum or £55. At 
tJbe preeent date for the same amount the interest 
payaJ>Ie by the town would be about £17 per year, 
and tihe city, though owing millions of money, does 
not feel tihe pinch of poverty, as was the case in 
1640, with an indebtedness of only £550, or equal 
to £4.400. 

In Vol. V. of ^ "Records," p. 248, a.d. 1647, 
at a meeting of the Goimcil on March 9th there is 
tihe following : It is ordered by this company tBiat 
(according to the aimoiente custome of the Towne) 
the shoppe windowes of all persons that trade in 
this Towne whoe are not sworn horgessee aball be 
forthwith ^tt upp, and the Maior's sergeant and 
oomonon sergeant is to see the same doooe accord- 
iogly, as hath beene annciently used, the mai^ett 
day excepted, and the said persons alsoe to pay tolls 
and bee dealt with as foraigners." In me same 
year, on page 251, is the following: "It is agreed 
that Ikfaaster Burrowes and Maister Pywdl shall be 
restrained from traedinge in the towne, beinge no 
bun^^esses, and so others in their condiicion, and 
Maister Maior and his brethren to see it doone ac- 
cordingly with some of this company." By the 
mode of addressing these two peraoiM as " MaMter " 
Burrowes and lilaister" Pywei!l there is sufficieot 
evidence to prove that they were men much, bigber 
in th? social scale than a number of those wftio hav^ 



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127 

been mentioood or called to aocoaut previoicuily, and 
MaistoT Pywell appears to have refiwed to cany out 
or observe tbe iDJon-ction of tbe Coumoil as regarded 
ibluvi.-lf, tJ^^Pcfore on Augiudb Ivitih, 1647, tlhey 
' Ordered tbiat Maister Recorder be spoaken to and 
advised with, to give ditreccioDB what to bee done 
against Mai«ter Pywell and others yat are foreinors 
(non-burgewes) and rrfuse to give over tradeinge." 
In September, 1647, the Oouncil "Ordered that all 
Gooatabks to bring a note to thedre Alderman of all 
foraigneirs ooane into the town within four yeares 
laflt, that a coarse may be taken to remove such as 
are poore aod likely to bee chargable, and such as 
hifuder tbe burgesses by tradeinge." On page 257, 
October, 1648, there is the following entry : 
** Agreed, Maister Maior to ahutt npp fanaiiiDers' sihopp 
windows (non-burgesses) yat trade in the Towne, 
and to be managed and borne out in soe doing by 
and at tbe Towne's diarge." 

A large porti-o© of the Coisncirs time must have 
been occupied in the consideration of strangers, and 
preventing their settlement in the town, as in the 
year 1648, April, respecting the poor, " It is agreed 
all landlords yat receive in chargable poore to be 
delt with or aaseesed to nuiii^tain them aocordinge to 
lawe." There was but little probabiLity that the 
landlords would accept of any respooaibility respect- 
ing tiie maintenance of Uieir tenants. In Auguet, 
1649, the Cooncil reeolyed "that the company do not 
think fitt to graunt Nicholas Atkinson's request in 
his petidon to build a house upon any wast or 
Towne's ground, because he is no burgesse." The 
must have been a hmu who was at least moderately 
well off with a house of his own, and possibly moie ; 
there was not any probability of hie becoming bur- 
densocae to the town, but nutl^ an employer of 
labour and spender of money in the looolity ; bat 
what was that to the incapables on the Council who 
really appear to have been unable to see or judge 
of anything further than their now before thean. 
Here is a man who was desirous of becoming, and 
would have made an excellent town resident, but 
they would have none of him, to the great loss of the 
town because (and moot unfortunately for it) he was 
not a burgees. 

I will now give some account of Laurence Oollin, 
who was the founder of tbe family from whom one 
of the most important charities in the dty has 
sprung, but no thanks wha.teveT are due to the 
bedngs involved in moral darkness, who unfortn- 
natefy for the town had at the tame authonity over 



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188 

it, but who Id the inter^fita of jiwtioe and freedom 
were unwillingly brought under the control of a masa. 
who could see much in advaince of tJietnoelveSy and 
had the power and will to enforce baa decaaiom. I 
am here refepriug to CMivw Oromwell. On payees 
253-4 of Deeting's Nottingham he aays : " a.d. 1648, 
the 27th Jajiuary, the garriaoo of Nottiu^^Mun 
Cafitle was mustered, by which it appeeura that then 
it couAieted only of one company of foot of ooe 
hundred private men, exclufldye of drnnmienB, com- 
manded by Oaptedn PouHoo, goyemor. At tiii€ 
time one Laurence Collin was gumwr of the Caatle, 
of whom 'tie remarkable that aiter the ga^riflon wae 
disbainded he chose to stay at NottniphAm in ofder 
to follow his former occupjybioo. which was wooJ- 
combing, but tihe Corporation offering to give him 
disturbance he petitioned Cromwell ; tWs oooasioDed 
the fb-Uowing order to be sent to the GoverDor, 
which accidentally drop* into my (Deering's) hands, 
viz. : — * Sir, — His Highnew ihe Lord Protector 
having heard the petltaon of Laurence Coilio, which 
is here enclosed, is pleased to reoommend it unto 
you to speak to the Mayor and other ma4^0tvaties 
of Nottingham to know the reason why they wiU 
not suffer the petafcioner to set up his tirade in tfee 
town, and if there be no other cause of exceptiioo, 
but that he is not a freemen in regard that be has 
fa.ithfuUy served the Commonwealth, his H'ghnm 
doee think it fit that he should oootiiMie in the town 
and be admitted to follow his calling for the main- 
tenance of hdmself and his famrily. Which is all I 
am commanded to yon from has Highness by the 
hands of , sir, your verv humble and faithful servant, 
Lisle Long. Whitehall, 7th July.*" 

Continuing, Deering further telle us that "After 
this he lived in qniet atod laid the foundation of a 
thriving family in Xottinghem, which at this time 
(about 1740) is very considerable, being strengthened 
by the intermarriage into the family of Gkorge Lang- 
ford, Esq., one who had not only been an eminent 
surgeon, but also bore a commnswion in the Parlia- 
ment army, and was Mayor of Nottingham at the 
rerdution. Laurence lived to the 9l8t year of hV? 
ace, as appears by his gravestone in St. Nicholas' 
Church." Deer'ng on pa^e 44 gives the follow- 
ing as being the inscription upon his monument: — 
" Here lieth the body of Laurence Collin, who de- 
parted this life the 9th day of August, in the 91st 
year of his age. a.d. 1704." Abel Collin (? son 
of T/ntiren"** CoirnK the founder and endower of the 
extensive Hospitals in the dtf, dieil 8n4 April, 



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129 

A.D. 1705. In some caaes Deering pats " w ** in 
the name of Lawrence, and at other tunes spells it 
Laarence, and in each instanoe I have done the 
Bftcne, though one, of course, must be incorrect. 

The following will show the difference of opinion 
in the past as compared with recent tinkee. At a 
meeting of the Council, Monday, May 2&th, 1667, 
it was resolyed thao "This componiey are of 
oppynion nott to make Robert Huntt a Burgesse 
for tluutt thei?e is no such trade aa a Ijnnen dra.peir 
used in this towne, to which trade he wan boimd 
apprentice to Adam Jackooo om it appeQj:«ith. And 
the reason of Robert Hnntt's deniall wa« for l^t 
the same mdght bee of evell consequence in bring- 
inge in Maulsters to be Burgesse an such lyke, &c?' 
On page 322, Vol. 1 of the R^ords, 1681-2, there 
is an entry as follows: — "Howses yat were lately 
built against the south side of the wall of Saint 
Marye's Church." From what follows there must 
probably have been a war of words and some heart- 
aching at the thought that the town had probably 
increased the accommodation that could oe found 
tor strangers by building some new houses, and 
tSierefore on the date above given the Council re- 
solved that " It is this day ordered yat the Chamer- 
lyns for the time being shall take down the severall 
bowses against the south side of Saint Marye's 
Ohurch-yard that are now untenanted, and dispose 
of the materials thereof to the use of this Corpora- 
cion." Were they or we-re they not demented? 
As between the remaining or continuing of a new 
house or of a stran^srer they unhesitatingly say 
*'puU the house down." 

On p. 326, May 4th, 1685, there is a complaont 
at the sessioTis, and they say, *'We do present 
William Bilbey and Edward Ashmore for prac- 
tizinge Phisicke and surgery not having a licence." 
Rob^ Tompson is also reported for the same. 
On p. 527, Mary Kitcfcin and Anne James are pre- 
sented " for selling several commoditiee oe Qrosery, 
Candles, Sope, Starch, Strong Waters, and To- 
bacco, not serving seaven yeares to a Groeer." As 
regards ourselves in recent times, I think nearly 
all would say that they deserved much credit for 
not uselessly wasting their time in serving seven 
years to pick up what might for a little shop of 
the sort be learned in seven days. On the same 
page Daniel Browne and John Sharp are reported 
for taking in lodgers. On p. 331, in a report to 
the Sesaions, five men are mentioned as following 
the trades of Leather Seller, two Last-makers, Up- 
holsterer, and a Sword Cutler, all for not lees than 



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130 

amoDtlila«t pist, aiulktiepm^ open shope, alao two 
women, one a linen draper and the other a grocer, 
and it m complained that none had been apprenticed 
seyen years to any of the trades mentioned. On 
page 3S4, John Newcome, John Palmore, Nathaniel 
Ghamherlin, Thomas Nix, and John Woolmore are 
cofmplained of for selling fish and higgling without 
a lioeooe/' a.d. 1688, p. 340, there is a complaint 
of '* Nathaniel Wild for using the trade of an 
Upholsterer and expoeing bis wares pubUckly upon 
his stand, and keeping open shopp, not lieing a 
freeman of this Corporation of Nottingham." 

On 5th Octoiber, 1688, John Glasop is complained 
of for taking in lodgers. May 20th, 1697, Master 
Moakes, bookseller, and another are diecharged 
from ujEdng their trades, not bein^jr burgesses. At 
that time there does not appear to have been a 
printing press in Nottingham, for the first was 
introduced into the town by Mr. Aysoough in 1710. 
(Deering, p. 40.) About 40 years after that date 
there were three booksellers and two printers in 
Nottingham, so they were not nmnerouB. On 
April 15th, 1698, the Council " Ordered that special 
oare shall be taken to proeeoute and suppreese all 
forrainers from, and for using any trade witiiin the 
^"^ijd towne, and also uU others who ehall uee any 
trade in the said towne unto which they have not 
served afi an Apprentice (sic) within the eoJd 
towne, though he or they be a Burgess or Freeman 
of the said towne. And that a convenient numJber 
of persons in every ward shall be appodnted to get 
what contributions they can for that purpose.*' 
June 16th, 1699, the Council threaten to prosecute 
thoj»e storing or stacking coal unless all others are 
supplied first. I have now given numerous ex- 
amples of inoompeitencnr on the part of the old 
Town Council, judged by preeent-day experience. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM: 

ITS STREETS. PEOPLE. &c. 



XXM. 

1 propose in this aiticle to 4afe& ii]ito con- 
BideratioD vairiaus extracts from an oi<l hork (4 ac- 
coimt renting to the bosuiefiis matters of the town 
in its various ddstricts and <iepaitiDents one bimdred 
and thkty years since, and speciaHj in reference to 
persons who may have bad descendianits knoiwn to 
some of us or to matters or tbrings mentioned which 
bave come within o<ur knowledge. 

It is intereflting to note the first entry in the old 
booik, which is as follows: — '^Mattlbew Pratt for 
the Bowling Alky House £2 IQs./' wiiich w«s the 
rent for a year at that time. In my first letter, 
dated Novemiber 4th, 1901, I msnltion this as being 
a little more tiian 50 years previousiy the on'y house 
between Alfreton-road and Sherwood-street or the 
back of MansfieUL-road, and whose common name 
was "The GHsnger Beer House." It was an old- 
faahiooed builduig, «a*d had probably stood there 
nearly 150 years When it w<as dcmolisned. Another 
item UAHs us that '* William Darker foe* two bouses 
on the waste wiitihocit CSiappel-bar (pays) 6s." This 
I bave no doubt was for the groiund rent only, and 
that Mr. Darker had himsdf IniHt t^e houses, wbich 
to some extent is, I tbink, withan my own know- 
ledge. More than sixty years since I well remicm- 
ber some one who (speaking from memory) was 
named George Darker and owned two cottages in 
Derby-sbreet on its western sidle. TTbs is the top 
thoroqgbfare between Derby-road and Wolloton- 
street. As a young feljow I frequently conversed 
with bim (he was an aged man), and on one occa- 
sion he informed me that in his younger deys be had 
often spoken with persons who remembered the 
exciting times when the rebels came as far south as 
Derby in 1745. Th© two houJ^es have been pulled 
down many years and mucb larger buildSngs erecteti 
in frbeir place. If no cbange Iws since been mad<» 
in name t^iere is still a Darker's-oourt in Broad- 
marsh, which once for the most part, if not alto- 
gether, belonged to tbe Darker faanily, and I believe 
it to be the ono. on the eastern sidf of Mr. Fleeman's 
shop. I have no knowledge of any representative of 
t>be family being now left. 

It seems strange in recent times to read ikat 
Micbae'l Kayes and Jo|m Smitfi each owned a bouse 



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132 

and a " gaonien ** on Veihj-Toetd (130 jetm nnoe), 
and that Mr. Wy^r and Mr. Qoodall had a 0ta^- 
vard and garden there, and that Rioiiard Mnssofi 
had a garden at th« ispper end of Laibmj's Hos- 
pital, and t-hat Mr. Robeit ^nidi's heir had a horel 
and bam. These generally are now cooapicnoos by 
their absence. Tl^re is one entry wbidi inake« it 
seem pix)4)able that conAderably mope tban a cen- 
tury since th-ere w«fne facilities for w«i^hin^ Tehicles 
with their loads, &c. It is as foBows : — "Mr. Eras. 
Hall and Compa. for the machine withoat Ohaptpel- 
bar." Many o-f my ojder fellow-citizens will remem- 
ber that until abotHt 40 years back there was a 
weighing machine? on Derby-road ahaot twenty yjtrds 
}':.L^r up than the Three Horse Shoes hm. There 
is one item of nrnch. inteirest which rels/tes to Michael 
Knyes, whom I *haye before noticed. We are told 
of a case or tw^ (yet without partiealars) w4i€a>e 
he had hired or taken land on Toll House Hill, bat 
fnrtunaitely we have infomiiatioc in one inatance 
which enables us to compare the past and the pre- 
sent tJmen. After describing an arran^^ement just 
made by h!m (Michaeil Kayes), we are told "Saaoe 
foir a piece of ground 24 feet in len^^ and 16 in 
breadth on the outside of Ohappel Bar, on which 
he has built a workshop adjoining to his dwelling 
houpe." By its dejtcription the ground appeaoi! to 
have been within a short distance of "th^ Bar." 
There we(re 42 2-3 squai>e yairds of land included in 
this letting, the nent payable for whAcfa was 5s. per 
y*ar. This is barely tthree halfpence for eadh yard. 
From twenty-five to thirty years since three hun- 
dred yards of hmd at the top of the hill were let 
for 7s. per yard per year, and lower down consider- 
ably a ra-ther larger quantity was let for about 
7s. 6d. per square yard (7fl. 5d. to 7s. 7d.), but 
witihin pix or seven yeoirs other land t.b » •■• let 
for eight shillings and ninepence per square yard 
per annum. Th's averages more than fifty tiroes 
the amount paid 130 or 140 years 
since, yet it is possible that the larger rents may 
prove the mi>«t profiitahle with so throng a 
road and a populTtioo which has so enormously in- 
rrpar?ed. I find the name of "Mr. Daft Sn^th, of 
Snenton. fb-r a stable on the outside of Ohappel 
Bar." This causes other thoughts to arise respect- 
ing a m-elancholy circumstance which occurred nnore 
than sixty years Rirce (I think in 1837 or 1838), 
when f^om^eVn*? with much the same name — ^Daft 
Smith Churchill, and a merchant of Nottingham — 
was drowned in the Forfarshire steam Twel on the 



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128 

aceaofoo when Grace D«tl^Dg'fl hefxyian wm hvcmgtit 
ao promiiifeii;Uy before tbe ^iblk m coosequeoce of 
bier noble efforts to save itk& lives of t^ paasengers, 
ftc. I consider from the simiLainty of tiie two namas 
that Daft Smith Oburcbill of 1837 \md a desc^mdnort 
or distajxt relative of the Daft Smith of 130 years 
siBoe. I belJeive I am correct in aissertiog thiLt a 
ab(Ht tEme after his deaibh tbe direotora of tbe 
Geaieral Oemetery caosed a larg^ tomb or monument 
to be erected to tbe memory of Mx. Oburobill on 
the g^roond, ivho ttbs, I believe, aiso a dkrector. 

There are yet many who will reonemiber "The 
Old Leather Bottte*' in Hockley. In Deering's 
exfxHeot old map of tbe town it is shown to have 
two large trees growing a short diabonce from the 
house in the open space on tbe front. There was, 
as far as I remember, a large yard with many use- 
ful stoibles, &c., in it, and also a considenbble oncbount 
of room in the house. It will be interesting to 
many to be infcMined that aibout 130 yeans since the 
rent was £21. In former times the encroachnkent^ 
by private individuals upon tbe publie or town 
land wene x>eraistent, and cokntinned with all classes. 
I find that there is an entry of 29. 6d. as having 
been paid by " Mr. Ichabod Wriffbt for his palisades 
before his l^ouse and steps; and John Newton, Esq., 
for an inoroachmen^ by a bnilding at the top of 
Sheep Lane adjoining * The White Hart * " is credited 
with paying aJso 28. 6d. There is a record as fol- 
lows : — '*ilr. Alvery Dodsly, an incroaohroent by 
posts before Timberhiill houses; Mr. Lomax and 
other tenants 6d.'' I remember a Mr. James Looiaz, 
who was a grocer on Timber Hill 65 yeans or more 
since, and also his son, Mr. Edward Lomax. 
Aided by the interesting work of my 
friend and respected feJlow-oitizen, Mr. 
James Ward, on the *' Monumcnital Inscriptions 
in the Baptist Burial Ground, Mount-street, Not- 
tingham," I mav say that James Lomax died in 
July 18i50, aged 88 years, and his son, Edward 
Lomax, in January, 1868. The former would be 
about ten years of ag-e at tih^e t:m? that th e en t rv u n<l e r 
consideration was made, and therefore the Mr. 
Lomax referred to as one of the tenants would in 
all probability be his father, though in after yea is 
the property or shop which was a little to the 
east of the top of Wbe(>ler-gate became his own, 
and I have reason for believing that it remained in 
his family until the death of his son, Mr. Edward 
Lomax. For a number of years they had retired 
from biMinesB, and resided in Lenton-terrace, the 



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134 

Paak ; and Saraii, wife of Mr. Ekiward Lovnax and 
the last of the famdly, died there on July 5th, 1864. 
Two other public-hotuses are mentioned as belong- 
ing to the town wiUi tbeir rental. 'The first is 
*• William Goodbum for the Unioom's Head " ; the 
rental paid foir this was £11. Then oomes 
" Riohard Dodson for the Flaming Sword " ; for 
this the rental was £15. No iuformaition is given 
respecting their situation. 

In the year 1693, after som^e previous considera- 
tion, the Tow!'. Council appointed several of their 
number "to get subscriptions for the buying of a 
water engine for the use of the inhabitants of this 
towne, and to treat with such as tli*-v lihnll tib'nk 
fitt." On Friday, September lltih, 1696 iVo!. 1 of 
the Records, p.*392), it is recited, "That tliis day 
r. dra*ught lease to Master John Ross, Master Ben- 
jamin Greene, and Samuell Watkinson from this 
Corporation about the Waterworks was read and 
agreed unto bv this house, and ordered to be in- 

grossed ; and that Master Alderman Salmon, Master 
beriflfe Briggs, and Master John Wingfield, with 
the Cbamberlvns, do view and set out the ground 
sA the end of St. James's-lane where tbe designed 
cisteme is to be made and erected, &c." This 
dfitera is shown upon Deering*8 map of nearly 160 
years since, but it appears to have been afterwards 
cowrtructed considerably nearer to Butt Dyke (now 
Park-row) than had at first been arranged. Most 
certainly with pre«ent-day notions, our estimate 
of the water as regards quality wonld have caused 
it to rank very low, for it wa« proposed to make 
use n>f the Leen. It was no doubt in far better 
condition then than now, but still very objection- 
able. On Wednesday, September 22nd, 1697, the 
Council " Ordered thai the Bridge Masters doe pay 
unto Master Bcnjamine Greene, and Master Samuel 
Watkinson fifty pounds which shall be allowed in 
their accounta,' itt being part of the moneys the 
Mayor and Burgessea are to pay unto them for 
the four parts or f»liares of the Waterworks in the 
town of Nottingham purchased of them.** On 
June 27th, 1700, Messrs. Huthwait, AnMftrong, 
Firth, Riciiards, Barke, Radfarth, and the Cham- 
berlains were appointed to meet the undertakers 
of the Waterworta T«n behalf of the Corporation aa 
oft as they met to codcuU about the same. In 
the Borough Records, as above mentioned, we are 
told that the Corporation were to have four shares, 
but in the old book of account to which I have 
frequently referred in this communication there is 
recorded as follows : —Mr. John OoUin, treagurer 




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135 

lor the propriet<n« oi the WeterwiOTlu, for the 
dividentfl of the Corporation '' three " shadree in the 
Waterworks at £10 per share, £30, which 16 one 
fthare kss than what is meintioned in the Reports, 
though a moet excellent "dividenf on the £50, 
before stated to have been invested in the under- 
taking;. The old -Waterworks weire thoee whioh 
were rather lower down the hill than the top of 
Brewhoufie-yard, and were once at the western 
angle of the street against the Boulevard. 

We are inlomiied bbat " Mr. Ridbsurd Dale, for a 
shop under the CJouncil Room in the Guiild Hall, 
called Tanners' Hall," paid £2. He also had a cellar 
under it, and for this he paid £1. Thou(^ it must 
not be forgotten that this was 130 years since. 
Thomas Wakefield is mentioned a<t the same time 
as paying £6 for a tenement without Cbappel Bar. 
This was probably an ancestor or relative of the 
Wakefields, who will be remembered as townsmen by 
some of my older fellow-citizene. Samuel Page paid 
for a shop in the Booths, and possibly he may have 
some connection by relationship with others of the 
same name now with us. "Mrs. Gregory, for a 
passage from the Hollow-stone under Short-hill to 
her dwelling-house, paid 2s. 6d. acknowledgmeant," 
and " Mrs. Adam Youngs, widow, for a like passage 
to her house on Short-hill near the other, paid 28. 
6d." The Rev. Mr. Williams, for a like passage to 
his dwelling-house on Short^ll, paid 28. 6d., and 
also 6d. for a cellar which was under it — ^total 3s. I 
recently noticed that there were several passages 
(? four) still under Short-hill, and I can only hope 
Uhtut tJbe aoknowl«lgmenrt» continue to be claimed 
by the town. Henry Locket t, for a house and shop 
on Smitftiy-rorw, is cmy credlited with paying £1 lOs. 
remt, and Widow Johnson, for a house there, paid 
£2. These appear, for that locality, to be mere 
acknowledgments, but the next is more. "Mr. 
Hurst for a new built messuage on Smithy-row near 
the County Sha-mbles paid £18." "Joseph Spurr. 
for bis house in the rock neex the pdt)ifol<I, paid 
4s. This must have been very little even for a house 
of that character. "The Trustees of the Lamps," 
for the oyle reservoir under the Hall staii-s, paid 
Is. ax^knowledipnent. There is then a rather curious 
entry. Mr. Plert-cher, staymaker, for the use of the 
leaids over the Bujtchers' sJhops in the country 
shambles for half a year, 10s., and in addition "for 
the privilege of a door opening from his house intt» 
the ppj»age leading from the Country Shamble® into 
the Market-place he paid 6d. 



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The namea of a mmber of tenaate aM giTtn •« 
oocapjing " the new built hoosee by Labray's Hoa- 
pital (on Toll Hoaee-hiU or Derby-road) r«ot to be 
oolieeted quarterly, £3 each." ^fhe foremost to be 
mentioned is Isaac MoggLeston, for the first tene- 
ment eastward. This is ondoabtedly an old name 
on Toll Hoose-hill and as a fact, one may still be 
found thfire connected with that family. In my 
earliest reoollection I knew a Mr. Robert Muggles- 
ton, who resided on the hill at the end of Mark- 
lane, which has now disappeared. He died an aged 
man in 1861. He had a brother named Isaac Mug- 
gleston, and also a son Isaac, who died in 1871, and 
his widow still resndes in* the locality. I have no 
means of knowing how long the fir£t Isaac Mugleston 
had been on the bill when his name was mentioned, 
but here is proof that one or more of the family 
have resided there for fully 130 years. There is a 
Mugglostone-place on Alf ret on -road, almost facing 
Newdigate-strceb, where the family owned property. 
There may poi^sibly be other families who have re- 
sided as long in that pai-t, but, if so, I have not 
observed anting by which I could recognise them 
in the old book. A Mr. Gailiar is entered as having 
a houf«e on the waste near St. Mary's Workhouse 
(Mansfield-road), Itite in t>he tenure of Tliomas Sear- 
son. Probably this Mr. Galar or some relative ocu- 
piod the close which was so named and near. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM: 

ITS STREETS. PEOPLE. &c. 



XXIV. 



OontiwoMig my extuaidte £rom Ifce "Oki Bogk 
of Account " of 130 yean* since ; Oaieb Parr's execru- 
i0P8 are steted to have paid £10 — aiuiual rent for 
•'Saint Ann's Well House, &c.," and Mr. John 
Padley, of Olverton, paid £60 for Lambley Closes. 
Another entry tells us that '* William Taylor, frame- 
ami th, for a pe«e of ground near Swine Fair adjoin- 
ing to the Back-lane and a stable with a bay cham- 
ber over it paid Ss." This appears T€»ry little, 
though the int^restuig part is if possible to re- 
oogmse the spot where " Swine Fair " wa« situated. 
I have no recollection of ever hearing of such a 
thi^ng before, a>nd have no idea of the pUce w'heire it 
was heM or so called. Mr. Lacey paid 2s. for a 
rope hoitse near Butt Dyke (Park-row), which cer- 
tainly should be conwdiered very reasonable for a 
year 8 rent ; another item says Joiin Simpaon, for 
tihe privilege of a ropewalk above the workhouse 
( r St. Mary's, Mansfield-road) near E-dward Pepper's 
garden; pa-id 6d.," and there cannot be any doubt 
that be was much favour^. 

According to the "Records," a fee of twenty 
pounds per year in olden ticnes appears to have been 
allowed to ttie Mayor of NottingiLam, and the first 
oooeeion I have seen oconrred in 1496. Beepecting 
the year 1600 we are informed of a ntaniber of pay- 
ments made by the Chamberlains, for which they Msk 
to be aooi^rted by the Oonaoil ; ooe being " For £20 
l^id by them to Riehatrd Melors, Mayor, in full 
payment of hia fee this year, &c." In 1&37'8, p. 
o76, vol. 3, there is an entry of £10 as ^\\o% been 
paid to the Mayor. I have not observed another 
payment; to him for this year, thougih on page 378. 
A.D. 1540, there is the following entry: — "It«n to 
Maieter Meyre for hys fypste M&e yere fee £10." 
In a note at the bottom of the page w<e are informed 
that '* There ia a payment of a like amyount for ' hys 
laate halffe yere.'^' In vol. 4, p. 281, a.d. 1606, ia 
the following : — "Maister Freeman nominated into 
the offyce of Maior. And upon a mooion made for 
the aliowanoe of £40 a yeare to the Maior from the 
towne, ytt seems to be yeilded unto and well liked 
aAd not contradicted by any." In vol. 5, p. 328, 
A.D. 1685, AugtWEt, the Council reaoWe that '* Where- 
as fonaerly the Major (Mayor) had bat £10 quax- 



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1» 

terly for hi* sobllety tbk house, oonsidenii^ the 
groa^ expenoes the Major ia at in hitf Majoralty 
(which mr ezoeed has aloreeaid Aillery), have 
uoaniiDocuiIy consented and ordered that £10 more 
quarteriy aball be added to hix saUery ; 00 that 
heacefoftb the Major for the time being shall hav<i 
£20 paid him <{iia<i terly by the OhamberLyus; firi»c 
payment at Xmas." It is veoy pi>obable that £80 
per year at the above date wo«U<i be eqiuTa^t to 
^400 or £500 in these times. 

I will now return to the ** Old Book oi Aocoont " 
previoualy mentioned, from whkh. informatioci of an 
mterest'kig kind may be gatiiered of about tihiee- 
quartors of a centuiy later date than what hae at 
present been reached by tibe " Borouffb Records.*' 
A hundred and thirty yeairs since unere is this 
entry : "The Mayor for ttie year £60." This looks 
like a reduction to wthat was voted 90yeai» before, 
but another item is "The Mayor for Wine £7 4s.," 
and a thipd item enterad is " Hie Mayor, instead of 
the fruit toll £10 10." Thde makes the total £77 14s., 
or on'y £2 68. less tiuin what had once been allowed. 
But tbere is anodier item which, though small, 
is very singular, and it is "The Mayoress for 
Finns 66. 8d.^' ^ the fouflteenith article 
I refer to Deedng and ths fee of 
one shiUin^ wbich in olden times was paid to 
the Mayoress by all when made buirgesses or freemen 
of the town. In considerajtioo of this she was ex« 
pected to find a rope at each bull-baitioig. For many 
years before these displays ended efforts had been 
made for their abolitioii, and thiey were ait last suc- 
cessful. Hie period appeaiv to have been between 
1702, when the fifth volume of the " Records " ends, 
and 1751, when Deering's " Hisborv of Nottingham " 
was priaited ; though it is prohaole that the par- 
ticulars will be prJTen in 4^ sixth volume when 
issued. At the tmie the baiting ceased an arrange- 
ment was made that whenever a bull was killed the 
bulcher should pay the Mayoi^ees three ShiUsngs and 
fonrpence for "pm money." lit thus appears from 
the entry in the old book referred to that two bulls 
had been slaughtered, which would make up the 68. 
8d. there recorded. I believe I am correct tn stating 
that 70 years since, or in and previous to the year 
1832, and probably even in 1835, the town acoownte 
wew not independently audited even if they were 
audited in any form, or possibly the "prnns" and 
wine might have been struck out. T admit that the 
town hiSi no right to claim or expect that anyone 
holding the office of Mayor fhould pecnnatunily suffer 



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from so douis. 

We have fall evidence from the '* Records " gowg 
back probably thf«e ceotunes or HMJire, thai there 
wei>e some good "Trencher men" on the Cowooil 
or coDnec4€d with the Corporaittoi), and it would 
within living memory be posnble to select or name 
a few who had once similar capabilities ioi a ra.ther 
emicent degree. Some of this chase I do not doubt 
would gladly vote to incpease the Mayor's stipend in 
the hope aJid expectation of an extra "feed" or 
two. It is very sati^actory to know that such 
objectiooahle« are getting scarce. I shall probably 
have more to aay shortly upon this subject in con. 
toection with the Sheriffs, Ac. That a number of 
the Council had no objection to obtain their drink 
free is evidenced by an entry in the " Records," vol. 
iv., p. 211, A.D. 1586. Under the heading of 
neoessaoy expeofies in the Chamberlain's accounts 
there are three items, two of which are for cairting 
convicted persons about the town as a punishment, 
and the third says, " 14th August, paid for wine and 
sugaj* that was aruncke at the ohoosinge of our Madoo*, 
Ss. lOd." This, as regards our pi^esent money, would 
be equivalent to ab^ £1 ids. Other cases of a 
similar kind might be mentioned, but I thorougihly 
object to thenr being entitled " necessaiy expenses. 

In the " Old Book of Account " there is an entiy of 
10s. as being paid for ringing the Mayor's bell at nine 
o'clock (? in the evening), and the same amount 
for ringing the Market bdl, but unfortunately there 
are no further particulars. The Deppty-Recoirder 
ajppears to have had £4 4s. pofld to him. Propor- 
tionately this does not appear to be a large amount, 
thouffh only 8s. appears to have been paid to the 
two Coroners. The Town Clerk is rather better off, 
for he is mentioned as receiving £3 13s. 4d., thouoh 
without much doubt considerably more would be 
given to him and some others. The "Ministers" 
of the three paricibes aape mentioned in connecticci 
with a charity for giving bread to the needy. One 
hundred aod thirty or 140 years since, and probably 
much less, the word " reverend " as applied to such 
perenns had been but littie used, if at all, and there- 
fore, comparatively speaking, it is of recent intro- 
ductson. 

In former times, and even for a great part of four 
hundred years, the town employed a mole catcher. 
In vol. iv.» p. 164, a.d. 1576, in two items the 
Ohamberlains paid to Baoon and (Sdmonson for tak- 
ynge of mouldes in the felde 278. 4d., and they appear 
to have been paid after the rate of a penny for each 



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m 

mol«. Li 1577, 37s. 9d. wa< paid. In 1579 Ed- 
mondaoQ was appoinited inole ca4x^her. In 1627 
Lamb is paid 36. 4d. for kiiUng four dozen of 
**nKM]Jd8." In 1663, Deoember 12, the Ooiinca 
ordered: "That the QhAmberlajiiB ahaJl pay for 
caitcihii^ Off moles but 12d. a doaen for 
the time to come. (See vol. v., p. 396, a.d. 
1697.) It ia 1^ the Ck)ancil "Ordered 
that Francis St^pbjos, the 'Mowdy Warpe/ 
or *Mole Catcher,' be discharged a« a 
useleas officer, and that every person pay for the 
moJes' taken in hoe owne gnwDd." Tbis is distinci 
and decisive, and no doubt was obeerved for eome 
time, though without the 6th Volume ol the 
"Records" oothdng fiuther is known for about 
three-quartefs of a century, and then I find in the 
oLd book of Account that the oflSce had been revived, 
and that £5 was padd to Samuel Uptoo, the MMe- 
catcher, though no further particulars are given 
about the number klll-ed, &c. The Qhamberl&iii*s f^ 
was £1 68. 8d., and duplicates foo: the rental 18s., 
aod books 5s. 4d. The ehi^ rent of the Lamdi>ley 
land is 13s. 4d. The Scavenger, the Beadle, the 
Mace Bead-er, the other S&rjeant, ths Balknan, the 
Keeper of the Meadows, the Keeper of the Fields 
adkd Woods, and the Finder, all are n>e>itk)»ed. 
Tben oomes the turn ol the four Town Waiite. The 
tirst occasion on which I find any mention of them 
is in the "Record*," Vol. 11., p. 379, a.d. 1464, 
wheo^e there is an entry : " To the Waits for tiMtr 
fees 2Qs. To the Waits for their liverys 15s." At 
this date, and I think I might say for neariy 250 
years later, the waits were three in number, but 
about 1770, or be/ore they hnd been increased to 
four, it will be interesting in one of the sucoeeding 
volumes of the "Reooids" to be informed of the 
tJm© when they were finally discharged. In 1770 
th^ had 40i. each allowed. 

There is one item in the old book ol account re- 
spectdng which I have no reooUectiou ol having 
oeeu any reifenace ebenvbeie. We are t(dd that 
*'The Lord Chief Justice of England reoei<ves the 
Exfhobitioin money for the King's Bench aakl Manlkal- 
6&a pnaoos ; each 2Qb. aod reoeipts 2s," which foirm^ 
a total of £2s 2s. One hundred and thirty years 
since the Nottii^kim Oarporatioo had bornxwed 
£500 from Mr. Ichahod Wright, for whdch interest 
after the rate of 4^ per cent, per annum was pay- 
able hfiJf -y early, «oommencing from 5th Jvly. They 
had also bonowed from Messrs. lohabod Wright 
8Dd Sods £300 at the same rate of iaterest, payi^ 



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\ 



141 

je&rlj on the 28th February. Mr. Knowlea lent 
tbeim £600 at the same rate of int€ir€«rt, due half- 
jeatr.y on the 23th of April aiul the« 28tii of 
Octoher. Alderman Hollins lent th«m £100 at tibe 
same rate oi inter€«t, payable and due on the same 
deutee a^ the nM>oey lent >>y Mr. Kno^Ies. TfaM 
wwiH probaWy be nwwt or' all of tbe money bor- 
rowed. 

I now wsflii to take into ooomkffation tbe cfi«e ol 
t^ two SheriffB. In t^ old book of account it ap- 
peeiTs that between them they received "for their 
chief rent ISs. 4d. For their Cloee £2 138. 4d., 
and for Toils given u.p to the Oopporatfon £12," a 
totil of £15 8s. 8d. , or £7 146. 4d. for each of them. 
There can. I tWnik, be no do<ubt that in paat yeaan 
the Sheriffs on various occasione were most aoorvily 
treated by the (Corporation or Counoil. Other 
honorary ( I) officials may have shared in that treat- 
ment occasionally, bat not to tbe same degree. With 
rfiaane-!€ra and undiegrrised impudence our ancestors 
om the Qyuncil, who appea-r to have bad no objection 
at any time to a good meal and a " cheap one," made 
no request to the S'beriffs tihat they would eive them 
a dinner two or three centuries since, bwt actually 
d-emanded one as of right, accooraponied by threats 
of fine and disfranohisem^rt. See ** Records," Vol. 
rV.. p. 320, A.D. 1614. "Mai>:ter Jowett and 
Maister Alvey. Sheriffs, being called here before 
fhrte company (tbe Council) to show cawse why they 
dbo not make thw Sheriffs' dinner this 
year, accord-in:^ to custom, they botih answefl^ed 
ytt peremptorily thiat they will »2>ither make 
a dynner nor gyve a penny fyne or oompoeicion ; 
whereupon tbis company with one aissi&nt doo all 
agree except John Stanley that the tmd sheriffs fihall 
T>av the fyne of £10, according to tibe order in that 
behalfc made, before the firat day of October next, 
or otberwifie in default thereof they shall both then 
be di«franch'flK?d and theyr pxrtos and landes which 
thev have of tbe townee riihalbe then taken from them 
.•».nd lett to othens. and so remain as foreyners." 
The fine of £10 wxxuld, in our present moiiey value, 
represmt nearlv £80 at the date above jriven. 

A lartje portion of the year of Messre. Jowett and 
.A.llvey h.''d expired and their ?»uccei5orp, Ma:5*er 
Penv and Maiste-r Ludbnn, had been selected. We 
are fnfornted that fhey were "called hither aboni 
the «Mne caw»? to know whether they will mabe tbe 
dynner or no thev 'honestly* «ay they will perform 
it lovingly." Messrs. Richard Jowett and John 
Alrey were agad/n called before the Cooo^l to know 



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142 

if tihey wonXd sabmit th^ouKtves to the oompany for 
their fine ol £10 for not makioff thar Sberiffa' 
dinner ]afl| yeaire, yea or no, lUohanl Joiwett «ab- 
mitted bimseif and Jobn AUviey refoBed to agree, 
and it was agreed to dlicifrajvc(hiiA3 him and to 
take away two acnes of laoid wiuoh he held of the 
town's, Botd so *' bo restreyne bis indolence." He 
cihartly afterwairdfi sabmitted. Of haa eiiare of ibs 
fine (£5) Mr. Jowebt bad two poande returned to 
him for " aabmAbtiavg " eairHer, but Mr. Allvey re- 
ceiired back £1 omly becauae of bi« "inaoleoce" (?) 
in fltaoding out for bis natural rights. In August, 
1616, p. 346, vol. 4, we are told " tbis company had 
conference with Roibert Bortoo and Jobn Galtoti 
toacbmge the offyoe of Sheriyaltie, and tliey refufle 
to be bownde aiod to doo as othere hare done. 
Therefore ihe company (the Cooneil) ys of opi&ion 
to spare them and to make two otheni in thedr 
roomthfi." Sepbeonber 6th, 1616, "Before this com- 
pany was the matter of the new SbirrifEs spoken of 
against Michaelmas next, and they aU with one 
assent doo intend to choose Maoster Samud Bur- 
rowQs and William James to be Shiriffs, who will take 
ytt upon ycm and will doo all thinps as formerly 
hath bene and will make theyr Sheriffs dynner (Glod 
willing I) accoirding to costome." 

Were not these good "trencher mien" oo the 
Coundl? Is it not pla^in that their finst conodera- 
tioo was a good dimmer and a cheap one? In 1617 
Maiuiter Rockett and Maister Hnrbt were called to 
account for not making their Shiniff*s dimmer. Mr. 
Hurtt submitted himself, but Mr. Rocket "obrti- 
nately" refu-sed to pay his pait of the fine (£5), 
" tiierefore this oompainy have dasfranehised him and 
doe hould him nott fitt to be reputed or taken as a 
member of the some towne.** I think most will agree 
that be was much move hooooped in refusing to 
submit than tbe one who submitted. The Ooonoil 
not only insisted wvth the grossest presumption unon 
the Shiriffs giving them a dinner each year, but 
they actually assumed to themselv^ the authority 
of choosing the place at which they would partake 
of it. On page 154, vol. 5, is the foilowiag : — " This 
oompany are content that the Shreves now in beinfl: 
(1632) ehall have liberty to make theire feast att 
Thurland House nottwithstandinge tbe order be 
made at the Hall." (?Town Hall.) This may per- 
haps have been intended as an act of "grace" on 
the part of the Council, though to oth^ it will 
appear simdlar to "looking a gift bonse in the 
mouth." It was, of oouniQ, v?ry tbou^iitful on the 



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143 

pant of the Ooirpoiiatkni to aI^cfw the Sheciftr tie n 
of an alternaftive HaJl in wiiich tiny Mi gfcfc give ttv 
feast, but the knowledge tiMd t&ey wodd have be 
diefnmchioed had they noC ooiweoted to inoar t 
cost of a dinner for tiie Oorpor&tton remains, a 
ooiwes a feeting of contempt to airifle towairds tht 
for their unblushing meannasB, which compels xm 
look with saspicioD upon ma«ny of their acta. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM: 

ITS STBEETS, PEOPLE, &c. 



XXV. 

In tib» airbK<le I deisjitne to teJoe into oonflklsitL- 
tion mailers referring to St. Aim*fl Well, and more 
especially a« regards iU oocmection with the Mayor 
and Corporation of the town when going back 
several centuriee, but cominencing with soone re- 
marks respecting Sbepheird's Race, wbich many will 
still remember, tboqgh it has long sinoe diaappHMued. 
Whitet engaged with this I have before me an ex- 
ceKent engraved plan of good size, publiisihed in 1797 
by J. Wigley, of Nottinfi'ham. It is called " Shep- 
herd's IWe, or Robin Hood's Race." We are alio 
informed on it that it was " A Maze or Labyritatb ; 
its site wa« on ihe summit of a hill near St. Ann*6 
Well, about one mile from Nottingham. It ap- 
peared to have been cut out of the turf as a place 
of exercise. Dr. Deering imagined it more ancient 
than t'he Refozrmation, and made by sioane priests 
belongnng to St. Ann's Ohapel, who, bedng confined 
so as not to vettt-ure out of sight or bearing, con- 
tirived tiris as a pkce of recreation. The length 
of the path is 635 yards. On enclosing the Ixnxl- 
ship of Sneinton it Vaa ploughed up, February 27th. 
1797." I hftve no knowledge how long it may have 
been aft^r this destruction, but another and similar 
race was afterwards cut or mide upon the ground 
connected with St. Ann's Well, and this I can well 
renwmbeir 67 or 68 years since, and ran its cou<n»e 
Pcores of times beifore it aho was destroyed. I 
always understood that it was between five and six 
hoindred yards long. As a yooibh I frequently cal- 
culated, after many times running, how much 
ground I bad coveredj and occasionally found it to 
be seven mile*. 

In Mr. J. P. Briscoe's " (Hd Nottltigbamfftiire," 
Vol. I., p. 87, speaking of the n>ore modern race, 
Mr. Hfwson Fus«?y informs us "tbat it was not 
until 1856 that he first faw it p.-nd went over it with 
some juvenile friends ; and it was not destroyed for 
^ome years afterwards, probab'y when t«he old house 
was pulled down about the year 1860." I am glad 
to be enabled to give much njore definite partictiSirs. 
In 1873 I went over the race for tiie last time, for its 
oooiree ended dtering the next twelve micynitbs. My 



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146 

friend Mr. 9. Ooltoti rt^ided in the house from the 
spring of 1867 until the autumn of 1873, and during 
the whole of that time the groimd, inokvding the 
race, was kept m excel<!eD.t order, ond was ao trans- 
ferred at the termination of his tenancy. On 
nameroas oocasionB wbUat residdfig th«tre he oUowed 
atrsAgers to oie fabe raoe, and reoeiv<ed many yiaits 
frocn membeim of th« Corporation, w4io enresKd 
their great satisfaotioii with its coiuiitioD. His soc- 
eeseor, unfortu-naitely. does not appear to liaiFe had 
the same ootoiideiratiion for it, as ibocily alter he 
obtained poesmaion h« leveCited and obHterated the 
race after it had been tihere or in 1^ neigSilboiinihiood 
for aeveral oentoides. Mr. Fo^bst also speafcs of 
the raoe 00 having been gntvelled slightly, and that 
it WTUB only po«ai£le to walk oyer it, running beimg 
oQt of the qoiestion. I may eay that I never had 
suoh an experieoice. 

In the "Records," vol. iii., p. 75, a.d. 1600, pef-er- 
ence is mads to Ko4)ynhode WeD. Deering, on p. 73, 
intiina4>e8 tihut this was the original name for St. 
Ann's Well, which only acquired the kutter title 
aftedr a chapel was bnilt there w^iich was dedicojted 
to the latter saint, atnd thait by 9ome it wa« so 
called in his time (1745). For a gre«it number of 
years the Mayor, Aldermen, &c., were (except when 
unforeseen CKrctmotftainoes prevented) in the habit of 
visiting St. Ann's Well on Blacke or Black Monday 
(Easter) in their robes, wkh the waits, dinnnmers, 
&c. In the "Records," vol. iv., p. 256, a.d. (April) 
1601. there i« the foHowimg : " Godnge to SedUt Ane 
Wetf. Itt i« ordered that the Aldeonnen, the 
Gonncell, and the CHoathing (fonner Sheriffs and 
Obambedains) shall wayte on Mad^ter MaJtor on 
Blake Monday (Eastter Monday) yeairely to Saiht 
Ane Well,, there to spend their money w^ the 
Keper and Woodward : upon payne of everye Alder- 
man makyng deMt and not paidoned by ^ Maiicr 
to forfeyt 2s. (equal to 20s. now) everie of the 
Ck>uncell makinge defalt to forfeyt 18d. and everie 
of the Cloathinge to forfeyt IZd. , being not pardoned 
bv tihe Maiior. And that every of the Aldermen 
shall spend there with the townes Woodwaod 28., 
and with the Thonney Wodes Keeper at discretion ; 
everye Counceulor wiih the towne*s Woodward 18d. 
and wi<th the Keeper in discretion ; eveirie of the 
Oloathinge to snend with the townes Woodward 12d.. 
and wnth the Keeper at di«cinetion, and thai none of 
them shall carry or send any provision thither." 
Mo«t certainly, as shown in mis extract, the Cor- 
poration accepted a position which entailed a little 



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146 

charge, though as may pertiape soooi' be litonm 
th£7 still managed to bairden the town with a 
portion of the coat« of thedr oating. Yet tUs waa 
not all, f or afi rega^rds the Aldermen at least, aocord- 
ing to the next short para^fraiph in the " Recorda," 
they ca£t off pecuniaaily a much grecuter boiden. It 
says: "Also yt is agreed that the diynkinge and 
feastisnge with the Aldermen att t^yr bowses on 
Easter Day by their whoU Wardes shall from hence 
furthe ceaoe aiod be no more nsed in tymes bo coiDm. ' 
I^ was far cheaper to spend two or three shillings 
on themselves at St. Ann's Wdl than to feast a 
large munrber of their Ward, and especially wben it 
could be arranged for the towne to bear the co0b 
of the wine they drank, &c. It appears to be rather 
uncertain when the Corporation first instituted tJie 
Easter MJonday vneit to "the Weil,** tlioi^ it is 
incidentally mentioned in t^ Chamberlain's aocounts 
in A.D. 1&69, showing that 48. was '*Peyd to the 
Weytes for playeing to Saynt Anne Wall, the Mon- 
day in Ester Weke, before MaJatier Maire ; and of 
May day." On the same page (133, vol. iv.) there is 
also another interefiting entry w*hioh says : " Qevyn 
in Wyne and Seuger by Mestris Meris (Mayore*^^*) 
and her systers unto My Lady Clefton and Mestris 
Harper the 7 af May, 7s. 9d." This, as compared 
with our present money, would reipresent from four 
to five pounds. Can it be doubted tha.t it waa 
a roost kind act on the part of tlie Mayoeress and he.r 
sisters to give a quamtity of wine and wgar for 
which the towne had paiid! It calls to mind a line 
or two applicable to a sinuilar cafie, wfiich with a 
little change may be adopted here when freely ren- 
dered as folbws: '* Mistress Mayaress and her 
Si^rs of tbeir great boonty flrave tfaos sugar and 
wine ait the cost o£ the town with its county.*' But it 
wfU appear to some that the Mayoress and her sisters 
legally formed no part of the town government. 
As the Mayor's bret^jren were the Aldermen (all 
magistrates then) tocrether with the Coroners, &c., 
so no doubt the Mavoress's Sisters were their wives 
or a near feuKile relative representing any of them. 
On th next nacre (134) fhere wa.s another "o-ift" bv 
the Mayoress and her sisJt-ers, of whicli we have a 
few more particulars' t^iven, namely, "For 31b, 6oz, 
of Seuger and a firallond of wyne. which Mestrcs 
Merys and hir svsten? jrave unfo Mes^res WvT'oncrh^'^ 
the !23 of June, 5s. 6d." At this period " Sugar was 
Suffar" and would prolbably cost 14d. or i>o«^iblv 
a litttle more per pound, or nearlv a pennv per 
ounce, but the present day equivalent would be 



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147 

about 12s. per pound, therefore there was quite as 
much <Mr more reason (asregaixlg the cost) for mention- 
ing tibeBi^gar than the wine. I have oboerved in the 
** Records " on one occasion or more where the cost 
ol sugar was exitered as being 16d. per lb. 

On 10 April, 1609, **Ytb is agreed that the mee*- 
inge att Samte Ane Wetl abail houl4 on tfJack 
(Easter) Monday, and the Counsell and Cloathinga 
to be there, and to sytt togeather acoordinf to their 
soDaorities and to pay I6d. a man all alyke." This, 
at that date (1609) would undoubtedly provide an 
excellent dinner, thoug-h no information is given re- 
specfcinjg what was included ; yet I have little fear 
in stating that it found no wine and that it is more 
than probable the town supplied it, and I am streng- 
tihened iu i>hi« beHief by the next item I find ooiXDected 
with the feast at the Well, which is on page 58, 
vol. 4, and as follows: — "Forwyn* aod suger at 
the Well on Blake Mundaye, 14s. 7d." On March 
23, 1621, it was reeolved by the Council thnt "This 
company are agreed that the former order touchinge 
the accompanainge Maister Maior to Saint Anne Well 
shall ataond and either to goe or pay, or both.'* The 
oottncil do not appear to have been able to frame 
any rules respecting their attendaiice at St. Ann's 
w*hich Batiefied them long, and the next entry on 
28 March. 1623, again differs from the previous one«, 
and which I now give: — "Saint Anne Well. The 
Meting on Blacke Monday to hold according to the 
ancient custome, but with this addicion, tha4;t 
Maisrter Maior, Alderman aaad Shreves pay 2a a 
piece aod all the clothmge and counoell preeeot IBd., 
and absent 12d.'' 

'JTiree years afterwards (March 30, 1626V a change 
is a^n mode, for the Council resolved "This (>)m- 
panae are a^i^reed that Ma>ister Maior, Aldermen, 
OouDoell, and cloathing will observe the antient 
custom of going to Saint Arnie Well on Black Mon- 
day nexte (EaMer) ajid to pay according to auntient 
custome, viz.. 'Z9. Maistor Maior. Aldermen, and 
Coroners: and the Oouncell and doathinge 18d. a 
piece, provided that Francis Nixe doe appoynt som« 
honest Woman of credit to have the oversight aod 
ordringe of the Meate anddrincketobespeut there, 
and then as well those absent as present to pay as 
aforesaid." 

It crtalnlv appears that our former local le«is- 
letors were determined to have their drii& c^eap when 
at Saint .Ann's Well, for aeain T will jrive nn extract 
from the ObamberTaln*« account of April, 1627, whioh 
i«, ** Item for Wyne and su^r at the Well on blake 



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148 

(Eaiftr) Monday, ISs. 4d." Tliis. wben compaced 
with our pr€«eiDtmoiMy would be aqua I to six or seven 
pounds, and which these lovers of cheap feasts 
managd to io\^t upon the town. The next reference 
to the meeting at St. Ann's Well is in the "Records," 
Vol. v., p. 140, A.D. 1630.. when . after 
conference tJie Council *' oonsideringe . . . 
the oomtynance laudable, both in the 
former ,and the future time«, yf the 
abuses bee taken aw&y ; ytt is titorofore ordered and 
aereed that from kemoefortbe the some aOKmhly 
ftball coDitinewe and be held by Mikieter Major, 
Makstew Aldernreu. the Oorowws,' Sheriffs, Conncell, 
ni*d Olobhinge as heretofore; a«d that Mai«ter Major, 
Ma<i3t«« Aldennen, tbe Ooroners, Sheriffs, the 
Towne^larke, and the Sfr<?waJ^ shaJl pay there for 
themaelvee and wyefos (whether they have aoy or 
noi or whether they be present oi absent) 2s. ; wn-i 
all the i^est of the Clothing and Counoeri likewiee, 
whether they be present or absen-t, 18d. ; and that 
every onie fioe to i^ rfwU ffeve his atteodajoce on 
Maiftber Mayor at his bowse and wayte on him both 
g<nn«^ and cominii^e ; ajid that everie ooe that have 
(snc^ wyves shRll lykewise wydi them to atboiid on 
^listrifl Ma-iorifi as Lath be<m antiently uoed ; and 
that if aiJe d the aforesaid of the Aldermen, 
Oomonem, ^lerifite, Oounoell, Cloothinge, and othera 
hhaH make defalte in nott aooompaoinge or atte<nd- 
inge of Maioter Maaor unless he or they ahall be 
lyo*poed by Manflrt«r Mayor for the tyroe bcin^) 
pbe or theyT shall pay for everie defaulte 12d. to the 
use of the pore of i^adnt Joanes's, over and besydes 
the rates formerly to be paied for theire dyrmers." 
There are parti culo-ns here which were likely to b? 
sufficient in number to satisfy all, and that this was 
pawbably the case is almost decided by the faot that 
so far as the next 75 years are concerned or until 
the end of the 6th vol. of 'The Records," 1702. 
Hiere does not appear to be any change in the 
oTraingments geneaxiUy as then made. 

The L^Tt resolution bv the Council respecting their 
meeting at St. Ann's Well was on Monday, March 
23. 1635. From inference I have no doubt that 
Easter occurred early in that yea-r, and as with our- 
selves this year, at the end of March. On p. 172 
it is decided by the Council that : " This Companie 
ore agreed in regard to the unccrfcaiinty of tEe 
wieaither ai)d the mldness of the season to allter the 
mieetiiiige att Saint Ann Well from Monday in Easter 
weeke unto Monday in Whittsonweeke ; and the 
same penalbie to be pedod for not performange tfaeind 



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fNtbenlttbcie iiieoardiiwe to tbe former order in tde 
thoe oi AlezaiDder 9tn.ple0, Madoir, butt thus altera- 
cion ahall not dJocoatjnefwe the same aobLeDt ouetoooie 
for tiie tyme XM>we appoynted for the same." After 
itie date the GoudoiI appear to have cLaimed the 
right to decide wh&n the meetingis should be held, or 
wkbt arraoiffemeintfi should be made respecting thetn, 
for on p. 252, vol. 1, 1647, we aj* bold " It k ordered 
y£ut Sadnt Ann Well i^ll not bee diepoeed of here- 
after without consent of Maieter Maior, ye Alder- 
men, and Councell, and not by the MaJ«or for ye time 
being oo^y ae formerly hath beene." 1 have men- 
tioned sufficient respeoteng the Tialt© to'theWell" to 
prove that centuries since it played an important 
part in the feasting and merry-makings of the Town 
Council, and no doubt of the town. That the 
Corporation \iere good feeders I consider there can 
be little doubt, and they appear to have been fflad 
to find an excuse for havm^ a feast, as in 1647, 
when they ordered "the diner to be laid downe at 
the breaking of the Eastcroft hereafter." This was 
an occasion when I consider it to be undoubted that 
the town would pay for the wiii<i at least, and pro- 
bably for the whole of what was consumed. 

It will have been observed thait I frequ^itlv 
quote from ' The Borough Records," and, with 
other thingS; been enabled to give many appropriate 
extracts from the Chamrberlains' accounts oi various 
payments which they had made for the town, and 
It is with mucb regret as regards Vol. 5, end the 
last which has at present l^en issued, from the 
great diminution which has taken place in these 
accounts as compared with Yd. 4, tbat on several 
occasions I have been unable to obtain what should 
be most interesting notifications of particular pay- 
ments in relation to what I have written, but 
which were inserted in the 4tih volume as a matter 
of course. Of this kind of information I believe 
there is in proportion not more than one- third in 
Vol. 6 as compared with Vol. 4. Those examining 
Vol. 5 may expect to find that, excepting for the 
year 1688, there is no entry of the Chamberlains* 
accounts for the 50 years — ^from 1662 until 1702 — 
which is most strange. That many other things 
are omitted from the Records, in addition to finan- 
cial matters, appears certain from the fact that, 
whilst the accounts, &c., for the last 50 years in 
VoL 4 fill 276 pages, there are but 166 pages filled 
during that time in Vol. 5. It is to be hoped that 
these matters may receive full consideration, and 
that there may not be any abridfj^emtent whatever 
in otiter volumes, or things omitted as meutioned, 



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150 

which are so decidedly inbeiiestiiig. DieM ▼ o i n me g 
are iaraed under tlie authority of tiw city or Oor- 
poratioii. 



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OLD ;N0TTINGHAM: 

ITS STREETS. PEOPLE. &c. 



XXVI. 

In tibe y«ar 1688 tihe OWfJfomajta'on weme oiiiice 
more pecani&riiy m a state of great einl>a<rraBaine>Dt, 
and tibait their neecb were urgent is folly shown by 
tbieir takmg away tivree-ifoiirtlhfi oi tb& aomuai 
stipend allowed to the Mayor. Thi« to tiie Coan- 
oil was no doubt a momentous question, for it 
would certainUy leesen the number of tibeir 
ca*rottd»als, and as good knife and fork men they 
would deeply regret having to pass ouch an order. 
It is self evident that tJiey had pleasu^re in a well- 
prepared meal and a oheap one. 

At a meeting of the Council held Thuirsday, July 
12, 1688 (see " The Records/' vol. v., p. 342), they 
passed two orders respecting this nMutteo*. In the 
first they say : "It is this day ordeored by bhe 
UDaninM>us consent of this house thait noe pubLique 
FeostA shaJl be hereafter kept by ye Major (Majyor) 
as focmerly by reason of the gpeajt debts which ye 
Towne is in at projesnt." Unlortunately, on this 
occasion no LnfonDation appears to have come down 
to us respecting the amount of the town's in- 
debtedness. tSq neoct resolution wob m follows : 
"It. is this day ooxlered, that wtRaress the late 
CorpoTOition (this was after the abange by CSiairles 
II.) did allow the Major (Mayor) £80 per annTmi 
for defraying the public oharges and Feasts during 
his Majoralty ; it is tbetrefoore ordered thaib wibeceas 
the publiquie Feasts by order aioreaaad are taken 
away, that ye Major hereafteir shall have only £20 
per annum, payable quarterlv for maiintainimg lus 
Serjeants and defraying his year's oharges: this 
abatement aforesaid is in ords^r yait this Corporation 
may as soone as possibly may be, gatt out of-theire 
great debts whic£ they are at present engaged in ; 
the twenty pounds aforesaid allowed to -<^ Major 
for his charges shall commence from midsummer 
last" This I think will be accepted as full proof 
of the wretched state into which Uie fin^mces of the 
town had again faJlen aiul the nece^ity of economifl- 
ing in aU poesiblie coses. 

I do not doubt that the Council deeply regrebbed 
that tbe money motteri of the town stEouid be in 
such a wretcftied staite. They a<^knowledge dmt a 
kf^ popfcioin of t^ money previously paid lor fhc 



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m 

Mayor'A stipend waa far defraying not only poiblic 
chargea but ** fea0te dimqg his May<itaHy,'' and bbe 
CorporatioD no doubt in tike main oomposed those 
attending the FeafttB, fb^^foire we may imagifie 
that some moral ooonige waa needed in giving them 
up for a seaflOQ. The ttro orders or resolationa 
named were passed in July, 1688. I will now men- 
tion anothier, wliioh waa peased the next month, 
namely Augurt, 1688, as foilo»w» : " Whewtta the 
Right Noble his Grace the Duke of Newcaatle haa 
given a bock to thia Corporacion, and ^e Right 
Honourable the Earl of Devoashiire has given a 
brace, and whereas th«re was formerly an order 
made by this house that there should be noe 
publike Feasto made at the charge o£ the Corpora- 
tion, yet having received thia favour from the 
said persons of quality it is this day ordered that 
what shall be expended in makins a Feast witb 
the said vension soail be paid by the Ohamberladns 
for the use of the Corporation, to be allowed them 
in their Accounts." 

This appeeos to be a case oif stomach versus right, 
and the stomach prevailed, even at the cost of 
morality. The Corporation showed that they were 
80 unable to reaist the temptaiition oi a good m«al 
and a cheap one, with a buck and brace to be de- 
voured, thait even the im(poveri«(hed state of the town 
when laying t^is additional dbarge upon it was as 
nothing to thean if a banquet was in question. Their 
ckhim to be entitled good trencher men cannot be 
denied. I will give one more sam/pie of their feeding 
ability. It will show that their weakness for good 
and cheap dinners was not merelv during tibe last 
two oenturie*. In the "Record*, vol. d. p. 318, 
A.D. 1604, there is a noticeable entry as foUiws : — 
" Item payd for wyne at the eyting of the v«ne«son 
thnt the Kyng gane, and for floure and pe|>er and 
dressing, aind iMwse rome and fewell os it was 
shewid by a bill 7s." This, four boodred years 
since, would no doubt be eqtial to about five pounds 
at tibe present time. 

In fomver ages our ancestors belonging to the 
government of the town betrayed a decided prefer- 
4?nce for show, with the wearing of coloured cloaks, 
&c., varying somewhat aocor&ig to the poflition 
occupied, and various maitter#oo«Kicted tlhflpewtth 
were frequently being considered by ffce Council to 
comply with or provide for some psMlng require- 
ment. The firflt meiitioii thai I hare Wttan m teftr- 
ence to the wearing of gowns bv members of the 
Corporation is in the Chaiter ot Hens^ VI., A.D. 



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14^, ai recHed in tbe "Beoorde/* vol. 2, p. 205, 
uttoety, '* We bftTe aJjM> g^raated, of our mere motion 
and cettain knowledge aforesaid, and have giy«n 
iiceojie for us, our bein and suooessors ckforesa^d, to 
tile aforesaid present Borgefleee of t<be aforeoabd town 
of Nottdngheim, and to tbeir snooeeftors, and to every 
other boTgess cxf th£ same town for the time beiivg 
that «haU be an AkhermAn of tha^ town, ti^t tbe 
Aldermen of t^e satme town for eiver for tbe 
time being ismy use gowns, hoods, and cloaks of one 
ftut sod one livexy, together witii furs and linings 
suitable to those cloaks in tbe same maimer and form 
as the Hayor and Aldermen of our City of London 
do nee ; the Statute of Liveries, of Clothe, and of 
H^MxUi, or ttQT other Statute or ordinance heretofore 
i«iied notwitibfltaDdii^.'' 

On page 201 the Oharter gives power to the bur- 
gesses to elect Seven Aldermen who are to hold tb^ir 
office for life unless they be removed at their request 
or other special cause, and the Mayor must airways 
be chooen from amongst the Aldermen, all of wbom 
were then magistrates. From this there does not 
appear to have been any ddfferenoe in livery between 
the Mayor and the AkLeimen unless perhaps by a 
gold (min of o ffice . In vol. 3, pp. 448-4^ in the 
reign df Hetiry VII., about a.d. 1600, the Council 
made various orders rei)peotinc the wearing of their 
cjoaks, &c., by the Mayor, Aldermen, Councillors, 
&c. In the quaint Lamffua^e of the period it com- 
mences : " These been dte days that the Mayre and 
his Bredem base used and accustomed of 6ld time to 
were their clokes and their last livery, and hdt is 
thoug>ht that hit shod so oontinewe to tbe honour of 
God and conAervation of the gode rule of the 
towne.** Continuing, it is ordered — "First, 
the said Mayre and his Bredren to 
were their said clokee and last livery, 
and all the ckthynge (those having served em sheriffs 
and chamberlains) in likewise on Michaelmas day 
when the Mavre is ohosen, .... and the 
drinking with the Mayne and ShenfEs. Also ihj said 
Mayre and bis bredren to weire there said clokes and 
la*t liverey, and tbe wiiole clothynge 
in lykewyse on the Saturday next after 
Michaelmas' day .... in likewise on 
All Hallowes' day, namely, in time of processdon, 
whetJ going; during service at church, &c. 
The Mune on Chnstmas Day, and on 12th day, and 
Oandlstofls day, and Pascfae or EaSter, when in addi- 
tion they must go in their *'ck^,** kc,, to the 
•ecukm m the altemoon. 



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154 

Respecting twelfth daj, I do not doobt tiuufc » 
laxge proportion of those now Jiving will not xe- 
memb^ anything about it, though with the older 
oectioD of the commouEty the thought o£ *^W- day 
may raise a amile in connectioo wtth aome lively 
ineid^uts which occa^onaUy occurred a long time 
back to thoae intontiy looking at the varied and 
intereeting maAUn exhibited aixty to seventy yean 
fiince in the coofectionere* shop windowa (See 
Hone'fl Everyday Book, Vol. I., pege 28). Ctom- 
n>?4icing, as 1 believe, about the peri^ of 1840 the 
abservan<;e of this day in the maiMiec named with 
pmtry cooks gFadoally lessened wstil for foity yean 
or more I think it has entirely ceased, and with it 
ended the pinning together of the dresses or coal 
UuU of numerous persons, aad ocoasionally the tack- 
ing of them to the woodwork of the shop, the ooose- 
queocee of which were accMnpanied by the nsenrimflat 
of the crowd. 

There is an amus ng item in the report of the 
Mikletorn Jury for 1577, where they say — " We do 
present thiit the oldermeu and the aldensis (aider- 
men's wives) shall were thef^e apparell as hath bene 
ufsed of aunsiant coetume, one (on) such daies as is 
usiall and apontyd." According to this, not only 
wene the mambess of the Corpora'tion to be offLciaUy 
clothed, but some of their wives also at stated tinMs. 
The Corporation consisted of the Mayor, seven alder- 
men, two sheriffs, two chamberlains, two coronera, 
and the common Gouncdl men, but there were also 
such as had filled one of the posts of sheriff or 
chamberlain, which, with those in <^ce, would 
probably form a total of nearly twenty. The full 
number of the Corporation for many yeans being, I 
believe, about forty-eight, and afterwards moire. In 
a resolutdon dated December, 1607, the Council say — 
"Yfct ys agreed that those of ye Councell being com- 
monere shall from tyme to tyme wayte in theyr 
gownes as othjer of the Councell do that have bene 
of the cloathinge; and that the order for walk- 
ing of the Merkett shall be amended in this poynt ; 
and that they of the Councell now being oommoners 
shall have gownes before next Ass zee upon payne 
of every one offending herein to forfeit lOi"— -which 
in our present naoney would be equivalent to £5, 
and possibly rather mofre. 

On various occasions the Town Waits accompanied 
the Mayor and Corporation in the prooessione play- 
ing their instmmeote. Under wa^ circumstanoes 
at w'll not be surprising that a little extra care and 
expense was bestowed upon them. This will be seen. 



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156 

in ''The Reoortk/' VoL 3, p. 393, a.d. 1541 (aee 
Ghajnberlains* aocount*), yrb^h mentions t<be it^tiu, 
"for the WejrteB ohevnee (ohaJne, 3), weying 
xix. oonces, £3 7«. 2d., which sum compared 
wdtti ow pc«Mot money ie equal to £30. I, of oooiae, 
suppose the chains to have been silver, but judging 
by recent money value they coet an enormous pro- 
portioiDate sum. ki tdie GhamberlaLiw' account for 
1672 there are two items, namely, (1) Paypd unto 
the Weytes for their fee, £3; (2) Paid to Jolm 
Curson lor theire three iyvereys, 338. 9d. This, com- 
pared with present timee, would probably be equal 
to about £18. In 1614, p. 324, the Bellman peti 
tione the Council that he "may be in liverie in tiio 
towne's clothe," Signed William Halle. On page 
327, A.D. 1615, the Chamberlains in their account 
show that they mid 16s. for a coat for the Bellman 
of St. Peter's, though juet before there is an item 
of £3 18s. for the (4) coats for the Town Waits. 
When properly considered this appears an enormous 
sum to expend for such a purpose and more t^an 
the cost of the coat for the bellman As compared 
with mockm times it would amount to nearly £8 
for each of t<be fonr coats. The only excuse for this 
unreasoDAiUe payment am the part of the Corpora- 
tion would, I ooiisider. be their great partiality for 
show, also that to a great degree the Waits in pro- 
cessions, &c., would w«ilk first, and therefore they 
must be bedizened and wear a si-Iver chain of office, 
&c., &c., at a heavy cost to the town. 

On page 277. a.d. 1606, thoee of the Corporation 
without " skarlett gounes " are presented or reported. 
The Cbambdrlains in their account for 1626-27 give 
more particulars respecting the ooats for the Waits. 
They say. " Paied for 6 vards and a halfe of Stamell 
for tbe Wayts' coats at i3s. 4d. per yard £4 6s. 8d." 
And "for taffetie to face their ooats 8s. 8d.** Thi« 
for the coa^>s \t» 17s. 4d. more than the cost a few 
years before, though if it be noticed there is no 
charge made for anythimj; except the material. The 
next entry is: "Pand for a coate for the bellman, 
14s. Od." This charge is 28. less than before, but 
here the perfect coat is charged for, therefore the 
maierial only for each Wait's Coat appears to have 
cost twice as much as the finished coat of the bell- 
man, and to be equivaleaJt to about £9 each in our 
present money. 

In 1628 several of the Corporation were fined for 
not wearing their gownes when jjoin^ to Cliurcb. 
On p.p. 169-70, (I.), 8ei>tMnibesr 17, 1634, there was 
a rewMution that: "TTiis oompanie are agreed that 



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1^ tht AkktmcQ anA Caotiunge flfaail wayte on 
MaJsujr Maior to Walk flie fayre on Saint Matchew*s 
day nexte ki their Sciclett gownee ; and thii order 
for the grace of the towne to have contynewaBce for 
erer." On Wednesday, Novenaber 26, 1634 (tame 
year), it was ate ordered, " Thtttt efverie ooe of the 
CAoathinge ahaJl in their Scarlett gownes, and eyerie 
of the other govmemen shall daely and deoenUy 
attend the Maior in bic walk of the fayre on the 
fayre day. And lykewlse that the ScarteU gowne- 
men of ^e Cioathin«f shall come to the Church on 
the fifth day of November yearly to geve God 
thancks for the greate deliverance from the powder- 
treason, which day is commanded by Act of Parlia- 
ment to be celebrated upon paync to everyone not 
we&ringe their Scarlett govroes and other gownes 
thoae two days to forfeyte for such theire neglect 
for everie tyme 12d. to he levyed by distreflse and 
sale of the offender*? goods in oaae th^ refuse or neg- 
lect to pay the saied penalty of 12d." There is a 
memorandum saying "thatt Maister Maior hath re 
calved already for fynes for not wearinge gown^ 
48. 2d. paid into the cashboz.** 

In 1648 there was aootber order r e < p ec 4img the 
wearily of gowm, the petialty for non-ohseiTaiioe 
being Se. 4d. In 1647 It wm "a^?re^ that all ths 
o'othiog and ooanoell shall wfare tfaeire black gowns 
at the aasisee and after, as usually they have beie^o- 
fone done.*' In 1652 the Gorporation must haye 
caiimed down to a larae dagree, for they ordered 
that **Thii« company t4&nff gownee into cofMndera- 
oion, the major parte tftviwe fitte nott for to have 
gownes wome generally as before." Tbere is an 
amnisicig paragraph on p. 282, a.d. 1664, where t^ 
Oo r powBtton resolve that "Thm Oompooie doe ap- 
proye of Mistres' Maiors' and MSftresses Aldresies 
(Aldevvnen's wives) request toubhinge a liverie 
cloakie for Maiater Hoorfrey Greaves tibatt waits on 
them, so that the trnmnio^ be nott g»ady but 
civeil." In tUs instanoe the reooaunendntions of 
the ladles af>pear to have had some influefioe. It 
was then ordered that the waite should have forty 
^biOlinigs a ^ear for tibeir wages, and that tbey 
sbookd have cLoaks eyerv secood year aod not coats. 
In January, 1655, p. 286, it appean t^ot otie of 
the wa4tB pawned his doak for 20s., w4iich was '*to 
be remembered.** 

In September, 1655, the CSorponBtion decided that 
tfcey wcMtld agein wear gowns, aooording to an«ieot 
custom, SDd all were to be ready to be worn before 



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157 

tibe Assii/eSf or a peonlty of £5 w«6 imposed for 
tveiy de>fauJt. In 1690, May ISt-h, p. 364, it wa^ 
"OiKkered that the Major (Mayor) and Adennen 
Kha 1 alfways ooow into Ootmcell in bbeir Qownes and 
tibe OyoncikDein in their hanging Qwtee; if they <k> 
Dot they shail fo<rfeit the Munme of twelve peaace.** 
In 1698, November 2attd, p. 399, the OorpwatioQ 
Bay that '* Itt m tihis da-v agreed t^at if any penxm 
or persoine memibers of this hoii«e i^H nett aippeare 
m their gownet at the tymes appointed or witlhiii a 
quarter c^ an bower after, having no licemoe or ez- 
cose, ^all forfeit one ehiliyng to tflw nee of the Oor- 
porattioo." I betieve thia to be Uie firet occasion to 
be observed in the "Beoordi" where one sihilluiff ia 
directly eirtered in that fonn, aa it waa invaaiwly 
roentuoned as twelve pence or 12d., though if double 
tflut amovnt or oMre it would be 2b. or 38. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM 

ITS STREETS. PEOPLE, &c. 



xxvn. 

In miy ssoood coaxunittificatBOO. I mentioned Tol- 
Ibouse Hill, amd in^idenltaXly remoilDeid tbat tber^ 
wB« good reason for its ikame, as migibt afterwards 
be am>wii. It is que^tiooiakle ^wheiber there is any 
knowledge reapeoting the date wtien a toll-boose w«s 
&Esi bniik' t^e. The eaoiieflt reference I hove seen 
is respecting iU niinoue sta-te in the '* Beoords/' a.d. 
1640, where the Mioktetoim Jury say : " We request 
the ToLebouse may dther be repaired or taken 
dK>wn.'* Arnd the order was thiEtt it aboold be 
• taken down." On December 8th, 1648, ihe Cor- 
poration " Ordered, when the wea.their is seasonalyle, 
the Oenitry ho<u»e at Hockley to be removed by the 
Qbamlbeirlins to the ObappeJ bar for a house for the 
Sheriflfe's Sergeants to taA:e todl in, wtiieo it is re- 
movied ; then to bee rented." In the aoooant of the 
Chambeffl!a.ins early next yeao: (1649) it is shown that- 
William Smalley built a n«w " Toll house at Cha|ppell 
Barre." From what is here mentiioQed it is eivident 
that th'cTe nuust have been a toK -house many year^ 
betfoie 1640 ; whdlst the old one at that date had 
beoome so dilapidated as to meke it oeoessary that 
it shouid imimpddiiately be pulled down-. Oq page 
121 Deering refers to it as "Toll Hill," and for in- 
formation respecting its dn^con^anuaooe we shall pro- 
baObly have to wait until the 6th ViAvaae of thv 

BorougSh Eecords" is issued. 

In my fifth aiticle I rofer to Old G-lsa^hoiase-stireet, 
which uatil 1848 (aad prohably after), according to 
an old map, was the naoDe for the first end of what 
is now called Snru.thiwiell-road, and in its length fifty 
years since would reach at least as fa<r as the houses 
on the Nott-ingham side of the road, then eiteoded, 
and to thio&e wh^ch now form the southern sidie of 
Sneicton Mlairket. In the old Book of Account of 
130 years si no?, to which I have reoeinily referred, 
thfCrre is entered as fodtows : " Widow PiUdngton, for 
tlbe Swiveiig^er's Ue payaible 22nd Mardh and 22nd 
Serpt ember, £52. Suiine for an incroaohment by a 
house on the waste neer the Glass-house in Oaarter- 
^te, 28." Here is ©videiwe that there was aOiass- 
bouse in Oaiteir-^ite 130 years since, and where 
Carter-gate ended Old Glaashouse-stpeet comoaenced, 
but for a numher of yeajs th«^ were two Glass- 



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ib9 

iioase-«tr««t« in the towiij wlxicb wa« an egtegioat 
bloDder on the part of sovne wiseaoreB wtio, oiilor- 
tnoat«ly for t(b« town, wer« in anthority many years 
aiDce, tlboQ^ (kfici«ni in ability as refcafdied tike 
d)ttti€s of thedr position, or bbej could not 1iay« aotod 
with such seneel^e-iness. 

To distio^ish the two stireets the one near Sn^in- 
toQ, and the first to be Damed, was called Old Qlass- 
hoLse-atfeet. It dedved its title from the gla8»* 
woite near, and it was tbaroii^hly nwskadiiing to 
a{ft«irwa<r(ls give aiDotber street a similar name. 
In 1689, Vol V. , the MiidcLeitoni Jwy report Obrie- 
topber Wood for stoppiuge a common issew (drdin) 
in ye bottom of ye Gia«lbott*e Laoe. Thds un- 
douibteidly was near the glaas-works and 213 years 
since, wbioh is muoh more than douible tibe time tbe 
other tftjorou^are has beeai called Glasslhoii^ie-street. 
Wlt'h all except my elderly fellow-citizens there is 
little or no kiMywledge left of Old Glas^flwoifle-street 
no<w, or thzt tberre ever was mere than tftM^ one 
ahutting upon Lower Parliaanent-street, but to «how 
the comusion which the double namdng of streets 
will cause I wi^l say that quite recently I happened 
to see an accoiunt or report of what was said to have 
occurred in Gke^hoiuse^etreet mainy years 
back, with the idea and mtfeirence that 
it was in the preseot sfanest of that 
name, whereas it was in the oW street, and without 
dtoubt betfope the newer street was fonxted or known 
as such, but the writer was, oomfparativ^ly speak- 
ing, a young mom, and therefore, with such pitfalls 
prepared for him^ but Httle to be blamed for his 
mistake. 

In Vol. 5 Off the **Recopds," page 448, in reference 
to Gk<!ahouse-lane the editor calls it Glasshouse- 
street (?) Tbaa undoufctedlly is utterly mial«ad5ng, 
for it was near to the glaas-woite. Carter-gate. I 
have in several instaoices spoken pilainly respecting 
omiflsioner, &c., in the •'Records" when I tbouf^t it 
right to do so, but in this case the blame should 
alnwist emtirely be laid upon the igtioramnses who 
allowed two streetv*? to have sitmikur titles and years 
aftefTwardS renamed the oldest of them. It was a 
reipetition of what occurred respecting the altera- 
tion of Peonyfoot-lane, or row, in connectioin with 
Pennvfoot Style, for the two are with UKist pennons 
mixed up together (see article 5), rnclucimg the 
e(|iitorf> of the "Records" as mentJion?d previously, 
though they only fell into tra^ most untfcfimkingly 
left for them in past times by some of those in au- 



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160 




thanij wten cbeMgm^ and confiianie nameA. I con- 
«d«r i* t4» be fifty yours, oc poemi% a Kttle more, 
fiiizkoe Old Qkaaiioase-straet wm entkM "Soatih-vpell- 
road," w*bioh may have been before eittber oi the 
editors of tlie " RieooHs '* knew about any streeta. 

Our anoeatocB, gomg back several hundred yeaira, 
aippeair to have been adnost m much troobled with 
"•Aie dftwlk quesbioii" as ourselves in recent tknea. 
In 1511 — ^Vol. 3, p. 106— 4M1 account )b rendered 
ediowiiig thttt £9 16e. lid. had been i«ceived for 
fines ki cofut, aod of thas £2 16e. 2d. was from 
"tipplers" and brewere. It will be better to say 
tJbat for many years a tippler was the keeper of a 
drinking shop, to wshich out beerhouse would be tha 
neare«»t equivalent, and many, if not all, of them 
brewed their own beer. There were then few, if 
any, brewier^ of tti3 soit wie hove in these times. It 
may here be seen how we have aicquired our word 
'* tippler," though now wMl quvte a differast mean- 
ing to who* wae formeriy the ca»e. Webster says a 
tip^en' is "one who habitually indulges in the ex- 
cessive use of apirituou5: liquiora.'* The seller of the 
beer or liquor as such now has Dothing whatever to 
do with it in its old meaaung, for aocordBng to cir- 
cumstances it is the drinker and not the seller who is 
now a tippler In olden times there wei^ oontinaal 
reports respectinf^ tlbean. TTie first which I h«T>e ait 
present noticed was m 1522^Vol. 3, p. 1556— as 
follows: — "Item we preysent Tbomas StsiboJlys for 
seilyni? alle (ale) a boff they Meyry's prysse** (abovp. 
the Mftyor'f" price). That is the price whieh had 
been fixed by the Mayor, which at this time would 
not be more than a penny per quart, and this neaHy 
four hundned yeaw sinoe would almost be equivsleot 
to a shrilling in recent times^ thongh there were manv 
complaints to the Mavor a«id magistmrte*; thsit a 
great er charge was made than a penny per quart. 

The fixing of a price a.pplied also to bread, of 
which there were numerous complaints of its not 
being complietl with, and of more being often 
charged. In 1589 various presentments were made 
nt the Sessions, and one is '* Also we request that 
there may be no oMwupes nor tipEnir houses, hut 
such as shail be sufficient and of good report, and 
that they be bound for the good be- 
bftvyour of tibear house, and that «<! 
!*uch parsons (persons) as flfisll resort to 
their housses, take their rest in dew tyme at the 
nygfct uppon a paynne " In iihe " Record*," vol. 4, 
p. 218, William Alestne is presentwl " for tyjJing 



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161 

imbon« (nnboimd, iknUoensed) and himself % swearer 
and a dronkard.'* Fkied 56., equal to £3, or nearly 
so, now. Tbea% were a number of reporte of a 
similar kiaid in most years, but in 1615, p. 336, voL 
4, the Middetom Juiy in ttbeir preeentounts ffiye 
tbe names ol more than sixty persons wlho tippled, 
or brewwl, without Ikeoces. They were fined 3s. 
4d. Bach, or about 30i. of our money. There must 
have been undue kizity somewhere, or in a town as 
nnaU as Xottingham was in 1615 it wumld not haye 
been possible for sozty persofis to be breakkig the 
law in the form mentioned. In 1626 Robert Tailor 
is presented to the Sessions for tip2ng witAtout a 
licence, and was fined 20s., or about £8 of our 
moner. TIhe same year Maister Reyell was fined 
206. for *' bruing " wittkout a lioeooe. 

Deering on pp. 12-13 ffires a list of streets, laoes, 
courts, rows, &c., in the town, together witb tlie 
number of persons residing in tiiim in the year 
1739. He tells us that ** This account of the num- 
ber of souls in tfce town of Notting^m was taken in 
the yeair 1739, not computing t!he aoKrant of them 
by alHowing a certain number in eacb house one with 
another, but gatSieriing tibe exact number of men, 
women, and chiMonen in every iDdividual hoiuse or 
tenement." In thi« way tlbeine anpeors to have been 
aboiit 10,340 inhabitants, but alkrwing 300 more for 
hospitajs, wocldhouse, and prison, with 360 for the 
dhance of some being oreiiooked, tihat will make the 
T>oi|>ula!t-'on 11,000 (eleyien thousand) in 1739: but 
during 1616, or 120 yeaaw eaiftiter, it migbt probably 
be about seven or eigfht tboxtsand, thoufilh tofr the 
sake of argument I will consider i«t to M.ve been 
9,000, and that in addition to t(he 61 Uplers, &c., 
witljout a licence, we add thereto proportionately 
onJy 70 who had licences, it will be found tiwit tJhere 
were 130 <irinking plaoes kn tihe town, or one for 
every 69 inibxbitants. wliich all will concedie was 
more than ample, and a proiportion no doubt as 
large, or larger, than wha.t is tbe case in modem 
times. 

At that period the word or phra«e " testotaller " 
would have had no meaning with the people, thoiugh 
it would have been better for the town if many of 
those in it bad for conscience sake systemaiicalV 
aibBtained from the drinking of intoxicants, but as I 
have fully explained, the town govemm>ent and coun- 
cil of tbe period set a most pemicdous example. In 
the " Records." vol. 4, p. 325, a.d. 1614, in a Pre- 
sentment at the Sessions it is said " We request that 
your woTsbkppe wyll take some ofder wythe all the 



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162 

aVjwj£e« in tbia towne, for we thinke that never an 
alewyfe dothe as hir hosband m bound to." Before 
tbe year bad ran there was anothef complaint when 
it waa said " Wee nreaent thatt bber is noe reffonn- 
acion conaerninff the inffinitt nnmber of all (ale) 
houses witihin wia towcke considering jat the ben 
(tiieyVe been) comtinnaMy spoken of botii att Assise* 
and Sessions and yet nothing ameikled • ooooemiag 
the aame." This makes it appear Tery probable 
that in my estimate I have not exceeded the number 
of publk-housee in the town in th« year 1615. In 
a refport of the Mickletome Jury for 1687 they say 
" We ppeeeot the alle (aie) houses in Carter-gate, 
namly, Bartie Ghmnby (4d.) aind Nycho4a« Walaer 
(4d.) beoauae they are not able to Lodge titrangers 
nor mete to be akhouses." Boode were occaeionaHy 
required for the keeping of good order by tippleoi 
in their bouses, and aleo as in the cases of Thomas 
Rogers aokd John Wireihom, floe "Records," vol. 4, 
p. 69, February, 1690, where the first is bound in 
£20 ihat be shall not keep a tippling house or 
viotuaUiAg boase, and the latter, w}k> was an ipn- 
holdier, is " bound in £40 that he will not hold any 
inn or tj.j>plmg house, and that he shall appear at tha 
next Aasizes. (Tip^tog house, a beerhoujp?.^ 

On Tiarious occasions during his reign (1603-1626) 
James I. came to the town, and under the cirenm- 
BtaDoes I aon quite iodined to believe that he wa« 
Dot « desirame visiitor, for proportionately the 
costs were laiTflne and the benefits nil. At a meeting 
of the Oounoil, July 10th, 1612, the following is 
extracted from the minutes: — "The compoiny de- 
beting upon the necessary ohardge to be imiployed 
about his Maiestie's enterbainment, it is thought 
convenyeot that there sibaill be £160 — borrowed 
upon interest (10 per cent, at that peo-iod) — till the 
towne shall be aUe to paye ytt." Continuing 
furt^her on, it is said: "Ytt is agreed by all the 
voices marked with ' idem * (the same or ditto) that 
Saint G^rge Cloee shall be moitgnged to Meister 
Stables for a hundretlh and teon powndes (the £10 
being for interest) payable at a year*s end ; which 
money is to furnishe the towne's wants att this 
tyuM about the entertaynment of his Maiestie. 
1 tt is also agreed by all this company present that 
£40 more shall be borowed of Meister Alderman 
Freeman for one whole yeare, and he to have the 
far Dovecote Close in thie posseasioii of John Free- 
man and Huge Yarden in mortoaffe for the same, 
redeemable upon the payment w £44 att a yeare's 
end. Whereunto Maister Freeman hath assented. 
And this wiod&j is lykewyse for the oa«ise elore- 



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163 

sayd." 

MauiteiiB Freeman and Hill were deputed to go 
to London, "aikd hy tbeir discretLone to proryde 
a present for his Maiestie, eytber bv pkute or in 
gonld aa tJhej shall thinck fytteat by oonferenoe 
and inquirie of others." The matter was left to 
their sagacity, and they appear to have carried it 
out yery satiafaetorily. At a meeting of the 
CooDcdl, Aagost 5rd, 1612, respecting the King's 
entertainment we are told "That th^ day before 
this company Maister Freeman and Maister Hill 
made theyr account for theyr London voyage last. 
And beo^ they brought in o fayer gilt boolTs way- 
ing 59oz. qtr. at 6s. dd. the oz. comes to £19 ISs., 
aiKl anoiher waying 61oz. at 6e. 8d. oomes to £20 
12b., a 3rd woyins 63oz. 3-quarters at 6e. 8d. oomes 
to £21 Ss., in aU £61 12b. And for tikeir horse 
hy€r and rydingie cibardig^s and otdier expenses £7 
188., and for a box Ss. 4d., total £69 15s. 4d. 
Reoeyved by them atit London of Maister Stabiles 
£100— £60 (that is £60 out of Uie £100) reoeyved, 
tha^ came for the fyne Oif Everton toU leaae £20— 
total £80. So remaynebh in their hamdes of this 
£10 6s. 8d., which they have here payed to Maister 
Mayor." 

His Majesty came to Nottingliain, and " staid one 
nyght onely (?) att Thurland House." Hiis was 
on Wednesday, 17th Auguat, 1614. It was aj- 
ranged that hte should be received (Vol. 4, pp. 317, 
18) by "forty of the C^lotihdng in Scaiiett, forty in 
Black gownes, and forty in clokes with hdberttes. 
And they to be strictly c4iarged to be redy in their 
best appareil and to be att the sroice dboanbers by 
X of the clock in tl^e morninffe. Sir Henrie Pierre- 
pont, the Recorder, arranged to * provide for some 
short speech.' In fees, &c., £27 19s. 3d. wa« 
given to the King's servants, coochmen, footmen, 
porters, waiters, trumpeiters, clerk of ttbe market, 
gentl€fnen ushers, daily waiters (£3 6s. 8d.) grooms, 
pogea, &c." They were, no donibt, jjlad when the 
king left the town, and that his stay was for one 
day only. 

Two years afterwards the King paid another visit 
U> the town, when his reception was arranged in a 
similar way to what was formerly the case (see " Re- 
cords," Vol. IV., pp. 243-46). The nam«s are given 
of the 40 in Black gownes, and also of those in 
Cloakes and Holbardes. Twenty-seven were also 
appoiinted for the nightt watcih whose namiefi are 
given. The King again stopped only one night. He 
certainly was always ea^er for money, and on occa- 



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164 

ii'.oiwi aafced for subsidies. lo 1608-9, Fcibruarr 9, 
from Whitehall, " a letter was sent from the Lord« 
of the Privy Oooncil to the OommiasioiierB ol the 
Subsidy in NoRingham, sending a record of what 
had been raised for previous subsidies in Nottingham 
and exhorting them to raise the present subsidy to 
0oa>ething like the amount of the eojrlier subsidies." 
Eighteen days after there was a wairrant from the 
Commissioners of Subsidies for Nottingham for the 
collection of a subcridy. 

In the CSiamberlain's account for September 19th, 
1619, respecting the son of James I., there is the 
following entry: "Item to present the Prince, 22 
peeces, and for a purse (total) £24 4s. Od." This, at 
the date (riven, would represent by far the greater 
part of £200 in our times ; and with the subsidies, 
the ffifts, &c., &c., at the King's visits, the driving 
of all strangers from the town, together with the 
constant charges for feaeting and very numerous 
gifts of wine, sugar, &c., by the Mayor and Cor- 
poration to many diffeaemt persons, including what 
they abe and driuik themselves and ctbafged to the 
town it would be strange if the effects were not felt 
in an unpleasant way, and most prejudicial to the 
town's prosperity. 

In 1634, August. Charles I. visited Nottingham 
and stopped five niidits. On this occasion the Cor- 
poration b<«Towpd £200 of William Nixe. Alderman, 
"for the inteditayuiment of the KingeaadQueene's 
Majesties." Plate costing £68 was peseoted to the 
Kinge and Queene. Maisier Lif^tfoot, the Uaher 
of the Free School, undertook to deliver a speech 
to the Kim? and Queen at their coming to Notting- 
ham, and for this purpose he was supplied " with a 
sute, cloake, hatt. stockings, garters, showes (shoes), 
and o^er acoootennents " oostinff £8 6s. Od., whioh 
would probably be equivaknt to more than £50 
of our present money. In 1642. Jnlv the Oonndl 
d^ride<l tf> vWe £50 and a purs3 to Prince Charles; 
Maistff Chad wick to prepare a speech. The purse 
cost 558., and others items increased the total pay- 
ments to £59 38. 9d. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM: 

ITS STMBETS. PBOPLE. &C. 



xxvm. 

In my commtmioatinn of April 18tii (25) and ti>e 
last paragraph I remark upon what appear to be 
f-eriou? omissions in Vol V. of the " Boroiigb Re- 
cords/* and bhat 1688 is tibe only year in t£e lafit 
fifty included in it wben amy extra<3te are giT«n from 
dbe Ohainbena.m'8 aocounta. It is respecting these 
that I d-e«dre to make a few more remarks. The 
voluane jnclud^ the period 1685-1702, or 77 ye«i«. 
In thi first 27 years there ure 276 pa«e8 of matter 
i«usliidsd in Vol. V. (wptshout tlie introSujction. &c.)» 
aod on twelve occasions maoy extracts or ibeiou are 
giyen of the C^Kunberlaintf' ezpendituine, yet in the 
la»t fifty yeaie there are but 166 pa-gfs of matter, 
and of one casa alone (1688) where any item« are 
given of money paid away. During the last fifty 
yea.re of Vol. IV. copies of the Ohamberlainfl', ac- 
coimtB are giv^n on (21) twenty-one oooasions. Why 
is this changed? The mdsfortuine is that t3iese amis- 
sions are nubde durifig a critical period in tbe hifrtoiy 
of the country and town, and chiefly dtrriD^ the 
reigns of Charles II. and Jadnee 11. The introduc- 
tion to Vol. V. very properly gives us aa idea of 
what we may expect to find in it or, as the case 
may be, of some matters omitted ; but, thoogh I 
have looked tihroo^h it, I have obseorved no refecenoe 
to the ChambedainA* acooun.tfi or rea«m given why 
tike exto^aots from them have been so unduly ci>rcum- 
Deri bed. It is much to be hoped that even now a 
full account of the omitted OlminbeBiadnfl' expendi- 
ture may be given as an addendimi to Vol. VI. of 
tfbe "RecordB," or in some ot^ber suitable form, 
whioh many will undoubtedly be glad to have carried 
out, from being so intimately connected with the 
gov^nmneDt and history of the town. 

In the account of money paid by tiie CJhafnbeiriaBne 
in 1688 the entries are surprisingly sparse, there 
being only 21 items, aBthou^ 35 yeaiB had passed 
without any reference whatever to them. It is to 
this one lot of extract al!one that we are at present 
confined for the fifty years mentioned, but, few as 
tibey are, it is astonishing in what a large propor- 
tionate nmmlber of cases (ei^;^) the expaoditure is 
personal to some or a'l of the Corporation. There is 
a oharge of £5 Os. 9d. for the Mayor and Aldermen 



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166 

(total sefvtu) yiMngtbie Dobe of Newioeatle, "be- 
8id€is> ooach hire." Then 129. 4<3. for Master Lam- 
bert ajid Master AtSdnooin for tbiedir ofaofge to the 
Duke, by the Mayor's ♦^'der. Then Master Borra- 
dell, Maister Jajnsa, and MaMer Oooke'fi boroes, and 
charge for goio;^ to Lambley, 6s. Ida^ter Joftmson's 
bill of £9 6s. Id. is paad **by ordier of tbe Mayor, 
for ale, be>er, and other convecienoes at a feast at 
bis house (? an iim, bo boibelis then) of the Bucks 
th&t cama from the Earle of EKevodsbidie.'* John 
Newcomb was pai-d 2^ 6d. for sea-fish, and Cooke 
Branunar 6 bill was 16s. 3d. for what he laid out at 
that time. Fina.ly, for wine and m©at bouffbt by 
Master Cooke £4 168. 9d. was paid by thie Mayor'^ 
order. 

The old Corporation certainly dolighted in ihese 
opportimiti^ of regaling tbcUMelves, bu-t on thi« 
occasion, when tJiere were bucks in question (at 
least two), together with <^er deaiiiaibk viands, I 
am thoroughly of opinion that the feasting Is^ted 
n-ct less than two days, bat perhaps mora. The 
totfll amount changed for it to the town (exclueive 
of the bucks) was £14 IBs. 7d., which is equivalent 
to about £76 of our modem naoney, and proves the 
emnnent ability of our ancestors to ua& a knife and 
fork, and especially, as in th's ca«e, when an eitra 
good feed and a cheap one was in question. 
There is one more item and the eighth out of 21, 
which has reference to the Council itself. It is true 
tliat the amount is small, being 2s. only, but by in- 
ference it is important and proves how very desirable 
it is that an arrangement should certainly be made 
by the editor whereby the diannberlattne* acoonnts 
niiriprr the 60 yearg mentioned s^hall yet be published 
in somie convenient form to eoAble tibe town to jiidge 
of the prooeedinjfs of the Corporation even in an in- 
craa»ed degree respecting their ezpeodfiiture, but oer- 
ta-inlv with no less information than what is sup- 
plied in the best of the previous volumes. The item 
is as follows: "Paid to Jn^^enh Worse pp a bill for 
carrree of wine to Wollerton, to Sir Francis Wil- 
]ouchbv*s, for the use of the late Corporacion, 28.** 
It will be percedved that \\h^ has reference to a pre- 
vious "feed," the paynwnt for which it is impos- 
Hilblle to doubt would be found entered in one of tbe 
ChamberlainiS^ pneoeding accounts, of which, with 
many others which are apparently ignored, it is 
important wo should for the 60 years vet have full 
information. What was the cost of the wi>ne sent 
to WoMaton ? How much was paid to take the Cor- 
ponUion there and bring them home? As "sugar 



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VTQM waq^'' tjbeo, how miicii wm tfeob and wbat did 
it cost? We obtain all this information la^rgdy in 
Vol rV. of ti^ "Records" in otiier oaaee, but not 
in Vol. V. Why? 

I will now refer to a short paragraph in 
Vol. v., p. 385, A.D. 1694, where we are toW, "Itt 
38 this day ordered by the n>DaniDions consent of 
Master Mayor and his brethren, and the Coun-oeiil 
of the said Towne, that a Banquett to the value (»f 
fourty shillinfls and no more ; and also 3 gallons of 
Caioairy, 3 giulooe of white wine, and 3 gallons of 
Clarett, and 2 sugar loaves be presented by this 
Corpoiradon to the Right Hononrable the Earle rf 
Rutland, &c.'' We hare information here respect- 
ing what the (Corporation Droposed to do, but at 
times there wae a considerable difference shown when 
tlw p-j-ticnlans were entered in the diamberlains* 
account — and possibly thane mifzht be in this case — 
between the propofial and the accomplished fact, 
but such unaccountable omissions for so many yeai's 
make any reference or comparison impossibte. 

In Vol. V. of the "Records," pp. 389-90, a.d. 
1695. it may be gathered that King William III. 
wouW shortly visit Nottinirham and some interesting 
TWJtiouiliairs are given. At a meeting held November 
2, the Council "Ordered that His Majesty be met 
and attended at the outmost ports of this Towne, 
and 9oe be conidiuoted onto (fae Tlowne on horseiMcfce, 
To present (bift Miageettye wft^i a purse of 100 guoneyo, 
vhich are now at 30s. a guiney; tihait a s^edh be 
made to his Majeetye bv the Towne Clarke, and 
that his Majestve shall likewise be presented with 
a banquett and wyne to the vaUue of £40 at the 
'New Inne* or 'White Lyon*; and tlhat Master 
Aldiefitnan Salfanon, Master ALdieimam Lea3and, Mas- 
ter Wingfeild, Maifter Briggs, and Master Woolhouse 
assist the Chamberlyns in this matter ; that Maste^r 
Alderman Triffff and Master Coroner Greaves take 
care of the IxMnqnett." That tihe Oorpcxradon as a 
bod- would rejoice in such an opportunity for a 
first -class fea^^ and a cheap one we have full evidence 
in previous communications. 

In reference to the hundTed guineas which were 
ordered to be presented to the King it was at a 
time when gold in England was at a great premium, 
and the country at msA. pesriod did not occupy the 
prominent posation which is now the case, nor were 
the diffedrent countries or money markets nearly so 
senwtive pespecting the rise and fall in the valn^ of 
bullion ki each or any of tbem as now prevail*, for 
«t tbe tome that guineas were costmg thirty rfnillings 



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168 

each in England (profcably tfie highest price oti re- 
cord), ''pieces (of gold) <rf eqnail weigbt and fine- 
neaa coold be parchaaed in HoDaod for tweoty-fcwo 
diillings." An Act of Parliaineart reduced thefcr 
value to twenty-six etdllings, but suich arbitrary 
enaotinentfl oaiwed veiy grea* confusion. It wbs 
found that on the Continent goH then bore a value 
aa 16 to 1 of that of silver. At the present time it 
would probably be ahxMst 35 to 1. " Guineas sold 
for 22s. 6d., January 3, 1810; and publickly wM 
for a pouod note and »even shillinfl©." (Index of 
Dates.) 

In "TTie Records," Vol 5, p 363, a.d. 1690, there 
is an amusing and rather peculiar paragraph ao 
follows : — " It is this day ordered that whereas three 
pewter dishes, and twelve plates, of this towne- 
pewter, w«ere lent to the Right Honocabke the Earl 
of Devonahire's service wiken in tins towne, at the 
comeing in of the Princess of Denmarke, and wae 
lofft, though Master Lan^ord, the then Major 
(Mayor), tooke all the cere he could about it, the 
lc*.'i.» fin'll be tihe towne's, owd MJaater 1/an^oiiJ dis- 
charged of them." In "The Records'* there is fre- 
quent refereflK>e to the town's pewter, and orders 
lihat it should not be lent or u«ed except bv the Cor- 
l>oratian, for they undoubtedly sufferea severely 
either by damage to the pewter or loas of nutmerous 
articles belonging thereto. Plates and dishes of 
this noetal could occasionally be seen sixty yeaxs 
since ranged on shelves, amd especially in the coun- 
try districts, but for such purposes as those men- 
tioned it has long ceased to be used. 

On page 364 tbere is a copy of a resolution of the 
Council about racing sla f oUows : — "Whereas the 
Gentlemen in the Country are desirous that this 
Corporation (May, 1690) would ra/ise money to pur 
chase a piece of pkute to be run for at the horse- 
race, as formerly hath been ; and whereas Maj^r 
Christopher Renolds hath in his hands four pounds 
two shiliinj^s that was left of a former horse race; 
iftwrafore this House being willing to grabifie the said 
Gentlemen in their requ^v:*, do consent, that if 
Master Rennolds will bring in his moneys there 
diould care be taken for a piece of plate." 

In May, 1693, there appears to have been a visita- 
tion by the Archbishop of York, and the Councell 
resolved that it should be attended " by the Mayor, 
Aldermen, Coroners, Kherriflfee, Common Counoell, 
and Cliamberlyns, and such others as the Mayor 
(Arthur Riccards) shall think fitttotake with them; 
and that the said Arch Biahopp shalbe presented by 



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169 

Che CorponufcioD wiifii a banqii^tib od aboob forty 
ahdilicgs yallu«, and with, three golloiQS of ssucke, 
thiee gaUons of clarett, and three gatJoDe of white 
wyne, att hia Grace's ooming to the Towne att hie 
lodgmgB." Erom the want ol the GhamberlaiiM' 
aocoanrtfl as mentionjed no fartiber parti oolairs are 
availaWe. IWl evrdenoe has been prodfuoed to prove 
thait from thedr great experience and oonstant junket- 
ings the Corporation, according to the position and 
inflnenoe of those to be (nominally) entertained, were 
eoiabled to e^tumate within a trifle the cost of a 
fe<ist. In 1693, Noviesmber, a movement wa« made 
by the Corporation to commence the manufacture 
of woollens in the town, whereas in former years 
eoma one who desired to set up in that trade wa« 
compelled by them to ieave the town because he 
wats not a burgess. 

In 1698 the question was mooted of building a 
County Hall in the Market-place, and at a meeting 
of tihe Councdi on Moudiay, October 10th, 1698, it 
woe " Ordered that Francis Salmon, ALderman ; 
Thomas Collin, Alderman; Master Joseph Briggs, 
Master Francis Armstrong, and Master John 
Reynolds doe veiw and measure a parcel of ground 
near the Marfcett Wall in order to retome answer 
to several gentlemen about their propoeaUis of budkl- 
ing a County Hall, and that tney, witlh Master 
Mayor, doe treat with them about the same." As 
nomlug furtiher appears to have been said about such 
a building being erected, we have in recent tim<?8 
much cause for tbankfulneas that so large an open 
space was allowed to come down to us undiminished 
iu size when it is so greatly needed both there and 
in other places from the immensely increased popu- 
lation ana business of the towne, and the centre for 
the tram Imes. 

Respecting the races, it was ordered on Friday, 
June 16th, 1699, " That the Chamiberlyns doe pay 
five pounds towards a plate to be run for upon Not- 
tingham and Basford Lings at t^he nexb horse race." 
From the name here given of the place for the races 
I coiM:ider there is little room for doubt that it was 
near or upon the ground whidh was recently occu- 
pied by the old Rac" Course upon the Forest. This 
appears to be proved by wibat is mentioned in vol. 
6, p. 41, lines 17-24, 1675. It is in respect to a 
claim made and proved by tihe town that it had (by 
Charters, &c.) foresital rights. In the argument it 
is memtioned that 1*e Mayor and Burgesses claim 
for thems«»lves and their successors their ancient 
rights" in aod upon a certaim wa«*e called 'Not- 



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170 

tcn^ham Lio^/ odierwixe 'Baslord Lings/ lying 
and beinf wiUbin the preoiiioto aiMl iibertieo of tike 
to'wn of Nottingham aforesaid.'' The waste (gnrand) 
here mentioned was imdorabtedly wliat is now called 
NoUiinghfam Forest, for it was (in 1675) waste knd 
end it is on tibe Basford side of the town yet, 
thougb having the name of Ba«ford Linss, as well 
a^ >iottiiu;(bam Lings. We are told that it was 
" witibin tie predocts and liberties oif tbe town of 
Nottingham.'' 

With tlhis information to guide us it certainly 
a^ppeais safe to assert as a fact that wlten reference 
ia made to " The Lings " it is the old name for Not- 
tingham Forest, aod that is the gix>uwl intended to 
be described or understood. The top end of Ling- 
dale (afterwaj^ the Bowling Alley) reached to the 
top of the Lings, thus of ok) giving tibo name to 
much the largest of tl^ two dales (Lingdale), and yet 
in vol. 3, p. 473, "The Lings" are nKntioned as 
being " In Larkdale," and in vol 4, p. 439, " l^e 
lings " are termed .'* A portion oi the ' Larkdahs ' " 
(plural?), and the reader is referred to vol. 3, and 
though theire does not appear to be any mecitioa 
whatever of Larkdale at any time previooisly in ths 
volume, we ane told that Lark Dale wa^ formerly 
cabled Lingidale, wheireas to the careful reader it 
must be decidedly evident that its former name was 
"Wrendale." (See vol. 1 for t(hat name.) TJhe 
editor of voL 6 fatkyws the course observed or taken 
by tibe editor of the four preceding volumes and 
says on page 439 : ** The laagB — ^A portioQ of the 
Larkdnles" (plunal again), thoagh there was only 
one dale woth tibat name, aod the Lings or Lingdale 
were never any porbioo of Larkdale, for its position 
amd oouformatiooi rendered it thoroughly impoesihle, 
and without full proof such statements are not only 
valueless and misleading, but should never have 
been nutde. It would be the case of a hawk swal- 
lowing an eag^e. 

Many e^eriy persons arc sbill le(fit who remember 
the two dales as they woe tn their normal state, 
namely Wrenda^, aiterwarde Lark Dale, and Ling- 
dale, afterwards the Bowling Alley; full fifty 
years since, and before any building 
operalnons took place near tfbem. (Be- 
fipdcting the ArboretUDi it is 51 years since, or 
in 1851, when building commenoed). It is kn- 
posmh^e for any ooe unleas more than 60 yean of 
their own knowlec^ to give full and reliable particu- 
lans respecting the dales, and I believe the two 
editoroof " IbeReootnds " to be ooosiderahly youog^, 



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m 

thetntoBpinideBKKiproaldfl^^ be 

taken beteire statemeDts one made reapeotiiig nntten 
wfaddi may be well remembered by eome, but pro- 
bably not by tiliem«elve8. 

In "The Recorxfa," vol. 4, p. 263, a.d. 1602, tbere 
i« the copy of a petition from tbe Bowers and 
FleU-bere (at titie tim«e dying indnstrice) bo the 
Mickletom Jury for tbe repa-ir of tbe Town Botta. 
TSiey aay " Wee whose names be under written do© 
pre«ente unto you MaJsber Marbine Jamies, foreman 
of the Middletorne, and the reat of your fellowe 
jurey, the decayed buttes att the Ohipple Barre; 
the which butbos hath been uaually belonginge to 
thie towne of Nottingham tyme out of mynde ; the 
whic-h hath not been repayred thia ei^ht yerea or 
there upon, the which said butt« beinge decayed is 
a great hindramce and an undoing to us poor men 
being flechenp and boyeres of thie mod towne of 
Nottingham : in these regard* we w(wJd danre you 
ail to have oooeideration hereof. (Signed) Nicholas 
h1h.e»ppard, William Burditt, boy«re." The fleobers 
here mentioned were makers of arrows, and the 
boy ere a mato of bows, and th^ naturally wished 
to infuse more life into their calLingB, but the times 
were against them ; firearms were then getting much 
more lieed and bows and arrows miaoh len in de- 
maoid, and continually decreasing for years until 
pmcticeily none were asiked for. At the Uttle vil- 
lage of Isley Walton, on the Asihby turnpike, two 
mike beyond Caatle Donin^n, tbece is a houae 
or two on which the inlocmatioD is giiveii by kttecs 
cut in stone that they bekog to the Bowers' Com- 
pany of Londoik' 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM: 

ITS STEKETS, PEOPLE, &c. 



XXIX. 

In tiiese days of great alterations connected 
with maiDy streets and ruads in the city and greater 
cibangeis in contemplatioii, it will be interestung to 
refer to tbe demolition of Pariiament-row and the 
wid>eDfi>ng of Lower Parliamamt-street, which oc- 
cu*rre>d in 1884 ; but apecdally in relatiion to the fir^t 
ereobion of property on that site. Hew, I believe, 
occurred the fir»t great a.teraition in that stiieet, and 
forbunateOy it wa« w'ben property and land were 
ratJKvr le^s in value than at present, though, as I 
propose to show, still n^uob in excc^a of what wa« 
onoe the oase regarding that strip of land, which, 
aocoiding to the ' Record*," was first built upon in 
t»he year 1624. 

On January 26th, 1624-5 the Orporafcion decad-ed 
that " This companie are a^eed that Thomas Jack- 
son shall have the grownd on the Backside (Pariia- 
ment-rtcneie*), upon the tofwae wall, nowe builded 
on, in fee simple, to him and to bis heirs for ever, 
for £6 138. 4d." (£ 7L XIII. IV.) Compared 
with preeent money this would probably represent 
from £60 to £70. It is now 278 years since the 
Oorpo(rataon sold the jrround, and 260 years after 
that date they reprmshased it at a cost for the site 
alone of mome than fifty times what they received for 
it ; but as the buildings on it (soone of which were 
good) nnist be oleai^i away, the w^!e of tbe cost 
would then be saddled upon the land alone, and to 
obtaim it I believe the town would have to pay, 
togeitlher wi-th making the rood, &c., but little if 
ainy<\hinig short of !>wo hundred times the vaJue of 
wha* was received for it in 1624-5, and po«sibly 
more. The grouod is memtdoned as being upon the 
towne wall, vmaoh if not literally correct is no doubt 
approximately m), for from what I observed at ihf 
wall when it was exposed for a week or two during 
the work of critting acroas tihe street for the Great 
Central Bailway, I consider that Parliamentt^row 
would just be clear of it on tbe wxih side^ and 
tibereifore over the town ditch. 

In former times, from in^bnnaitMci whic^ has come 
down to us. It i8 made to appear as though the salt 
which was required for tbe town had to be obtained 
tbrougjh the OounoU, for by a resolotioD oi Ootobea 



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173 

25th, 1608, ihey tay, "Ytt ia agreed that ihe 
towne's salt shall be delivered to fhe Ohamb^rlayives 
bj wai^t, and tibey to exchajige the saiDe by 
Maister Maior's dwectioo.*' T1ii« sy.^tem do€« not 
accord with our present Drotftons of busin^as, tlbCy^^h 
it is but ooi case out ui maJiy wit(h which we should 
ppoboiUy disagree with oot ancestors. In the 
Obaaaberlayiis' accounts, 1572, severol noticeahle 
iUme are mentiocied. One is ** Govyn to the Justioes 
of Aeeyve is Len*on (L&ni) 2 gallondes of wyne and 
21b. 0^ sewgar, : 5^. 2d. , and geryn more to the said 
Juabioae on thp Wedneeday, when Maister Maire and 
his brethren did bo^ke tbar fast wytib theon, 2 gal- 
londes of wyne and 2Iib. of seuger. 5s. 2d." Thette 
two it-eons at that date (1572) would represent witfli 
us in recent tmies about £7. Gifts to judges are 
no doobt oper tc quet^bion, both as r^^gands the giver 
a©d fhe .•eceiver. Another item is in "wyne 
and seuger gevm ai the marvad^ of Mai ater Gregory 
dogrhter 12 of 'October, 16fl. *8d. At the eome date 
we ame told that the Mayor and his brethren went to 
dine at Clifton ' in Christmaa la«te,' and they caiufled 
to be carried there *3 pottles of claret wyne and 
one pottle of nraocadine' (nraooatel), and this with 
gifts to servants, &c., cost the town 15s. lOd. Two 
items to modern folk ^sound singular (1) Qevyn to 
the preftooer that was* in the Bers (most probably 
Chapel Bar, the gateway and rooms, not the efcreet) 
so long, and ako had his eyres (eai«) cntt at his 
gate (firoing) away 5s."* The second is "Payd Bate 
for takyng of Cranwell downe of the jebytt 12d." 
(gihhet). Punishments such as the»e were lot un- 
comanon three centuries since. 

In the CSmnberlains* account for 1572 is a strange 
item when considered under modem ciroumstanceB. 
It is "Payd to Rychard Wdch and Thomas Reve 
for 10 wethere (sheep) that wase gevyn unto the 
Erie of Rutland £4 Is." Poesibly these sheep nwght 
be fattened, but whether so or not it appeairs a curi- 
ous present to go from the town to the country, 
but no doubt the Council had an eye upon the future, 
and would if possible "taJce out" the gift with 
interest afterwards. The Corporation not only mve 
wine and sugar on special oecasrons to those con- 
nected with the Corporat'on or engaged in mat:tere 
which concerned the town, but they also appear in 
many instances to baye burdened it with a portiioQ 
of the cost of festivitjes belonging to their friends — 
of which I will prive two whose names I do no* see 
coEnnected with the Corporaibiofn. In the Chamher- 
Uins* aooonnt for 1572 is tbe fallowing :— "Payd 



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174 

for wysie aod seuger ihaJb wa«e g^vyn at Uiemoryadg 
of Maiwter A0latw and Mostres Pare 60. Sd.," or 
tbree poKinds of our preseot money. No doubt 
oome of tiie OouDcil would drink a. good portion. 
Tb« next ia a moch more peculiar oemb when some 
boya came bome from a diataoce to see tbeir mo^iter ; 
it is DOt mocb in amount, but entirely uncalled for 
aa ivjttrda tbe town. Tbe entry ia aa follows: — 
** Item payd for a gaUond oi wine and a balf, aiMl a 
pound of seager that Maiater Maare had to Meatires 
Goodwyn when her aoone w«re cum froma Londoo." 
No doubt, aa in many caflee given, the wine would 
then oo0t 8d. per gallon and the pound of sugar la., 
toftai 2a., of wmch the equivalent at the present time 
would be about one pound. John Gk«gory waa the 
name of the Mayor who caoaed thia wine axid aagar 
to be given ao unbecomingly. 

From information which haa come down to ua the 
I^yor and Corporation appear to have been ^- 
queoiUy eotertaioed with tNngs, which we fbould 
DOW oonaider aa being of the moat ondinaiy aiMl 
undo^ivhle character, thoa^ proportiionately they 
paid well for it. Reapeoting animaJa ehon^n to them, 
one waa an ape, another i« mentiooed aa a atran^e 
beaat, but I wish to notice what can scarcely be 
called muaic, though often paid for, and that ia the 
town dram and ite uae. In the Chamberlaina^ ac- 
count for 1541 there is a charge entered of 12d. paid 
"to Damport, thie teylor, for pleying of the drome 
(drum), an other tyme befor Maiater Mayre.*' In 
1558 2b. waa given to Domport aod Frencbe for 
pleying before Maiatier Mayre (Wm. Atkynaon) and 
the Bu rgcaao e to Seynt Avell (Ane Well). Damport 
alao received 12d. for going about with hia "drome" 
on St. John'a nyght and Gt. Peter's "befone the 
Weohe.** In 1578 are three rtefneaayiog "p:.yd to 
Dompord for goingd with the drum to Neworke 
16d. Peyd to Dene for hia drum 20d., and payd to 
the Oapteyne man that pled on the dram 2s. 4d. 
On a number of ocoaaions itemo are entered in the 
Ohamberlaine* accounta of money paid for repaiia to 
or purchaae of the towne'e drum, which provea that 
it moat have been frequently naed, though it will 
puzzle aome to explain where i^ harmony could 
be found. In June, 1627, 29. 6d. waa paid for a new 
head for the town's dram. 

Undw the deaignation of " Preaaunt* to the Kyn^' 
in 1464 (Edward IV.) in y<A. 2 of the "Recorda," 
t)bere are the following items in the Ohambedaina* 
accounts: — "Paied for 80 galono save con (one) of 
rede wyne giffen to the Eyog at his beyng here tbe 



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176 

llrar9diEi.j next after tibe feat of Epiphasie^ &c.. 
price of every galon 8d., 539. — Pai«d for 60 gailotw 
of rede wyne g<iffeQ to the Kyng at Im secoiKi 
beyng here, price of every galoo 8d., 408." Then 
foUows a long li»t of presents to various Lords in 
atteiKlance. Jto 1504, vol. 3, p. 316, there is a very 
noticeable account of a visitor and mention of an 
oM Nottingham HosteLry in the Cbambexkins' ac- 
ooimt, 'wh&te they tell us tibat fhej "paid unto 
Mai«Fter Wedeky for 3 godnes (wine) unto the 
Biflfaop of Ele at Randuiil Bucley at "Hie Ram/ 
29." This probaWy waa on or niMur the 4«te of the 
' Ram Hotef on tbe Lon;g-row, Ti%icih oocupiod until 
wrtihrin the last year a portion of the background 
where seveial shops have recently been pmlled down, 
about 20 yards to the west of King-street, and upon 
whiidi some shops, kc, ai>e at present in course of 
ooitttinwtioin. I-^ bh-e Obamibeirlai'ns' aooouot for 
1575 the following will be found: — "Item for 3 
gallons of wyne, 4!bs. seuger gevyn to the Queen's 
Majesty's General Surveyar, Ck)ntrowl«r, and other 
of the Queen's offycers, and for the chaJorges of ther 
dynars at Maister Me-r's; alle hys bretlw^n beinge 
ther wyth them, the 13th of Mardh, 13s. 4d." The 
equivalent in our present money wouW pirobably be 
between six and seven pounds. It will be noted that 
al the aldermen (bretm-en) were, to be pwisent, and 
there will not be much difficulty in beHevimr that 
tlbey wtMild rejoice when such an opportunity oc- 
CTured of enjoying a good dinner, inciudling wine, 
without charge. 

Commencing with a.d. 1800, and for the next 
fifteen to twenty years a obange appears to have taken 
place in the names of a considerable number of old 
stiTeetfl and pieces in the town and with a portion of 
them the alterations were far from being irapaxwe- 
ments, and uncalled for. In the period 1800-1806. 
St. James's-lene became St. Jcunes's-sbreet. Blow 
Bladder-street (the lower end of Fletdber-gote) 
Market-street. A portion of the outside (Chanel) 
Bar became Toll-street, Butt Dike beoame Park-row. 
"Hen Cross," or "The Women's Mairket," was 
oalled the Poultry, and Swine-green, whiicih for cen- 
turies had been the headquarters for tbos? ^ma'e, 
was changed to Carlton-street, and G-ridHesmiith-ffate. 
after a gradual but lengthv ohanflre from Qreat- 
smith-gate became Pelham-street. But few I think 
will object to this ohaikge, for Gridlesmith-gate moist 
decidedly was too muoh like Bridleemitb.gate not 
to cause unnecessary trouble at times. CuckstooU 
row— a strong reminder of the pmnit^honent nveted out 



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176 

to scoW« — ^became the Poiiltry, or oUi^fwiae it« 
ftoathem side. Bridge End became Plamptre-sqaare, 
from the Hospital therein, tho^b ttie old name wois 
very desoriptiTe of ita position in a period goin^ 
back nearly 600 years, during a great portion of 
which it wa« the north end of a bridge which was 
but little under 700 feet in length, and m the re- 
pairs. &c., of which the whol« of the ooocty had to 
aha re. Tfbe town an<l each of the seven Wapentakes 
or buixLreds of the county had its lawfully aitaigned 
portion, which was well known to those conoemed. 
Plumpire-street (towards the end of Stooey-street) 
does not afppeai to have always reached through to 
Bellaj-pte, for in 1799-1800 it was called Phimpthre- 
plaoe. but by or before 1806 it was called Plunptre- 
street. At that time it was oocasionally spe!iled 
"Plumfc-tree-stieet." 

The last to be mentioned with these dates is Bear- 
wajd-lane at the bottom of Chapel-bar on its southern 
wde, the modem name for wiiich is Mount-street. 
I have had reliable evidence that this tharoujfhfare 
was known by its old name of Bearward-lane until 
1804, and equal authority for stating that in a.d. 
1806 it was entitled Mount-street — a change deserv- 
ing the sternest condemmation for severing us as it 
dk>«8 from so many assoeiationis of the past after fiVe 
oemturiea* connecttoo. There were some people w4io 
gave up the old names very reluctantly and a few 
who would not adopt the new names and consistently 
to the end of their I t«»s utilised »he nd ones, i re- 
member one old lady especially, who died at an 
advanced age (about 90^ in or near the year 1874, 
who invariably used the old names. Sbie would zK>t 
recognise Clumber-street, or Milton-street, or Park- 
row, or Mount-street, or St. Nicholas-street, or 
Broad-street. Ac, but with herself and a number of 
otbors 1 frequently heard than called Cow-lane, 
Boot-lone, Butt-dyke, Bearwaird-laaie, Je-w-laoe, 
Broad-lane. Swine Green. &c. To a great exifi-nt 
I agree with them, for the changes were certainly 
made witihout proper consideration, and, though 
the alberations in the titles of some were reasonable, 
in others they were absurd and betrayed great 
poverty of intelligence on the part of those making 
them. 

Respecting members of Parliament for Notting- 
ham in olden times, the arrangements and under- 
fitfltmliTigs with and respecting the holders of that 
oflSce were very different to what has been the case 
for a consriderable time now, and probably for a 
great part of two centuries. In tl^e *' Heootdi,'' Vol. 



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177 

n., p. 422, tliere is an extract from the 
of the to>wD, daited 1436-7, wluoh aay« : 
made that tihe BurgeaBes of the ParDam< 
town should have lod. per diem (day) and 
This, no doubt, is a resolntifi-n of the 
Corporation, and, as a fact, they appeei 
years to have really chooon the Parti am«n 
8eiKt»tiY68 of tibe town. In a note wk 
have full confinnation of that assertion, i 
tinuatioo, it appears to have beon furthei 
"TTiat no Burgws shall be elected to 
unless he be of the Mayor's livery (that is 
have woinn the livery of Mayor), &c., and 
gesses aforesaid be chosen in any other ^ 
oontiury they shall low their wages." 

In Vol in., p. 71, John Wetbe<rley is 
afi member of Parliament who hod monei 
him "for his presence at the last Pari 
the space of 27 days, to wit. for each day i 
this it appeoir that in 63 or 64 years the 
member of Parliaaneovt had increeisied fro 
2e. per day. In Vol. HI. , p. 417, in thre CShs 
acoonnjt tibey daim to be allowed " £7 9s. 
expences of Thonwis Thurland and Thonu 
ton, Burgesses for the Parliam^fit br<'d'c<n 
mriwt'eir in the first. Te«ar of the reipm of 
ward the Fourth for 56 days, taking bv th 
(«icih), total £7 9s. 4d." Thomaji Thu 
Mayor of Nottingham on ten ocoasions 
life, and Thomas Babincrton was thft Rfi 
many years, and during part of the time I 
a Parliajnentary r<?preiF-entflitive of the t 

Bespeotiing tihe first, hifl Dam« \b «bi 
-mind by tbe very appropriait-e title of 
street, which inoludes a large portion of 
on wtidi Thurland Hall once stood. w<hi< 
ThuTla»d is said to hove built. Thi« 1 
and ijoted buDding, which once fron't 
smvthgate, afterwards Grydleamyhhcrate, 
Pelham-street. was pulled d^vm in the ! 
1831. Judging bv what Deering shoi 
map dating about 160 ye^re since, T have 
that the grounds of the Hall once r 
Back-side or Parliament-street, and oonti 
ward to Broad-lane, now Bro^ -street, 
for nearly half its length. Many large 
shown as growing there, and in extem 
with the site it would amount to about 
There woa no George-street or Iiinooln-a1 
or ohher smaller stre^rts. Mr. Gre^gory's 
on Swinegreen, now Carltoo-street, and 



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178 

li« had a coiwideraUe qnftotity of land attaohed to 
it amd adjoinicg that of lliiirlaod Hall. 

Id Vol. 4, p. 276, a.d. 1605, m a roport the 
>n»tab!€8 say : ** W€ preaeot Frances Wyron for 
orestawling the Morkett, for that after prodama. 
A<m made by ye belman to sell two oranges a 
>eziDy, he went and boaght them, aitd would sell 
ibem but one for a pefmy." In this case it is 
mportant to remember thai the penny here men- 
tioned would be nearly equal to eightpence of our 
)reseot money three ceoituries since, and probaUy 
it that time represent the wages of a labourer for 
li hour-' weak; so ora.DgeB w^re luxuries bhen. 
Frances Wyron wa^ fined 28. for " forestawling " the 
^i^ret wlbich with o-urselvee would represent about 
I6s. In the Chamberlains' accounts for 1575 there 
8 a peculiar and unusual entry, as follows : *'Item 
:oT the oharg (of) burning of the tretor (traitor), 
is Kydes, fyer, poulles (kids, fire, poles), and other 
lecessaryes. This incident will fully prove that 
k great ohange for the better has taken place in 
he country since that tirosi 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM 

ITS STBEETS. PEOPLE. &o. 



XXX. 

I protpooe to ooawnenoei titb aoticle by redtr- 
ling to the weSHa or pumipSy the pmfoldiB, and the 
fltocks belongioff to ttn town. We4i witii ropes or 
dubins askl cmokets for wqndimg^ up the water ap- 
pear to have been the onlj aoot used m the town 
Qlitil some time after 1636. Id that 7>eaz an at- 
temrpt was made to have a pump fixed to the well 
at Weekday -aroBB, whiohx in ooDsideraitoo of the 
daiW mailuit held there, waa probably miuch more 
iMKd than any other m the towo* The Onvooil 
w<er6 afliced to ocder a puimp, and they -Replied that 
"Tbki oompanje, hanrinffbeard the ^oociooa of the 
inhaNrtaobs aboate the Weekday- croas, tovihin^t^ a 
pumpe to be made wiw>re the kadoo well row 
tftaoMiB, they are of oppysuon thatt ooe oannott a^- 
Teoiieatly be made to bcraild loQge or to le k^pte 
aiwieete; therefore doe not al^owe of theire mooion, 
but ai>e ooDteint that the sam^ shalbe jrofi&cieivtly re- 
payred by the newe QhamiberlayDea, bott ixytt other- 
wise to be allftered/* Tbe expedenoe of the Oor- 
poftttioik reapeotang thda matter was extremely 
iimated, and their opnuon mitrostwoithy. At thi? 
peciod the ptuip banel or piping would probably be 
made of wood. 

Hke nest time a pomip is mentiont^ will be found 
in the Qha<nl>eiiiaiiM^ Aooooota for 1651, namely : 
"Paid to Widdoiw Bennett for a iron sweape 
(haodle) for the potnpe at the Nanxywe Marshe end, 
ttod a miinntone their, 2a, Od." This, I be.ieve, is 
the first meoition of a puimp which waa being used in 
NottinigfaMii. Judging from inferenoes to be 
gadtered in the "R^^/* &c., there appears good 
reason for supposing that at ooe period the town 
possessed nearly thirty public wells, of which several 
w^re uMKle in the seTenteenth century, one of them 
beii^ opdeo:«d on Sbost-lull (south side of Hollow- 
stone) in 1663. Of thds number it is possible to 
iooate about twenty, nameiy:— Weekday -oross, east 
end of Spioe CSiamber, 8U Mary's Ohnrch yard, 
flbamiUes end, St. Peter's Oburch, Women's Market 
(Pooltiy)! Bndlge end (Pknnqptre-squape), (Long) 
Stfain Foot (Narrow-mBcrelb) , Upc>er Paifi^unent- 
street (back side), Lower Par^oameotHsitreet, Narrow- 
QiaDrii eod, ShfOMun^ outside Ohapelrbar (fixnt of 



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180 

tike old DolphAo Ida), St. Ja.iii««'«-laD« (stt>e€t), St. 
yicMafl* Ohniroh Stil«, near John MareiblaJl's door. 
Bea^ibmaii^ct-^bill, front of Exchaa^, GkK>»3-gate, 
Friaf Wal, Walser (WDrsel*) Gate. Spj-ttk Wei!, 
Oaptle-gate, and St-. MaTy'a-ffate. The position of 
some, I bav« no doubt, womd be strongly objected 
to in modem tim>?s, and €<>pecrially tho9e which v«r« 
near to eaoh of Ifoe eburciues. Tbe liaibility of 
•* essence of graudlncther," or some other rela-tive or 
friend, being inckd«ed in the water would be much 
too gpcet to prove aa^tisfactory. 

Reifpeotii^ piixfoklfi, tihetre is an accocmt of five or 
«lx, tnoKigjh in this and ot&«r caaes the definitions 
of onr anceebors are doubtful ocoa-HooaUv. Their 
poeitiotis were as follows: — ^Boiidge End, Gooae- 
gate, towards Kig'h-cTOas^ in tiie Sandfield, and 
NaJTPow -marsh, near (Long) "Sterres." On* is a!8o 
mentioned at Leen Bridge, and Bridje-foot was at 
tbe end of the bri<lge, so tbey may n&v^ bzen the 
same. From tih^re being proportionately so many 
pinfoidB in the town fonmerly, and other circum- 
s1>3nce8 confinming, we are warranted in su9po«iiig 
that there must h&ve been a large number of cattle 
and other domestic animaJs belonging to it. 

From what naay be gathered in the " Recornls,** I 
can easily believe thja-t tihe stocks in tbe town would 
be in conatajit requidtion. Tliere were four c4 
tbem, of which t>he positions can be defined as fol- 
lows : — ^Weeikday-cross, Timber-hill, Qooee-gate end, 
and Bindige End (now PlumptJ>e-saua<re). Constant 
references are msxle in the " Records " regarding the 
needs or repairing of thie woodwork, &c., connected 
with the toSIs, the oinfoWis, and the irtocks. 

In vol. 4 of the " Reoocds," pp. 403-4, a.d. 1606, 
there is an account of som« rather pecnliar mone- 
tary tTon&aotaons between Sir Jonn Byrou and 
WiUiam Trindler, "husbandman," which show that 
Siir John was very short of money and that it must 
bave been well known to many, for he was corn- 
pelted to find a fOibstvanMatl bondnnan before h.» 
could bonow any cash. At this diate deeds and 
bonds appear to have bton registered in the town. 
The first is as follows : — " 1606-6, Janxiary 10. Bond 
for £200 from Sir John Byron, of Newsted, Senior, 
Knt., to William Trin-der, of Snentoo, buJ^andman, 
to save him harmlless upon a bond for £88. (or 
which sum he bad been bound for the debts of the 
said Sir John Blron." This appears lika a descent 
in dignity to be compelled to soUiodt such a favour 
from a mon whom be would probably be ckary of 
acknorwled^^liing in the stxeet, W the hfortwqpdiiuui 



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M 

w«8 » "W^aMiy mm vbese b^nd •wtnAA be tak«n for 
any vteaofBgkAt ^aamm/t by t^io»e knowing him, 
tmreM the titled man wm impeciiDioiis aiMl pro- 
hably spent hii« income qxiit« as fast a« it became 
due. 

About three yenurs aftetrwOiTcb Sir John agam ap- 
pealed for hedtp, and on 27th Febraary, 1609, wrote 
the following letter: — " Sir John, Byron to William 
Trynder, of Snenton. I thank you for paymeot of 
£100 on the bond in which you have joined me. Sir 
HeniT Pierefpomt is pleaeed to pleasure me with this 
flfom for some furtiher time upon your bond and mine. 
I have aJroeidy sealed a new bond wthich I entreat 

S>u to join me in, and that yoQ will come to Sir 
enry's on Thoredaiy next to perform the same. On 
Saturday you shall receive frmn me at Xottvnghnm 
a new counter-bond." That the name and lame of 
William Trynder, " hoBbandmaa," travelled far is 
evident from the next entry in the " Records '* where 
he is concerned. At this time James I. was King, 
and he certainly did, or ordered to be done, thicgs 
ai times which othera wofM not think of. In vol. 
4, p. 404, will be fonaid thds entry : " 1611, Decem- 
her 6tlh. Printed vntit of Privy Seal frcjsn the King 
to William Tiynder, of Sneynioo, requiring him to 
lend £6 13«. 4d. The receipt of tbis sum by John 
Hjaoker, esqoire, the collector, is endorsed upon the 
wirit." Without this receipt it would haive almost 
appeared incredible. There is evidence that William 
Trynder ksnt money to vamoius other peopAe. " Pro- 
bate of the Will of William Trynder, of Nottingham, 
Yeoman. Proved January 21st, 1617-18." There is 
no information respecting any settlement with Sir 
John Byron for the money borrowed. 

In 1694 a dreadful fire occunz^ed at Warwick, when 
a oonsdderaibLe part of the town was burned down. 
TIbere is this eoitiry in the mimutcs of the Common 
Council:— "1694— Tuesday, October 23. Master 
Alderman Sahnon brought a receipt from the Mayor 
of Warwick (Joseph Btiasett) for £132 3s. Id., col- 
lected for the releife of th» poore people of War- 
wicke who suffered by iyrQ there, both which re- 
ceipts are upon a fyie in the hall." A eecond re- 
ceipt had reference to some imtexest money. 

Three centuries since and less it is a fact whK^ to 
many will appear strange that the Corporation or 
Town Ootwioil aasumed to themselves ik^ power to 
choose those who should represent the town in 
ParliMneart. In "The Records," vol. 6, p. 129— 
November 90th, 1687— the following is eortxaoted 
f rote Ibe minotes : " This Ccmpaiiie aane aH a^peed 



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tbatt jf a ParioAment iMjnen sbotitiy to be oaUed 
(ae the ramcmr alk«ddT U) tikaitt Oieii twoe g«n(i»- 
m^i of the ooimtrie eiulbe chosen for eMUoge the 
townea cha.rdge«; and tiie seme tftrwigen are 
thought fittinge by all ye compaine except 2 to be 
Sir Charlea Cavendish aod Maister Heniy PAerepont, 
eldest son to tflie Lord Viooumt (aic) Newante, in 
hope thatt the towne ydeWmge to their i^qiMst 
touchinge theire elecciona hereafter to thia Parlia- 
ment euaewinge (yf anie bee) may gayne tite frieDd- 
shipp and favour of tbose twoe noble families aod 
have their afijslsta'Doe to the towi» when anie occa- 
sion shall be offered." Accordiing to thie tJhe town 
wa« of no comsidexation whatever in the choice of 
members of Parliament compared witii the Cooncil, 
who arrogantly claimed the whole of the authority. 
On March 23, 1621 (srix yeare or so previoosly), 
the Council 'm their mivrates tell ua "The greater 
parte of tiiis compamie doe bold ytt conveuiejit that 
2 forreynera (non-burgesses) be choaen for the towne 
to serve in this Parliament for the easing of the 
towne's chardge." That is, the town would tten be 
freed from the payment of " wages/' ae ntentioned 
in the preceding oommondcation. In ooe leepect the 
Council ante very oandid with u», for they desire 
tbat "2 forpeynere be choeen *fw' the towne," 
but not *' by " the towne, ae that would have aJtered 
the case entirely. 

There ia an interesting renndnieoenoe of youthful 
days still retained in n^ memory whidi oonneeta 
u« with some of the dodn^ of our anoettrtora oom- 
mencing above 200 years amoe. ItisthehEuvingseen 
Sedan chairs carried about with (generally) old ladies 
ineide, who bedng always accustomed to them weie 
uffiwilKng to give up their use. TW« is nearly 
seventy years since. My oiW fellow-oiti«eo« will l>e 
aware that they were baroe on two shout poles, wiih 
a men at the back and front. About forty years 
wnce one of these old carriers or beaateiw, wivom I 
knew and whose name was Fosg, died in the Lamb- 
Ly Hospital at the top of Derby-road, and wdth hsm 
I believe passed away the laat of Aose directly con- 
necting us witii these relics of i^ past. 

At that tdme, though gas was in use with many 
people, odl lamps had not all been oast off, but some 
could even be found in back streets for lighting pur- 
poses. The town proper at that period did not in- 
clude its suburbs of Radfoid, Basford, Leoton, and 
Sneinton, and though the streets weiPe lighted at 
night they were far behind what is at present the 
case, but when passing — ^in the eveouig— ^yond the 



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183 

tow3i boondaraee the probabikties were thai it would 
t>e into darkoefls. Lant^iw were then in conunon 
tue, adul It i4i impressed upon my nuad that ius a 
boy I went on a niuuber of ocoefiions with »ome one 
wnen it was dark to Radfoixl or Bloomsgix)ve, and 
that we took one to iigli't ufi in those paits. 

In 1747 there waa a ParUamentttiy couteist between 
John Plumptre, Efiq., acbd Sir Charles iSedley, Bari., 
wheu Sir Ohaiiee was succefisiol. To comjnemorate 
the event he bestowed upon his suppoi'ters the tioei^i 
hr tree he oouid find in hia woo<iii at NuttaJ Ic 
was cut down, aini, havung been brought to the 
town, waB fixed for a Maypole in Parliament-streei, 
rather higher up than the ends of Ciumfeer-str'.-ei 
(dien Cow-hboe) and IkBLton-street (then Boot-lano) 
and facing the west end of PariLamenit-row, which 
at that time occupied the ooatre of Lower ParUu- 
Skent-stmeet. It i^ said to have remained here until 
1780, when, by order of one of the oyerAeers of the 
highways for that year (Mr. Thomas Wyer), iin<i 
probably being decayed, it was removed. This was, 
I oonsider, the hst Maypole to be fixed in the streets 
in Nottini^ham. Poesibly, from not being far away, 
it mave lukve suggested the naming of the Maypole 
Hotel. 

Seventy years since there were oon^tables and 
watchmien. though not necessarily the same mon. 
HifO wtttchmien wiould, I think, in many oaoes, if 
observed, be found to be greyhaired, and the oon- 
stablea would on an av<erage be older than our pre- 
sent poUoemen ; and sevemtj years or thereabouts 
th«y were very mfuch ferwer m numher tihan are pre- 
sent polioemen. During the late night or early 
mnmiEoig tihe wwtdhmeu wiou'ld! oaJI oat the time on 
frequent ocoasiions and also the sort of wesibber, as 
'' Half -past one and a fine mora, or cloudy mom ; 
and two o'clock and a rainy morn, &c., kc.** 

A number of my older fdlow-citizens will still re- 
member men for many years who daily stood on 
the front of the Exchange with ^mall pies to sell or 
gamble away, their ory being, " Res all hot, all hot. 
tosB or buy, toss or buy. Pfes att hot." They had 
the means with them of keepin«r a small fire to make 
them hot. At this time on the Long-row between 
tike piSlars two ennall stalls could generally be found 
on which sweets were sold. Oae of them was close 
to the uipper end of the Row and near to the CMd 
Bear Inn, which, as I have before remarked, was 
pulled down and the site included in the extensive 
pienuses of Mr. Footer, furniture manufacturer. 



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The oUier wa« more e&ttjwaxd. I seem to haTc » 
dim recollection of another stall being kept between 
tlie pdUan of the old Town Hall many years before 
it was cleared away for the Great Central Railway. 

In ibe "Records," VoL HI., page 400, a.d. 1545, 
the Editor in Note 5, when referring to Bargeeses 
and a presentment respecting Lammas, says : — ** The 
Burgesses had the right of commoning over this land 
from Lammas Day (14th August) to Martinmas (11th 
Novembei). This right was commuted by the En- 
closure Act of 1845. On Lammas Day all the f«ices 
were thrown down and the enclosure converted into 
oae great common field in its aJioierait sense. At 
^lartunma^ the owners of the enclosures erected 
fences which were retained until the following Lam- 
mas. It is to this erection of fences th-^t this pre- 
sentment refers." I entirely disagree wi.th this oon- 
uki^ion, as doubtless aooordding to the remembrance 
of the olclej^t inhabitants and also to tridition coming 
down to us, it is thoroughly incorrect to «ay that **Qn 
Lammas Day all the fences were thrown down and 
the einclosures converted into one great common field 
in its ancient sense," for siuch was not the case. 
There was no converting whatever into one great 
common field, for praobically all the fields remained 
as they were, and anyone half a mile away would be 
imable to see in the hedges much, if any, change 
between the cloee time and when it was Lammas, 
and with a few exceptions the whole of the fieWe 
remained much a^ they were. 

The field geutes geoArally w«pe removed, and if tbs 
occupLer of the field wxui wise be woidld canoe a 
number of '* gaps " to be made in variooa parts of 
the fence, 00 thai ihose therein sbould have umiutear- 
rupted egrew in all directions ; but it is utterly wrong 
when this was the case to say " aH the fences were 
thrown down," a« it is untrue. If ooch had really 
been the fact the cost oi replacring the feaiceB of all 
the fields, when those uoing tbeai could claim tbem 
for nine mond» only in each year, would in many 
oT«es amount to a latrge portion, if not the whole, of 
the rent. The editor, compamaitively speaking, hafi, 
I believe, the claim of being coneidered a young man, 
and thereforo most likely has no perecmal knowledge 
of anything relating to the fences of the pre- 
inclosurc fidde. I have a gneei desire tha^t " the 
truth, and nothing but the tnuth," respecting* theise 
and other mattens reUuting thereto should go down 
to posterity, and that ie my reason for objecting, 
though theone is an important considerajtioo opposed 
to hie assertioo. Hie fences were generally quick- 



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185 

set, ^lowTfog hamihoms, and immbers liiad been in 
positBoii for scores of yeaio, wkih Trood of a ffood 
UbickxieeB amoDgst them. Had tbeoe fenoee been 
thrown down eaioh year? I remennber an old (grow- 
iog) hawtibom hedge oai eacb aide of little Lairk Dade, 
wbi-di, from tihe obaiuoter of tb^ wood, had been 
tbeane a greait portiooi of a oentcuy ; I wish to kDow 
how these and otibera were again infused with life 
afiter being thrown down eajch year? 

We cannot forget tiiat m the greo-t fencelesB field 
mentioned aboT<e there would be a larg« number 
of banks and dikes (oJHowing thait all the fences weo^e 
thrown down, whicn I do not)— these would be no 
batter than trains to the boroes and catt<Le placed 
therein. Yert theo^ is no fear of tho^, for the fences 
weire not thrown down, except in imaginaition. 
Finally, I will give an extract from Vol. 3, p. 374, 
proving that my stsutememfts respecting the character 
of the badges is accurate, and that they oould not be 
thrown down, but that they would have to be 
grubbed up if taken away in 1535, April 12th, in 
a presentment at the Seenons the c*/c«JtBhles say "We 
present one ThomBS Tettfocd that dwells in House 
with Omfpey Coke in Fyssher Gate for cuttyng 
up the quyke set hege in dyvera jdasus a boute 
thye towne." No occupier in the enjoyment of bis 
senses would think of aettc^ hedges of this kind if 
they had to be " thnown down '* each year. 

In the ?«?!Cond paragraph I refer to a " milnsbooe," 
and in relation theireto I desire to say that in olden 
times the plaocis where com, &c., was ground were 
called milnie«, and the propri«etor, or overlooker, was 
a milner ; as time went on these names were changed 
to mill and mdller, but the two names w^ere id<entical, 
and as surnames we have each in use (Milner and 
^liUw) at present 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM: 

ITS STKEETS., PEOPLE. &c. 



XXXI. 

In this, my oonciudiiDg, article on tlie above subject 
I wi«h to rafer to tbe ^doond part of my nintb letteur 
connected with tibe Howitt:?, and William Wonk- 
wottb, whose name ie tber« jAcidentally nkentiooed, 
and to give fuller and knUsresting partiioalanB of bis 
vi<siit to Nottingham, which are <£taiiied from "Some 
li€imiinisoenoe« of Nottimgbam," by Mary Howitt. 
Kefeinring to her husband she »ays : " Towards the 
end of MfijPch, 183X, William and I were surprised 
oDre morniing by a call from thd poet Wordsworth, 
kx^ing uni^ppy and dismayed. He explained that 
he, with wife, daughter, and a grandciiild, journey- 
ing home from London, had arnvtfd in Nouingham 
the preceding night ; Mrs. Wordsworth, however, 
waa taken so ill tlia4> it was imposstbl-e for them to 
go on. Th«y knew no one in the town exc*?pt ua 
by narme ; wouild we at least befriend them so faff as 
to direct them to a medical man ? But long before 
we had komt the paj-bicuLars of this sad story, which 
he seemed almost too perturbed to teH, we hcwi as- 
sured him of ev«ry help on our part. The invalid 
was conveyed to our house, and as D-r. Godfrey 
Howitt, who was an intelligent young physician, on 
being oelkd in menefy prescribed rest and ^od at- 
ttindajuce, Wordswortm perceiving ijbeJb his wife could 
have both with us left her and Dora under our roof, 
and proceeded oa his way with littde Rodira. 

*'Our guesfts ramaiined with us a fortnight. Airs. 
Wordswoith was agreeable and unpretending. . . 
William's brother, Emanuel, being at Fanisfield, 
lent us his phaeton, so thiait Mrs. Wordsworth wheji 
sufficiently recovered could take a daiily aimitng; 
and I think he himself must often have driven them 
about the pdieasant x^ighbouriiood, with its Sherwood 
traditions, sriiice they retained for him a warm re- 
gard, and thai not aJone they declared, because he 
was an an tii -revolutionist." ** It was, it must be re- 
nvembered, the time of a gieneral election, and the 
approach of the passing of ^ Reform Bill. Pol'ittios 
were the ali-absoi^ing theme, as the nation watch-ed 
with intense interesrt the proceedings of King, Lords, 
and Commons. Mr. Wordswortii could think, write, 
and talk on no other »ubjeot tham the oonoing Revo- 
lution ; ' tbe Deform/ as be (teimed it. His wife and 



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daugliter on t^teib retuini fockod him oomplatiiUig tbat 
'he was &a weH in body a« »yrrow aod hcavineos for 
the coodftioix of hie oountry woakl aillow him to be/ 
A Yiaifc to Kesiinck dad not revive him, for Soutbey's 
buoyBAit, oheeffiful tipiirA, had likewi«e mank xmder the 
miwehiiaf he feilit most aidfle from the iimmiiDeDft revo- 
lotion. 

" These two great poeta aikd Chiisrtiaji philosophers, 
dseading democracy, ailso believed thsut if Eag^land 
had Qo estahLished religion she soon wouikl have xwne 
at an. My husbamd, brought up in ajK»tber oohool 
oif thought, felt it Deedfud to anruign the proceedings 
of a law-upheld Ghordh. I sided with him ; it was 
natmral, therefoi^, that WordAwootth should regard uo 
a£ well-^DibeDitiocied bat very ' tuaDultaoufii youaig 
peopibe.' This differeoce of opinion did not, how- 
ever, JaMterfope with oar friendship." These very 
iotepeefaing particaktra of Wordswordi's visit to Not- 
tmgham with his wiie'e 9tay in the town for a 
we^ or two M appear to be assooiated with the 
odd druggist shoip aiul house, as before-mem-tioned, at 
the comer of NewoaotSe-fftreet and Pairliiament-street, 
which are soon to be things of the pa»t. (See 
farther paotiooIiasB m article No. 9.) 

Many are still left amoiDgst the old inhabilants of 
the oiil^ who will remiemiber the official Bellman of 
the town w<ith his silvered la very ooat and batnd 
round his hat. The last to hold the post and to be 
80 cLofahed was named Berry, whose given name I 
tSbihk was Thomat?. I imaf^ that fifty years or 
thereaboate must have elapsed since he went round 
Nottingham in oarrying oat this duty. I have the 
idea tl^ for a time he lived in the builddngs of the 
old Town HaU (Weekday-cross), but in the kust part 
of his lole it was at the Castle Lodge, and from what 
I have learned he probably died there about thirty- 
seven years since. I remember his predecessor, 
though his name has escaped my n^emory. 

Modem times are not favourable to such offices, 
for we have now far superior methods of advertising, 
to sending a man remind the town with a bell. 
Several private individuals since the withdrawal of 
the official bellman have acted more or less in that 
cepaoity, but the most prominent of them was oM 
bUnd Peter Conroy, who did more business in that 
way than anyone afterwards. The first mention of 
the belbnan whidh I find k the Records is inoidcn- 
tally, and a.d. 16CM — ^nearly 400 years since, but in a 
manner which shows that the town had possessed 
such an officer some tame before then. In the CSiam- 
beitadiw' aooouots for 1541, there is this Item: 



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"Pegrd to Uumm, IipImii, to flaring ftboote Htb 
towne f of« tymez with fays beOe for t^ iowae 
btujnes, 4d.'' In other pteoes th«re ace ^otriei ^ 
the nne tort. Aiaiost as a mMiter ol form the 
Serjeect at Mace, Mr. WiaUaon Brooksba&k, e«c- 
oecded to the tatk of Mr. Berry, m the tows omr or 
belhnan. but be had no particular liking for such an 
occupation, azkl I may say that he never carried out 
th« duitkss though there is no doiobt that on a 
number of occasions this waa to the benefit of blind 
P«i«r Conroy. Mr. Brookafbank died about eight 
years since, aged 95 y«ars. and with him the old 
office of town oner or bejlmao has probably ended. 
I recently heard of the old bell being yet used in the 
town, but the place is now forgotten. 

Between sirty and seventy years siikoe there were 
tW'^>ty-one windmills to be found in or near to the 
town. An old but exc^lent map datting back about 
73 yeans shows that at intervals near to the road on 
tthe* top of the Forest between Mofsfield-road and 
Alfre«tOfi-<x)ad, there wen thirteen wiiKfanills. A 
few appear to have bad a house ott-ached to them. 
The last whdch was left of them was a smook-mill 
(brickworiL), which had been and probaUy remained 
in the possession ol Mr. Smith, baker, of Albert- 
9tneet, and in which steam power had afterwards 
been introduced. It was unfortunately buimed down 
in December, 1858. and thus came to an end the last 
of the fifteen windmills once standing in the town ; 
ithe other twio being near to the (^>en spaoe at the 
top of Derf>y-foad, as remarked in a preceding 
article. At the thne mentioned there a^fupears to 
have been throe win^hnJIb on Sberwood-nse, and 
aiso three at Sneinton, which completes the number 
to twenty-one. I should have said before, that Mr. 
Hmith's smock, or afterwards steam mill, was on 
the south-eastern side of Forest -road about two 
hundred yards from Alfreton-road and to the south- 
west, but olose to the top end of little Lark Dale, 
where it adjodned the Forest-road. 

In letter No. X. I refer to what Deering teils i*fl 
reepectibg tbo otdest brick house in Not4iLqg|Mim 
(1615), being the Qreeo Dragon, on the Loog-row. 
The Dttfce Book further adds that the Green I^n^on 
Inn was afterwards known as the Deihy Aims Inn. 
With ih» conclusion I eoftarely disagreed, for there 
is nothing to show that the Deihy Arms ever had 
the requiremeots attaching to it which Deering men- 
tions as pertaining to the Gh^een Dragon, whereas 
frcMn an old ei^graving of that end of the Long-row 
tbeCkmnge and Dragon is showit to po^mss tbem M^ 



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I 



aod wi-WK>nt hesitation I gave it the pprfepence. I 
aan glad to aay that quite recently I olxtained evi- 
dence wiAch. I t^hink efoould be ooncinfiiYe, a>nid that 
thoiiigh a dkantge of name dod occur a loo^ time srnce, 
*he Dedby Ainras bad n»ot previoosly heeia known ai 
tbe Green Dragon. 

I have seen an old deed relating to the adjoining 
propenty, and it is there described aa "the Derby 
Arms, fbiTiDepIy the Bear and Dtb^joil" Tbie Bot 
oa\ tboron^nbly conviacee xae that tbe old George 
and Dragon (since rebuilt) was tbe first briok bouse 
intended to be de«wi!bed, but to consider it an «rror 
on Deerini^** part to call it t»be Green Dragon. 
Wihrilst wTit'in^ I have fouod furtbeir evidence which 
wi«'l diapo e of any doubt reapwitioig the change of 
nam*. Tbe old deed tells u« of tbe Beax and 
Drs^^i^oci, but I will quote the Date Book against 
iteelf. On pajje 122, a.». 1615, the ediitor says the 
old name was tbe Green Dragoo, wbiktoo page 226, 
A.D. 1799. he enters the nan>e of B«af dmore m keep- 
inis; the Bear and Dra,gon, Long Row. which fuMy 
accords wnih the deed mentioned. Tbe Old Bear 
wa.« only ten or twe've yards to tbe we«tof the Bear 
And Drn^on. o«r Derby Arms, and the George a^nd 
Draiijon twelve to fifteen yard* from the Old Bear. 
WbiiLsi its near ned^bours bad names Uke these I 
<^n uindeT»tajid the deftiTability of ahaoging tbe Becvr 
ejod Dragon for a title inoc« diistimot. Between tbe 
two Dragons Deeriajf apipears to have been coniu^, 
but tbe- autbori'ty j^ven is auiperior to hois own. In 
the TOTO? deed Backaide (the old name) is tpplred to 
or in oonneotion widh Parliament-street. 

On pag? 382, Vol TV., a.d 1623, in the "Borough 
Recopdb," we may by inference obtain an excellen* 
idea of tbe value of property fn a leacBng part of 
Nottingbam ai that date. 1^ followiog is an ex- 
tract from tbe minutes of tbe Council: "Ytt is 
agreed ihai Anthonde MiClinjgton shall bave a lease 
of b « bor»? (m the Lo<ig-rowe for 21 yeares from 
our Lady Day next a.tt £10 fyne and thirtye sholliogiv 
rent, aiid to take this for his Bur geese part, and the 
fyne to be paid th«« : fyve powndes in hand and 
fyve powndes at Michae'mas nexte." They had no 
id^ at Uw* ' 'me of sellnig or leading land by tbe 
square ya.rd, and notbine is tbe-refore mentioned re- 
specting the quantity included in the lease. At thnt 
time a burgess part of one ahiiling valne per week 
"would certainly be considered excellent. On such 
conditions, even for those days. An thou ie MJr'linir- 
ton appeers t^^ brtve dene wel', bqt ipinkinfl; allowance 



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190 

iheA oor nxydem baildinge on the Bow are no doobt 
very moeli miperioir to those of 280 jeeate siDoe, many 
in tibeee days wo\jld be glad of an equal oppovtonity 
of obtainiiDg pa>eniiBeB in tibait 1ooa£t^. 

In tiones long pest tibe CoipanutBon and many 
others certainly hmd sinigiiilar notions of ih^ ^tic« 
of landHonk to tenaiotfi, £c. On a number of ocoa- 
sions petitions w<ere senit to the Council, or oonmdeied 
by tVm, respecting nulk for grindtng purposes 
which weire started in the town to t(be "dtetrimeint'* of 
the town mills. In Jannary, 1620, at a meeting, 
th-e minutes say : " Ytt is agreed .... tibat a 
ceitificate shell be made out to t^ Righte Hoooour- 
able thie Barrons of tJhe Exdheq-uer att the intreaty of 
the tenants to the to^wrae's mius for ike soppreasion 
of the etcher newe erected mills lately made, and this 
company (all bat . . . three) have put theere 
bandies to' the same certifioets accordingly. Which 
mooion Maister Recordier heuth uoderttSKn to make 
to ye BsiTons." 

In 1630 and 1631 further moiyements were made 
to «Uip»press mills not befcnging to the town. In June, 
1692, the Counoil "ordbred that all petsons who 
have leases of the town and aire oUSged by their 
Covenants to girind at the Town Mills, which now 
Mistri^ Hall hath a lease of, do grind their com 
there so long as they ar' justly and fadirily msed there. 
And if they uipon her complaint refuse to do so, that 
the Coirporation compel theon thereto according to 
their Covenants." There w«s buft little freediom of trade 
here, but in the next notice to teiMflits the Corpora- 
tioQ were vexy definite and threaten the tenants who 
refuae to griziid ait the town's mills usiless they ob- 
Aerve their covenants and a^ppear at the next HaQ, 
"that they (will be) forthwith prooeeded against, 
acoordiiK]^ to law." This is just 200 years since, 
but if it was possible for our present Corporation to 
so far forget themselves as to nse such threats we 
Rhould imagine they had lost their mdnds. 

John Evelyn, in his Diary, a.d. 1654, as a sta^tfiger 

passing through the town aiDd a portion of the 

county, giv«« some interesbkng parfcicTi'lars. He 

seeons to hsuve gone by way erf Beflvoir Castle to 

Newairk and left there on the 144ih August, coming 

by Whairtoci House, belongnng to Loro Oha/worth, 

"then by Home (? Holme Pierrepoot), a noble pteoe 

belonging to the Marquis of Dorchester, and pessed 

""^ famous river Tneiiit, whidh dfiviHJes the south 

the north of England, and 8<f lay that night at 

inghom. The whole town and coimty seems to 

>ui one entire rock, as it were, an exceeding 



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191 

pleasant sbcre, fnii of g<enitiy. Here I observed 
diTers to live in the rod^ aad cayes mmoih alter tbe 
manner as about Tours in Praaoe. The diwch ( ? fcSt. 
Mary's) is well buJlt on an eminence; there is a 
fair hfifOBe of tJie Lord Ckures (? Tbnrlaifed Hall), 
Q!EK)tiher of Pierrepont's, an amjple Market-place; 
large streets foil of crosses; the relics of an ancient 
caiitk, bellowed beneo^iSi wfbdch aire many caverns, 
68pe<:ially that of tlie Soots King, and his w<ork 
wbllst iihex« ** 

It will probe^bly be nefws to most to be informed 
tbat as regards bells St. Mair's Churdi for some 
years appeatrs to have occupied the second place in 
the town. Deanng in his history, pp. 21-22, in- 
forms no that in has time — abont 160 years since— 
St. Mary's passessed six bells only, whilst there was 
a full peal of eight bells at St. Peter's. This pro- 
portioo has since bee© revesraed, for I beKeve I am 
right in saying Hhat there are now ten bells in St. 
Mary's Church, whilst there has been no increase in 
those of St Peter's saoce Deering wrote. In former 
times the ordedng and arrangements respecting the 
ringing of ohnr^a belils appears to have been one of 
the prerogatives of the Town Ck>ancil or Corporation. 
At a meeting held a.d. 1676, Amgust 22, vol. 5. p. 
320, is the following : — " Paasinge BeUs and Ring- 
inge of BeTls at Fnneralls. It is aleoe andeired yat 
from this day forward tbe Sextons of the seyerai 
parishes within this towne shall forbeare to tole the 
belil any kmger then one qnarteir of an houre, in 
that honre t^t is appoynted for the meetinge of the 
guests to attend the Funeral], and then noe longer 
until] the Corps be hronght oxrte to be carryed to 
the Church. an<l those th^ are desirous to haye all 
the Belb range shall have them at the rate accus- 
tomed." According to this the full control of the 
bells was uncciibtediy then vested in the Corpora- 
tion or ey€rc:5*d by them. The beUs of St. Peter's 
Ohurch were rec; st, as per *'Date Book," in 1771. 

That they used the money of the toiwne for pur- 
poses which in these days wonld be obj^^ct^ed to 
as tJhonxmghly illegal cannot be doubted. On 
December 29th, 1668, the Coandl "ordered that 
such peoBoos as are noiw inhabitants of this towne 
and are desirous to ntake fyne(£10) to become 
buiroesBeB and take and subscribe the oaths . . . 
shaU by the consent and good liking of this com- 
pany be made burgesses, and the one moyty (half) 
of such fynes shall be imtployed for buyinge of bells 
for Saint Mftrye'e Church, and the other for the 
repay ree of SaW Peter's chancell." On May 16, 



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1670, an oak iree from tbe Oopptoe and anotlker if 
Deed«d w»« ordered by the To»wn Oonmcil to be giren 
for St Peter'a chaMeL On Friday, September 8, 

1671, it waa "ordered by Hm ConiiceU- tbat ten 
timber triea of the best in Uie Ooppioe to be aet out 
aAd imployed toward* tiie rebuiJdiiH; of St. NirJM>laa'« 
CSinrch. On Septadber 6, 1670, the Council ordered 
tha^ three mms of foKy ahiliings ahoald be given 
tt^waitk tbe repair aad reboiWin^ of St. Peter'a 
chanoei. In May, 1672, wood for hanging belle m 
ordered to be given to St. Peder'a Ohnreh. 

On Aagvat 3, 1675 (see "Records.*' vol. 6. p. 319) 
we Me tM " ynt tibie day Master Edward Gre«vee 
broogbt in a receipte under the hand of Master John 
Martyn for the aome of thirty poonda given by the 
Oouncell for and toiwarclfl the covering of Saint 
NioholaA C%nrch, now boildinfi^ with leade, which 
receipte bean date the 24th day of October, 1674, 
wa« thia day delivered to the flood Edward Greaves.** 
On Septentber 24th, 1678, ibe Council ordered £50 
to be paid "for tbe finirfwng of Saint Nicholiwi 
Cburoh steple and ohaoceiU." ApriJ 12, 1688. until 
the contrary vma resolved tbe Council ordered that 
£20 per annum should be paid to each of the "par- 
flona or vioaa« of the three several pari#he« of Not- 
tingham ... to be paid quarterly to the eaid 
•everaJ miniatora." There are aao oiher and similar 
orders recorded aa having been made by the Coun- 
cil. 

In the 37th year of Queen Elizabeth the Council 
ordered "That noe penon being a forriner ehail 
leflde any manure or mmclce out of the tow»e« 
Uberty« unlcBse he pay therefor to ihe Cbamber- 
lynea* of th.i« towne for the tyme beinff for every 
carto loade a penney for 00 many loadea as they 
carry over any pavement, and y^ Snenton burg 
men ahall fetch noe mncke out of the towne unles? 
they do yearly amend the lyiebouae-lane before M'd- 
summer-day. It ie thJa day ordered by this Councell 
y»t the former order be revived and stand in force, 
and the Chamberlyne for tbe time bcinjr to see thi« 
order duly executed." To most tWe will probably 
appear a very aasuming and hiffh-handed recfulation 
A penny at this date (about 1595) would be equaJ 
to 8d. or 9d. in these timee. 

Judged by present -d«iv idea* the pun ishment^ meted 
ont to delinquents 130 years since and less were 
mo9t abomfnajble and degrading in character. On 
October 11, 1769, a young woman, 19 years of age. 
having been convicted of obtaining goods under 
Mk prateooes, was fltiippod to the wavt in the 



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193. 

Mairket-place (it being market day) and publicly 
wbiipped by order of the Court of Quarter Seas'one. 
Ab thero was no doubt some aJternative modes of 
pandsbment tbe Recorder or Judge offended public 
morality as much or more than the culprit. Id 
April, 1770, John I/ffd, for ertealing a pair of window 
curtaoDfi from the Oown Inn. wa« whipped from 
Weekiday-orofiB to the Malt-cro6s and back to the 
Hen-crow (Poultry). An old ma<n. aged 80, for steal- 
ing hay, and a woman named Hawley for stealing 
two cotton gowns, were sentenced to be publicly 
wiiipped at the Malt-cross. A voung woman was 
also stripped, ti«d to a cart, and wliipp^l from Week- 
day-oroas to the Malt-cross in the Market-place for 
stealing pocket handkerchiefs from a draper's shop. 
Tim DK>de of punishment' was carried oat until May 
26, 1830, when tbe last public whipping occurred in 
Nottingham. 

A o^^ry since in other directions also the laws 
were naost odious in oharacteir. On 23rd July. 
1795, Ann Meekings was convicted at the town 
Assizes of aitealing a bit of lace edginsr from the 
shop of Messrs. Swaon, Long-row, whien Mr. Justice 
Buller sentenced her to be hung. This affected her 
in a most VTolent form, and caused her to screom 
for some time hysterically, ^e was fortunately 
reprieved afterwaTds. When the people obtained 
more power such outrageous and disgraceful punish- 
ments were soon ended. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM : 



its ^trcete, ^eopk, &c. 



JAMES GRANGER. 



SECOND SERIES, 



Reprinted from the Nottingham Daily ExpnsSy 
October 3rd, 1903.— July 9th, 1904. 



NOTTINGHAM : 
Printed at the Nottingrham Daily Expres* Office. 

1904. 



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PREFACE. 



It is now more than two years since the first 
serks appeiired' erf "Old Xottingharo, Its Streets. 
'People, Ac," cuul I desire to express my easacero 
thanks for the gratifying reception accorded to it. 
From ibis circumstance J have been encouraged to 
undeitake a eeoocd serie?, for M^hich I bope to 
receive the same favourable consideration. 

I am painfully aware that in this series, as in 
the first, various slight errors in orthography and 
typography have crept in, together with a few 
others, for which I hope to be leniently judged. 

Respecting the statements herein made, I believe 
that they will generally be found reliable, for I 
have in many instances been at considerable trouble 
to verify them. This labour has been much 
lessened by my being able to refer to numerous 
old books and documents, together with a number 
of other matters appropriate to the subject — such 
as large and rare old maps, large views of the old 
town, Ac, which are frequently mentioned. 

1 much regret that I am compelled in this series, 
as in the first, to differ with some of the asser- 
tions, or conclusions, of the Editors of the Borough 
Records. That work is official, and, as an old 
inhabitant of Nottingham, a sense of duty impels 
me, as I hope it will others, to take exception to 
what may fairly be considered incorrect or mis- 
leading in those Records. The remarks are made 
without the least personal feeling, and for the pur- 
pose only of improving them. 

I desire to return my sincere thanks to many 
friends who, during the time occupied in bringing 
out this work, have made numerous useful sug- 
gestions, and provided me with various matters of 
much rarity and interest, for consideration and 

reference. 

JAMES GRANGER. 
August, 1904. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM: 

lis STBEETS. PE(»LB. &c 



Two yeacB have now almost dapeed 
since I first wrote upon this subject, which in- 
sliides many matters of interest allowing of 
muoh being said respecting them. From the 
enooimiging reoeption of what has previously 
been issued, I am emboldened to commence a 
second series. 

In olden times, and even to the beginning 
of the nineteenth century, when "IRie Forest^ 
was mentioned at Nottingiiam, it was thoroughly 
and undoubtedly understood as bednff that of 
Sherwood. The title "Kottingham Forest" is 
comparatively of recent i^)plioation, and I be- 
lieve that such a term cannot be found in 
Deering's, Throsby's, or Blaokner's Histories, 
which brings us down to 1815. Deering wrote 
about 1747 (he died in Fehniary, 1749), and the 
poet of his day speaks of Nottingham as being 
"In ancient bearwood's souui-west angle 
placed." 

Even as late as 1834, Deatden, in his " Topo- 
graphy and Directory of Nottingham," when 
^ening to this part, says : — *"The present 
Baoecourse is of an oval form, having been 
altered from its original shape in 1813. It is 
situated in a part of * Sherwood Forest' to the 
west of Mansfield-road, being the lowest part 
of the ground, from which a steep acclivity, 
crowned by a long range of windmills, rises on 
ihe southern side of it, and affords the spectators 
ae fine a view of the whole course as is en- 
joyed by those who ascend the Grand Stand." 
The mills for about half a century have been 
associated with the peat. 

From l^s it will be seen that in living 
memoir, when the definite article was used and 
''The Forest'' mentioned, it was fully under- 
stood as referring to Sherwood Forest. Still 
.there was in iormer times a distinguishing 
name for that part of oild Sherwood Which we 
now deeignate Nottingham Forest, and that 
was the "Nottingham Lynges/' or "Lings." 



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2 

They ore probably mentioned fint^in the Be- 
cords, Vol. I., p. 123, a.d. 1336, and in the 
same volume, p. 435, a.d. 1629, a release of 
land is mentioned, *' abutting ixpon the common 
ground called the Lyngee on the nortli " ; that 
is, each reached to the top of the hill ; the 
Lings on the north side and Lin^ifdale, or 
Bowling-alley, and Larkdale on the south side, 
and adjoined or abutted upon each other at the 
part where Forest^road is now formed. 

In Vol. n. of the Records, p. 417, a.d. 1473, 
there is a grant mentioned, with other matters, 
of eight and a half acres of land in " Lyngdale." 
In the same volume, p. 115, a.d. 1416, a grant 
of half an acre of land in Lyngdale is recited. 
In Vol. in., p. 473, A.D. 1538, we are informed 
that the Lynges were the common pasture of 
the town of Nottingham, which quite agrees 
with the idea of Nottingham Forest as it was 
fifty years since or more, and which, as wp 
know, covers, or did cover, a space of consider- 
ably over 100 .acres. In Vol. V., p. 41, of 
the Borough Records, mention is made of *'a 
certain waste called * Nottingham Lings,' other- 
wise 'Basford Lings' (but as) lying and being 
witihin the precincts and libeorties of the town 
of Nottingham." This most undoubtedly re- 
fers to what we now call "The Forest," and it 
is fully decided to be. so bj a resolution of the 
(Corporation, ae recorded in the same volume, 
p. 401, June 16th, 1699, when they "ordered 
that the Ohamberlyns doe pay five pounds to- 
wards a plate to be run for upon Nottingham 
and Baaford Lings at the next Horse Race." 

This should be decisive; yet. we are told in 
Vol. rV., p. 439, where reference is made to 
three occasions on which the Lings have been 
mentioned, and also in Vol V., p. 449, that the 
Lings are **a portion of the Larkdales," which 
was a diminutive " Dalette," and merely a foot- 
V^th between hedges, three to four nundred 
yards long and two to three yards wide, being 
for the most part sunk between the fenoee, and 
commencing at the southern or bottom end in 
a very large open field and reaching at its 
northern extremity to where Forest-road is now 
formed, though it will be observed that it was 
on the opposite side of the hill to the Ldn^. 



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The Temembrance of it in it« olden state is still 
fully retaiiied by many of the old inhabitants 
of the city (as well as myself) who resided near, 
and are aware of the imposeibility of including 
the Lings with the BiceoourF.e, &c., in little 
Lcurkdale. 

Sherwood Foreet at one time contained ap- 
proximately 100,000 aores, and appears to have 
reached from the Trent in the south to Work- 
sop in the north. The town with its ground 
oocupied part of the southern boundary. 

Fortunately for Kobtin^^m, it was for some 
centuries by Charter exempted to a great ex- 
tent from interference under the old and ex- 
ceedingly severe Forest Laws ; yet, with 
eighteen other smaller towns or villages, it was 
in a laree measure encircled by or included in 
the souinem and much smaller portion of the 
Forest boundaries, the old name for which was 
Thorneywood. This has been remembered in 
the title given to one of the city roads which 
was formerly called Wood-lane, and leads on to 
Mapperley Plains. The name is said to have 
originated in the large amount of thorny under- 
wood to be then found in that portion of the 
Fore«t. The northern part was entitled the 
"High Forest," which Deering says "was 
anciently most richly provided with stately 
oaks, in tallness and straightnees of the bole, 
liardly giving way to the firs in the narfchern 
parts Of Europe, quite freed ht>m any thorns 
or other underwooa." 

Dr. Thoroton, about 1675, complains that in 
his time "so many claims have been allowed 
by the deputies and lieut^ant of tihe lord 
warden (of the Forest) that .he fears there will 
shortly not be wood enough left to cover th^ 
bilberries, which every summer were wont to 
be an extraordinary great profit and pleasure 
to the poor people who gathered tbem and 
carried them about the country to sell." 

In Vol. n., p. 258. of Throsby's Thoroton, 
1797, when referring to Bulwell, hp says : " It 
is all enclosed but that portion which conjiti- 
tutes part of the forest, which then meant 
that of Sherwood, thouigh now and of late years 
entitled Bulwell Forest-. 

Deering when speaking of Mansfield sails 



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\%:%M forest tomt^f^nnd meotioiia the hone read' 
OFiQc the forest to Newark from Noitipghaan 
l^/the northeoi bank'of Hbe Trent as bei^ ''a 
p^eaBurable journey/' This was about ^46, 
and from that date, or perhaps a little earlier, 
itntil about 1820 a great number of endloBttres 
took place of the lands of various pariflhes in 
the country generally, and from this cause, and 
also to tne serious lessening of the forest's 
^tent by other and more objectionable acts on 
the part of rarious persons, as we are told by 
Pr. Thoroton, &e., it was greatly circumscribed, 
and the wood continuall3r cut down. I theses 
fore consider that it is cmeflT from these causes, 
^d after the year 1800, that such names as 
Mansfield Forest, Bulwell Forest, Nottingham, 
Forest, &c., gradually became recognised, and 
when the appellation "Sherwood Forest" 
slowly passed out of ordiriary use. 

In Blackner, on pp. 37-38, we are informed 
that according to a survey of Sherwood Forest 
made in the year 1600, it contains 95,115 acres, 
of which 44,839 acres were then enclosed : 
9,486 in woods, 35,080 in wastes, 1,583 in 
Clipston Park, 3,672 in Beskwood Park, 326 
in Bulwell Park (? now Forest), and 129 in 
Nottingham Park (1 Forest). From 1796 to 
1799 the following enclosures took place— viz. : 
2.280 acres in Aniold parish, 1,158 in Basford, 
2,606 in Sutton-in-Ashfield, 1,941 in Kirkby. 
and 261 in Leoiton and Kadford. Qince then 
many large portions of the Forest in Lambley, 
jSedling, and other parishes have been en- 
closed, so that out of 95,115 acres or more coQ- 
tatned within the ancient limits of the Forest 
60,000 acres are probably now cultivated, and 
the remainder is partly in woods, plantations, 
and wastes. 

It will therefore be seen that the term 
"Forest" for many years past would not be 
applicable in its old sense to a great portion 
of that part of the county, and from this cause 
it appears lo have gradually ceased being em 
ployed ; but other names were adopted in various 
parts of the district in place Uiereof which were 
more descriptive of the localities. 

Dr. Thoroton, from what he says in different 
parts of his history, appears to have been mnch 



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opposed to theee eobolofiiBiefl, and Bpmks oat 
Btrap^j respecting some of them. . When re- 
fOTring to "Thogpe in tihe dotts" — or, as it is 
now entitled, " Tiiorpe in the Glebes," Noitting- 
ham shire — ^he says : '* Inolosing the Lordship 
(m it doth in all places wihere the sodl is any- 
thing; good in this oounty for certain) hath so 
ruined and depopulated the town that in my 
time there was not a house left inhabited of 
this notable Lordship (except some part of the 
Hall, Mr. Armstrong's house) but a shepherd's 
only." I think there cannot be much doubt 
respecting rural districts that if the terms of 
the Endoeure Acts are equitable to all ranks 
of the people, and land for good sized commons 
were set apart for the villagers as compensation 
for what tiiey lose, according to Dr. Thoroton, 
such as collecting wild fruit or help in feeding 
a cow or other animals, that just cause for com- 
plaint and the depopulation of the villagee 
would be greatly lesaeined, if not entirely 
avoided. 

In my last article (No. 31), refeirring to Old 
Nottin^^iam, I notioed bdefly the windmills 
(21) which about fifty years since wetre standing 
in or near to the town. Judging from history 
as re^;aidfi Nottingham, theQB appears to be 
reason for si^>po8ing thaft these mills were, com- 
IMtratively speaking, of modem introductiQU, 
there beuig but liSile mention of them earlier 
than the nineteenth century. Mills for 
grinding purposes are no doubt noticed fr«)- 
ciuently ; out as regards the town, on reference, 
it will be found from their position that the 
motive power of some was derived from water, 
and in other cases from horses. 

I have only observed two instances in th^ 
Borough Becords where windmills ar^ men- 
tioned in Nottingham, and, singular to say, 
they are each in Vol. I.— the first on p. 17, 
and dated 1222-1235 ; the second instance is on 
p. 123, A.D. 1335, being a century or more later 
than the first. In one case it is about 670 
and in the other 570 years since. It is cer- 
tainly very strange, and from no further uicn 
tion of such mills appearing to hxyd been made 
in the Records it is almoet suftcient to cause 
.i» to dombt whether or not in the odginal it 



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really was a .YrindmiLl intended to be deeoribed 
in each case, or one worked by some other 
power. That there were mills at that early 
date appears b^ond doubt, for Thocoton in his 
''ffistory of Nottinghamshire" mentions one 
at Thorpe, near Wysall, as being there in the 
reign of Heniy I., a.d. 1100-1135, or nearly 800 
years since, though we have no information re- 
specting the power hy which it was worked. 

In the Records, Vol L, p. 123, William de 
Amyas is mentioned in 1335 as owning a mDl 
in Nottingham, which, from what is saad of the 
locality, was prtrbably on land to the south- 
west of Tollhouse-hill, or Derby-road. On 
p. 117, A.D. 1330, "The MiUs of the Lord 
King" are incidentally mentioned in the trans- 
fer of some property. At that period they 
were connected with the Oastle, which was 
owned by the Grown. They were situated near 
the rock, and no doubt worked by water-power 
in connection with the river Leen. 

Some of the mills were the property of the 
Oorporation as representing the town. In 
Vol. n., p. 373, of the Rwords, a.d. 1464, are 
several interesting stateonients remcting ''The 
Beparacion of the Horse Milne " (Mill), namely, 
"Item paied for a paire of newo milnestones, 
&c., 12s. Item for makyng of a brass to the 
same milne, whereof the stuff was of the 
Gomyn (common) stare, 14d. Item paied for 
a new brasse boght ol Belyetterson for 3s. 3d. 
Item for mendyiig of the spyndelle and ime 
(iron) that were wanted for the same, 12d. 
Item for shotyng (shooting or straightening) 
of the same spyndeUe another tyme, 6d. Item 
for lattyng andjlawbyng (lathing and plastering 
with mud or clay) of the milne walle, 12d." 
The last item proves conclusively that the 
"milne" was to a great extent built of wood 
from the repairs to the wall being carried out 
in the manner stated, for at this date (1464) 
there was not a brick houso in the town, nor 
for 150 years afterwaixls. Those particulars 
are taken from the Ohamberlain's accounts. 

In the same volume, pp. 380-83, there is an 
award of arbitrators between the Mayor, Bur- 
gesses, &c., of Nottingham, and Henre Per- 
poynt, esquier, regarding (with other things) 



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a mill cm the Leem, ithidt the latter appeon 
to hmve l>i]ilt, and in so dodng to haye appiro' 
piiartod li^^ts beHooginc: to t£e town, as tbe 
award wae in favour of the Mayor and Bur- 
gesses. 

There were numerous oomplamts at intetrals 
from the occupiers of the malls beloaip^ng to 
the Oorporation of strangers commencing to 
grind and taking thedx custom, and asking the 
Council to stop them. These mills to a great 
Dztent, if not altogether, appear to have been 
in the town, and therefore would probably be 
worked by horses. In 1511 "the comen milne 
at Ohappel-barr " is mentioned, and in 1531 
the mill there (Vol. HI., p. 370 of the Be- 
oords) is recorded as having a rent of 53s. 4d. 
charged quarterly for it ; and " Margaret. 
Sty holm for the MaUniyln in 'Berkergate' end 
paid quarterly £3 6s. 8d." At that date it i« 
undoubted that these mills must (from the 
rent paid) have been of some importance, for 
one pound would then be an equivalent to eight 
pounds or more at the present time. 

I am favoured with the possession not only 
of a very excellent set of maps of old Not- 
tingham, but also with a variety of fine old 
views of ihe town, which, of course, enable 
anyone to speak with greater certainty in re- 
lation to varioue mattera connected with times 
lon|[ passed. On one of each of these (230 
years since) a building is shown which crosses 
the Leen about a thi^ of the distance (as it 
was then) between the creat Leen Bridge (now 
London-road) and Tumcalf-alley (now ^^useei- 
street). The little river is set forth as flowing 
under it. This without doiibt was one of the 
old water-mills of the town. At that time 
(1670) there was scnrcely a house between the 
Leen in that l»rt (Oanal-street) and Narrow- 
marsh, which is shown to be filled up with 
houses, &c., on its southern side, and also on 
the north side of the Marsh except a short 
piece at the eastern end. 

It is surprising that any of our historians in 
modem times should appear to almost ignore 
the existence of windmills in and near Notting- 
ham. At present the only case I have observed 
d their l)eing referred to is by Blackner, on 



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a 

p. 33, when inoidentaJlT mentioiiiiiff the 
noes (1815), he says: "The eye is defighted 
with the sports of the turf ; the soul is sweUed 
with exultation on beholding in front all boun- 
teous Nature presenting her autumnal tribute; 
while in the rear thirteen windmills are pre- 
paring food for the use of man." 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM. 

ITS STREETS, PEOPLE, &c. 



II. 

In the Gbamberlam's aooountB for 1504 
there is an item referring to " the Brige . at ilie 
Bialtmylne." In this case, therefore, it was 
doubtlees a ''water mill" near a bridge. 
There is stall in Nottingham a liiorough- 
fare oalled Malt Mill-lane. I believe that it 
oonnecte Narrow-marsh at its western end with 
what is or was known even in recent years as 
Leen-side. (The little river was arched over 
there in 1829.) It is therefore probable that 
** the Brige at (and) the Maltmylne were in this 
neigh.bourhood, though there were, I believe, 
three " maltmylnes '* in the old town. 

On reference to the Borough Records, Vol. 
lY., p. 287, there is a somewhat sinffular ap- 

Slication from Sir Jarvys Olyfton to um Town 
louncil for the possession of the Trent Mills, 
dAted October 12th, 1607, as foUows :— ''Sir 
Jarvys Olyfton hath this day moved to be 
tenant to the Trent Mills, and hath made these 
three motions — 1, to purchase yem, or seoondly 
to have yem in fee farme. or thirdly to have 
A lease for 100 years or 200 years ; and Ukewise 
doth desier to l^ve some tymber from ye towne 
towardes the present repayringe of yem." 

At a meeting of the Cooncil fifteen days later 
— ^namely, October 27th— we are informed thai 
"Yt TS agreed by all the company except John 
Stanley that a lease sludl be granted in rever- 
sion ; of the Trent Mills to Sir Jarvys Olyfton. 
Knight, for 21 years without fvne, or for 40 
years for £20 fyne; reserving tiie rent of £20 
per annum, and havinge a oare for the pre- 
servinge of the weare (wear) hereafter; and 
lykewyse having a care to exoept snch things 
as are in Henry Fisher's possession, and that 
the Burgesses may have tl^yr ancyent freedom 
there for landinge, wharfinge, passince with 
theyr jgoodes, in, to, and tnroughe the said 
srowncm, aa frely as heretofore they have 
raa4*'' ^Hus appears to hftve been a strange 



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10 

proceeding on the part of Sir Jarrys Olyfton, 
and had probaUy som^ speoiAl ciicumatances 
attached to it, thongh not mentioned in the 
Borough Records. 

In Vol lY., p. 303, of the Beoorda, and on 
July 10th, 1612, when oleMing the streets and 
roads of the town preparatorr to the first yisit 
of King James I., incidental mention is made 
of "the Windmill hill passage/' and on p. 445 
we are told that it was in the Clayfield east 
of the Beck. Possibly a windmill once stood 
upon that hill. 

In the Records, Vol. V., p. 392, 1696, Sep- 
tember 18th, there is the following entry: — 
"Memorandum that on this day Master Mayor 
sealed a Lease of the watercome mills on tlic 
Leene, and other things to Master John Rosse, 
Master Benj&mine Green^ and Master Samuel 
Watkinion, for ninetr-nine years," Ac., Ac. 
This is sitificient to snow or explain the sort 
of power which our ancestors ohiefly made use 
of aereral centuries since for grinding pur- 
posea, and that after 1335 there d^ not appear 
to be in the Records any direct reference to 
windmills at Nottingham as being ueed for 
probably four hundred years or more. 

Respecting windmills for grinding purposes, 
it may, I think, be safely asserted that there 
is not one now to be found within the city area ; 
still it is probable that at a moderate distance 
from Nottingham a mill or two was lately or 
is still to be seen at work, whose original 
resting-place is included in its present lM)un- 
daries. Some cases of removal may perhaps 
be shortly noticed. 

Before entering into particulars respecting 
the windmills, I desire to acknowledge the 
valuable assistance which I have received from 
an old fellow-citizen and neighbour, Mr. 
William Toyne, who in his younger days was 
intimaitelv aasociated with the windmills of the 
town, ana whose personal knowledge respecting 
them at t^is distant date is probably unique. 
He is the son of the late Mr. William Toyne, 
sen., miller, mentioned in my sixth article, p. 
29, as having a mill on the Forest ; and I may 
now state that he was the driver of his father's 
odivsjaiioe, whiok was loaded with com and oi^ 



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its wa(T to the mill, when the axle-tree unfor- 
tunatelj bfoke in the narrow and only thorou^- 
fare at that period oonnecting Liater-gate and 
St. Peter'a-square (before the formation of 
Albert-street). This aooident for a aboirt time 
oomnletelj diaairanged the traffic of that part 
of tAe town. 

It ia probable that every wiiHbiiill within aaid 
near bat entaide of the town boundaries 55 
yeara since willji)e more or less reviewed, and 
thoae will be first noticed which were on or 
close to the Forest top, commencing with the 
one nearest to Alfreton-road. At the date 
named the old road waa called Forest-side, and 
for a considerable part of its length followed 
much the same course which Forest-road now 
takes, yet not completely so for several hundred 
yards at the Mansfield-road end. 

The large and excellent old official map of the 
town, together with much of the ground aur- 
rounding it, to which I have on previous occa- 
sions ^equently referred (dated 1827-1829), 
shows that at the time named the houses on 
the west side (A Mansfield-road at the top were 
already built, and on arriving at that spot the 
old Forest-side or road for about 150 yards 
took a north-westerly direcH^ion, which, of 
course, included a large portion of the 
moderately level part of the Ohurch Cemetery 
at the top as now laid out. A sharp turn to 
the left and south-westward was ^h*^^ tf Jcen, and 
the old part of the road so continued to about 
where the end of B«>lmoral-road is now, or the 
footroad between the posts to get on the Forest 
near the end of the cemetery, and then con- 
tinued in a similar direction as at present to 
Alfreton-road, though in some places, if not in 
all, the old road was considerably narrower 
than the new one. 

As regards the old Forest-side or road, it 
should l^ understood that practically the whole 
of its northern boundary was Forest land, gener- 
ally unfenced, with much sand and gorse 
bushes, and open to the pubUc ; whilst on its 
southern side it was genorally fenced with 
quick-set hedges (a few nouses), and good pas- 
ture land, hay being grown or made on it in 
some oases. 



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ti 

FrcMD whftt I haye erpUuned reepeotiDfi th6 
top of Mamsfield-Toad ai)d the oouise followed 
\>j the old road as coini>ared with that of the 
DKMlem Foreet-road, it will be perceived that 
a portion of the grass fields fonnerly to the 
south is now included in the land belonging 
to the Church Cemetery, in addition to what 
was onoe the rough and sandy Forest land, 
which to a considerable extent was covered with 
gorse. I do not doubt that the change made 
by €ie Commissioners of t^e Inclosure in the 
direction or course of Forest-road, as well as its 
"regulation" in width and level, was greatly to 
the benefit of the public, though, as compared 
with the other windmills. of the locality, the 
two nearest to Mansfield-road, if their exact 
aLtee could now be pointed out, would appear to 
be much further on the Forest land than any 
of the others. 

Of the thirteen windmills once on or near 
to the top of the Nottingham Lings (as for- 
merly named) or the Forest, twelve of them 
were on the northern or Forest side of the old 
road, and erected on land which belonged to 
tiie town; and one only (a smodc mill) on the 
southern side on private land, and dose to the 
top end of little Lark-dale on the side nearest 
to Alfreton-road. Hiis would 'be dose to 
where Ayr-street abuts upon Forest-road in re- 
cent times. 

The first mill to be noticed stood upon or 
dose to the ground upon which the schools are 
built which are connected with All Saints' 
Church. It was owned and occupied by Mr. 
John Hall, formerly a baker in Lister-gate. The 
second was a smock mill in a field on the oppo- 
site side oi the road, and, as remarked, was 
at the top end of Lark-dale. It was occupied 
for a number of years by Mr. Bichard Annibal, 
who will be remembered by a many of my 
older feUow-dtizens as a baker at the upper end 
of Long-row, in an extensive way of business, 
not more than two doors to the west of the 
Golden Ball Inn. It was aifterwards occupied 
for a time by Mr. Bonner, of Bobbers-mill, 
and by him transferred to Mr. Smith, sen., 
baker, who oarried on a la^e business in Albert- 
street and at Kegwoith. fie aftervraids worked 



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IZr 

it. by steam power for a number of jrears,. vntil 
it was burned down. It is thus noticed in the 
Date-book:— ^' December 2nd, 1858. The *old 
smock mill/ the last of the long line of mills 
that formerly stQod along the brow of the hill 
on the Forest, burnt down." 

It was a brick structure, and situated on the 
south of Forest-road near to Alfreton-road. No 
doubt its existence was prolonged in conse- 
quence of its being upon private ground. The 
other mills ai that date had probably been re- 
moved six or eight years. All the remainder 
were post windmills. 

r The third mill was also near to the top or 
northern end of little Lark-daJe, but on the 
opposite side of Forest-road or side. A oommon 
name for it was Dame Moss's Mill. Several 
of the mills within their endosures had houses 
attached to them, and this was one. The in ill 
and the house were owned bv our late well- 
known fellow-citizen, Mr. William Brewill, 
many yoars since a town eouncillar, and butcher 
on Ai^^el-row in a large way of business, who 
was succeeded by Mr. Charles Simpkins, and 
he by Mr. Armitage, who is; still in that 
looali^. 

For a time Mr. Brewill occupied the mill- 
house. The mill was let by him for some 
years to Mr. Sharp, of whom further mention 
win be made later on. The last pe^on to 
occupy H was Mr. William Smith, baker, of 
Albert-street. The mill was af terwaids pulled 
down and removed to Kegworth by Mr. Smith, 
and there it may possibly be still in use. 

The fourth mill was but a short dbtanoe and 
probably not more than thirty-five or forty 
yards to the east of the third. It was owned 
by Mr. W. Wright, whose sou, Mr. F. Wright; 
I am glad to say, is still with us, and resides 
in the neisrhbourhood of the Forest. This mill 
was occupied by the late Mr. Sharp to the time 
of his death, and by his successors until its 
removal. 

The fifth mill was owned and oocupied by 
Mr. William Toyne. scm., late of Toll House- 
hill (Derby-road), Nottingham, whom I remem- 
ber from my early boyhtx)d. I am much in^ 
4ebted to bis son^ Mr. William Toyne, for. hi^ 



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14 

ezoepiional knowkdffe and UMistanc^ in lela- 
tkm to the windmills. This mill once stood 
at Upton, Nottinghamshire, and, being pur- 
chased by the late Mr. William Toyne, was re- 
moved by him to Kottinghsm, and fixed on 
the ridffe of the F{jrest, where he afterwards 
occupied it for a number of years. To most 
it will be interesting to be informed that at 
the time when the mills generally disappeared 
from the Forest-top, this one noon aft^r demoli- 
tion was taken to Blidworth^ near Mansfield, 
and again brouffht into use. 

The sixth mUl: Bespecting colour this mill 
was black ; though as regtuds paint it was 
rather from its absence than its use. It was 
owned and occupied by Mr. John Johnson, who 
was a native of Gk>tham, near which village the 
mill ftt one time stood, when, having c(Hne into 
Mr. Johnson's possession, he removed it to 
Nottingham, and, by arrangement with the 
town authorities, it was erected on the Forest. 
He was familiarly and commonly known as 
Jack Johnson, and was a member of the South 
Notts. Yeomon Oavalry, to wliicb fact he at- 
tadied much imporbasice. I have a vivid 
recollection of seeing him in his military cos- 
tume with others on a number of occasions 
maiiy yean since when they were called up 
for drill, and he was far from being theyounge^ 
of those answering to their names. 

When out riding he ordinarily wore top- 
boots and spurs, which caused him to be greatly 
noticed. He owned a horse which had been 
in his possession many years, and was said to 
have been given him by Mr. John Bonner, who 
was also a miller, but at Old Radford, and 
whose name has already been referred to. This 
horse was regularly used for ordinary business 
purposes, as well as for riding or occasionally 
driving, but after the lapse of years it was 
considered from its age to be incapable of 
carrving out the duties reouired from it, and 
settled tliat it should be sold. 

period, according to the common 
time (about 60 years since), Mr. 
k the horse to Mansfield Fair, 
»ng held at the time, and shortly 
Ival succeeded in selling it. He 



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15 

was then anxious to purchase a younaer and 
more suitable animi4 for his purpose, but was 
unable to see one which aocorded with his 
wishes, and after long waiting, with some 
" drinking,*' it was almost decided that he would 
haye to return home unaccompanied by a horse ; 
but lust before his proposed time of departure 
he saw one which appeared to approach much 
nearer to his desires in size. &c., than any he 
had previously observed in tne fair. He went 
to the horse and examined it, and after the 
usual pros and cons, believing it to be a 20od- 
tempered, suitaible animal, he purchased it. 
Tlie horse gained his good opinion by its quiet* 
ness and in readUy adapting itself to his rather 
unsteady mode of riding. 

In due course he arrived at his house on the 
Forest, where without difficulty it made itself 
at home, and walked to the ordinary place to 
drink or for some sort of recognition b^ a 
member of the household ; but the suspicions 
of the family were thoroughly aroused when the 
horse went direct to the place in the stable 
which had been vacated in the morning, and 
they declared that the same animal had le- 
turned with its master which he had taken to 
the fair. This he at first indignantly denied. 
The effect of the liquor imbibed had, however, 
by this time much lessened, and after a carefuV 
examination they soon found all the indelible 
marks of the old horse upon the one brought 
back, and that white spots had been blackened, 
its long tail considerably shortened, its mane, 
heels, and coat clipped, hoofs furbished, &c., 
so as to disguise it as much as possible. 

The success -of this trickery and scheming 
was quite evident by Mr. Jonnson being so 
thoroughly deceived, for rumour said that he 
gave fuuly ihi^ee times tihe amount in the after- 
noon for the horse what he received' for it in 
the morning. There is a moral attaching to 
the case and many others when transacting 
business : It is far better not to be under the 
influenoe of strong drink. This incident at 
the time of its occurrence and for years after- 
wards was a common subject of conversation 
in the town. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM. 

^' • ITS^STEEETS. PEOPLeV&c. 



in. 

On the north-west side of Wa/T^ej- 
ttreet, where it abuts upon the Forest-road, U 
il' H>w of good-sized oow-windowed houses, 
which were probably built about forty years 
since, by the late Mr. Thomas Fish, at the 
w^tem end of which (that is the neazest to 
Alfr^n-ro^Ml) there still remains one (rf the 
Md houses (two storeys^ which were formerly 
connected with the Windmills. It has no 
doubt undei^one a considerable amount of 
tenoration smce they disappeared from the 
i^r^st, but previous to these changes Mr. John 
Johnson had resided in it for many years with 
his family. 

It was on this ground where the stable stood 
to which the old horse returned after its adyen- 
tures at the fair. At the present time the 
ground attached to the liouse is several feet 
above the road, but this was caused about fifty 
years since in regulating and levelling that now 
important thoroughfare. The house being on 
the southern side of the road was not held 
under the Ck)rpoiration, but stood upon lammas 
land. 

The Mr. Bonner mentioned will be well re- 
membered by many of the older people oi ihe 
city, and especially those residing in or fre- 
quenting the western outlets of the town about 
fifty years since. When healUi permitted I 
think he must have come to Nottingham every 
Saturday on his na^, and idso at other times': 
and as it appeared just as often in the evening 
he could have been seen riding his horse home- 
wards, but almost invariably showing unmis- 
takeable signs of his having quaffed something 
of much greater potency ^an ginger-beer. 

On many occasions I and others have 
watched him passing xtp Derby-road when it 
appeared dangerous for mm to be mounted, the 
lurch and rolling at times being so extreme. 
The horse must have been a very quiet one. 



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17 

and well broken in to its master's ways, for, 
though much feared, I never heard of an acci- 
dent from this cause. I think I can salelj say 
that he had the good wishes of all who knew 
him as an honourable, kind-hearted man, likely 
to be greatly missed by many at his death. 

The next windmill to be considered is the 
seventh from Alfreton-road. As re^rds situa- 
tion, it was on or close to the rear of the ground 
now oooupied by the Congregational Institute, 
which not only faces to the south on the Forest 
road, but also abuts inx>n the south-west corner 
(A Mount Hooton-roed. It was, I understand. 
(Ywned by a gentleman named Barradell, of 
Nottingham, and occupied for a number of 
years by Mr. William Rowland, once livins: 
in York-street, but many years afterwards at 
Hyson Green. 

He was a member of the South Notts. Yeo- 
men Cavalry, and, in addition, kept a couple of 
racehorses. On the conclusion of his tenancy 
the mill was then used by Mr. Benjamin 
Spencer, who lately died, at the age of 91, in 
Goldsmith-square, Goldsmith-street; and with 
him parobabiy passed away the last of those 
who once occupied a windmill on the top of 
the Forest. 

A Mr. Carlile afterwards bought this mill 
(No. 7), and removed it into the Yale of 
Belvoir, where it still remains. It has no 
doubt been seen on numerous occasions by cycle 
riders and others when going to Bedmile or 
Belvoir Castle. For many years I have fre- 
quented this road, and, when turning off to the 
right towards Barkstone, repeatedly passed the 
gi^eway close to this memento of times long 
passed. On inquiry I found that the mill is 
still owned and occupied by a descendant of 
Mr. Carlile, and one bearing the same name. 
It is on an elevation to the right immediately 
after passing Bedmile Station, and full half a 
mile before reaching the village. 

No. 8. — ^This mill was nearly opposite to the 
top of the Bowlinar-alley (now Waverley-street), 
but rather lower down on the Forest than most 
of the others. It was owned and occupied by 
Mr. William Dickinson, who was a baker re- 
siding on the ZK>rth side at the \xpjpet end of 



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18 

Goose-gate. He w«fi a nMiye of Nev7ai4c, and 
purchased the mill tliere. It waa then brought 
Y>y him to Nottingham, and erected on the 
Forest. After his deoeaae it waa for a time 
in the possession of Mesars. Taylor BrotheiB, 
and subsequently, until the time of its de- 
molition, occupied, by Mr. William Streets 
(Billy), a man of extra stature, and at that time 
living in Pelioaji-street, New Bedford. There 
is no record of its final resting-plaoe. Perhaps 
there may still be a few of my aged fellow- 
oitizens who will re^iember or have heard thai 
a former occupier of this mill many yean since 
hun^o: himself in it. 

No. 9. — This windmill was once opposite to 
where the Forest-road posft-offioe is now situ- 
ated ; that is rather nearer Alfreton-road than 
the western side of the High School grounds. 
It was formerly known as Bailey's Mill, from 
a previous occupier, who also lived in a house 
on the ground. This house still remains, 
though it hae no doubt sinoo undergone much 
change. Our old and respected fellow-oitiaen, 
Mr. Charles Dodsley, occupied it for many 
years, ar.d if that is not the case at the present 
time, he still resides close to it, but on the 
mound where this mill once stood. 

At the cloee of Mr. Bailey's tenancy it waa 
occupied by Mr. Thomae Maddey, to whom, on 
the night of the 27th of April, 1842, a terrible 
faitality occurred. Ho was at work in the mill 
when, from some cause unknown, a portdon ol 
his clothes became entaiigled in the machinery. 
A youth who assisted him, hearing his screams, 
immediately stopped the mill, when he waa 
extrica^ted and taken to the General Hospital ; 
but his injuries were of such a serious character 
as to cause his death the same niflrht (a^^ 53 
years). He was interred in Old Radford 
Churchyard, where there is a stone erected to 
his memory. 

~ or in the mill was Mr. William 

He resided for many years in 

, Parliament-street, where he sold 

lie and retail. Others occupied 
him, but there is no further re- 

ijjr it aft^T demolition. 

Ilia mill wa6 owned and ocoupied 



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19 

hf Mr. William Shan), who has been pre- 
viously mentioned. He resided on Mansfield- 
road. It has an erentful history in connection 
with the riots of 1831 and the Duming of the 
Oastle. The moh visited it, with other places, 
and, after throwing out the com, Ac., attempted 
to set it on fire. The sails and various other 
portions of ihe structure were much damaged, 
out on the military approaching the mob soon 
dispersed. 

Hr. Sharp aftenvards let the mill, and the 
tenant occupied it for a number of years. "When 
pulled down it was removed to Famdon, neaar 
Kewaric, and re-erected on the east of the 
turnpike a short distance up the road leading 
to Hawton. Here it remained about forty 
years, or probably within about ten years of 
the present time, when it was taken down. 
Its ordinary name in the locality was "The 
Nottingham Mill." 

No. 11. — This mill is one of the three once 
standing upon ground which is now included 
in the Church Cemetery. It was the greatest 
distance from Manj^eld-road of those on that 
ground, but probably a little eastward of the 
end of Balmoral-road where it abuts upon 
Forest-road. Manj years since it was pur- 
chased from Mr. Hind by Mr. Thomas Toyne, 
of Alfreton-road, New Badford, from whom it 
descended to his son, William Toyne, who 
afterwards disposed of it to his brother, Mr. 
SmuucI Toyne, baker, of Back-lane (now Wolla- 
ton-street), who occupied it for a number of 
years. 

It was subsequently purchased by Mr. Wid- 
dowson, farmer and miller, of Kimberley, and 
removed by him to that place about 1852, and, 
being re-erected, was once more used, but un- 
fortunately he did not occupy it long; in its 
new position, as a few years afterwards it was 
burned down. 

No. 12. — This is another and the middle mill 
of the three once standing upon tjround now 
forming a portion of the Church C/emetery. In 
character and value this mill would rank very 
high, for it was not only superior in size and 
useful qualifications to the others on the Forest, 
but of its kind would probably surpass any 



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pe&r to the town. Twelve of those once stand- 
m.^ on the top of the Forest, includinff this, 
were post windmills, and one, as specined be- 
fore, was a smock mill, making thirteen in that 
locality. 

More than seventy years since this mill was 
occupied end probably owned by Mr. Thomas 
Bissill, of Chapel-bar (1832), where I can dis- 
tinctly remember him when occupying premises 
which were, I believe, the next above the 
Black Bull Inn. They were very old fashioned, 
with a tiled roof and lead-light windows — as 
in those of an ordinary house of that date — for 
it had not been altered into a shop. I also 
have a perfect recollection, when the front door 
was open, of seeing the men at work making 
bread in a back room. He was succeeded in 
the mill, together with the bakehouse, by 
Mr. John Wood, who appears to have occupied 
both for a number of years. 

The next to occupy tlie mill was Mr. William 
Voce, once a baker on Mansfield-road, at the 
corner of Chatham-street, and its last occupant 
at Nottingham. He was an old acquaintance, 
and it is probably about eight years since he 
died at an advanced age. Near the commence- 
ment of last century this mill was erected at 
a cost of one thousand pounds (£1,000). At the 
time when the Forest was cleared of the mills 
(approximately fifty years since) it was sold 
for removal and tiken into Sussex, near 
Brighton. Under such circumstances there 
will not be much surprise that it only realised 
about one hundred pounds. 

In the Church Cemetery, on or near to the 
»pot where it once stood, a granite headstone 
has been erected in memory of William Oak- 
land, who during a long course of years was 
the working assistant to several of its occupiers. 
The stone has been cut to represent a windmill 
upon it. He died in 1887, leaving few, if any, 
purviving him who had so long occupied such 
a post in ono of the Nottingham windmills. 

No. 13. — This is the thirid and last of the 
windmills once standing on ground which now 
forms part of the Church Cemetery, and of 
those on the top of the Forest. It was also 
the one nearest to Mansfield-road. For many 



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21 

jean its owner and ooonpier was Mr. Samuel 
Boottorn, formerly of OcvtgraTe, from whence 
many of that name have sprung. It was 
probably worked by him until the period when 
most of the mills were pulled down, or about 
fifty years since. 

Of the thirteen mills mentioned as being on 
or near to the Forest-top, seven turned towards 
the right and six to the left, which to many 
had a strange appearance, and oooasionally it 
was jokingly accounted for that some must be 
grindting, whilst others were "ungrinding." — 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM. 

ITS STREETS, PEOPLE, &c. 



IV. 

Rofarence will now be niade to two other 
windmills which also in former times were 
situated within the old town or borough boun- 
daries. In article 31, page 188, I have very 
briefly referred to the twenty-one which were 
in and near to the town, and I wish to com- 
mence this commiini cation by bringing under 
notice the two just mentioned. 

They were in the vicinity of the open space 
on the top of Derby-road. The first noticed 
will be the one near to the north-western end 
of Ropewalk-streei. It was level with and close 
to the ground on which the old Waterworks 
Compaoiy erected the pumping station many 
years back in that locality. Between seventy 
and eighty years since, and probably rather 
earlier, this mill was owned and occupied by 
Mr. Edward Chimley, of Derby-road, and was 
usually known by his name. 

He afterwards transferred it to Mr. Biohard 
Annibal, who in 1832 was a baker on Derby- 
road, and he probably occupied it previous to 
entering upon the tenancy of the one first men- 
tioned on tb^ top of the Forest, though he 
seems to have been the last to employ this 
one, for it was afterwards sold to Mr. Hardmett, 
by whom it was pulled down and removed to 
Buddington. It was the first mill in Notting- 
ham to which spring sails were affixed, whitih 
in appearance are somewhat the same as Vene- 
tian blinds. 

The second mill in tiiis neighbourhood wajis 
also on elevated ground on the northern side 
and at the top end of Back-lane, now consider- 
ably widen ea and renamed WoUaton-street. 
Practically the whole of the northern side of 
Rii/«ir-U.Tiik «f. fhat period was composed of 
6 of which for the greater por- 
oundary to that thoroughfare 
albot-street, &c., at that time, 
the mill was thxoi^h an or- 



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dmaiy gttte near the top point of the field and 
close to the end house on the front of the 
Qenesal Oemetery. It was owned by Mr. 
Wright, once of Timber-hill, but afterwards 
oalled South-parade. 

It was at one period occupied by Mr. Samuel 
Flewitt, baker, of Bridlesmith-gate ; and after- 
wards by Mr. John Thorpe, baker, Pelhajn- 
streeit. There were three windmills in the 
borough sixty years since which had but one 
pair odf stones working in them, and this, was 
one of* that number, the other two being 
amongst those which have been mentioned on 
the Forest. For such a class of mills this was 
of a good size. It was purcha«ed for removal, 
and taken to Ashover, in the county of Derby, 
and about seven miles from Chesterfield. 

At Sneinton, and not far from the upper side 
of the ohiurch, there was recently, or still is, a 
thoroughfare known as Windmill-lane, which 
leads to the high gioxmd in that part, and near 
to it about fifty years since were two posD 
windmills, the aiqnroach to which was from the 
lane. Tne first to be reached when going up 
the hill was in a field to the left, and prol^bly 
400 jmrds from the bottom of the laneu It was 
fo(r many years occupied by Mr. Q«orge Parkins, 
b«ker, who at one tune carried on an. extensive 
bosiness at the lower end of Qoose-gato. It 
was probably in his possession until the time 
of its removal. He was a well-known man in 
the town, being for a long time a member of 
the Oouncil and also of the Board of Guajr- 
dians. I was well acquainted with him. He 
died at an advanced age, probably about fifteen 
years since. 

A little higher up the lane, but in a field on 
the opposite side, was another mill, which for 
many years was occupied by John Bennett, 
and known as Bennett's Mill, but the last in 
possession of it was the late William Oakland, 
who has been previously mentioned as being 
connected with and assisting at the largest 
po9t mill on the Forest. This mill also had a 
pair or set of patent sails similar to the one 
at the top of Back-lane (WoUaton-street). 

Hie third windmill at Sneinton was a smock 
mill, ratheor more eastwacd than the otherp, 



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and probaiblj on ground not quite 00 high, the 
way of approach beinf almost opposite to the 
eastern end of the churchyard. The tower 
still remains, and is of a good height and no 
doubt solidly built. In former years it was 
commonly known by the name of Green's Mill. 
For a considerable period it was occupied by 
Mr. George Fletcher, once residing in Beck- 
street (1832). 

Its last occupant was William Oakland, who 
has previously been referred to. He lived in 
the house attached to the mill, which, with 
the other section of the premises, were of good 
proportions. From its size it is probable that 
there were four |>aiT8 of stones in it, besides 
other necessary maohinery usually to bo towid 
in a well-fitted mill. In many respects it 
wuuld probably match with the large one be so 
long worked in upon the Forest. 

He would undoubtedly have been pleased to 
have remained here if possible, but imfortu- 
nately there was a dispute respecting the 
ownership of the property, and neither of the 
parties tiiereto would become responsible for 
repairs; therefore the mill, &c., mdually got 
into an untenantable condition, and he was re- 
luctantly compelled to give up possession. 
Having the opportunity at this time to become 
tenant of the upper mill in Windmill-lane, he 
took advantage of it and removed there. 

I believe the two mills which I have just men- 
tioned to have been the last windmilU there 
worked in or close to Nottingham. It appears 
certain that the top one in the lane must have 
been in u€e at least ten years after most of 
those on the Forest, &c., had been removed, 
as in Wright's Directory of 1862, amongst the 
millers we find "Oakland, W., Sneinton-hill, 
Old Sneinton,'' and at that date he was no 
doubt the onl<^ person lelt who was occupying 
a windmill so near to Nottingham. 

The old brick tower at Sneinton is, I believe, 
all that remains of the twenty-one windmills 
which, within the memory of many still living 
besides myself, were once occupied and working 
in and near to Nottingham. Its position 
causes it to be a conspicuous object in some 
directions, though a close examination shows 



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96 

ihat time has told heayily a^nst it. If there 
had been no contention respecting ownership 
about fifty years since, there is, as regards tike 
character a^ quality of the mill itself, no 
apparent* reason why it should not have con- 
tinued working to the present time. It must 
originally have been a very costly undertaking. 

For a considerable period it may, I think, be 
truly asserted that windmills have Rradually 
been' disappearinfi; in the country generally ; 
but if the Royal Agricultural Society succeed 
in carrying out what they were proposing in 
the early part of this year, it is ;uite pt>&sible 
that there may be a return, for other purposes, 
to this original mode of obtaining power. 

On 3rd of February last the following an- 
nouncement appeared in the "Daily News" : — 
"Windmills Wanted for Pumping." "The 
Boyal Agricultural Societv of England are 
offering prizes of £50 and £10 for windmills for 
pumping purposes. The trials will be held on 
the London* showground, and will commence 
on Monday, March 1st, and continue, at the 
discretion of the judges, until April 30th. The 
wind en^nes will run and be under continual 
observation for ten hours each day, when. the 
wind velocity and horse-power developed will 
be noted." 

I propose to say something further respecting 
''mills in and near to Nottingham, but of a 
character very different to those above men- 
tioned. We have authority for asserting that 
the first cotton mill in the world was erected 
in o'lr old town ; but in saying this it will be 
better not to be led away by our imaginations 
as regards many of such bmldings in modern 
times, for in the beginning the structures were 
of very humble proportions. 

The first person to be mentioned is James 
Hargreaves, the inventor of the "spinning 
jenn^." He was residing at Blackburn, and 
his invention made it possible for one of the 
workpeople to make eignt threads as easily as 
one had been made on former occasions (see 
Date Book), which proportion was afterwards 
greatly increased. Directly the information 
got abroad that he had invented such a labour- 
saving maohine, an ignorant and infuriated mob. 



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composed chiefly of persons engaged in tliat 
empioyment, broke into his hoi^ and de- 
staroyed his model. This abominable treatment 
was shortly afterwards repeated wh^i the 
Blackburn rablrie not only broke into Har- 
greave*8 house, but into the houses of most of 
those who had adopted his machines, which 
were everywhere prcNScribed. 

In consequence of this continued persecution 
he removed to Nottingham. Here he con- 
struoted and patented a new jenny to spin 
eighty-four threads at once, but by infringe- 
ments, piracies, &c., others obtained the benefit 
more than himself. With the assistance of 
Mr. Thomas James, he built a small factory at 
the top of Mill-street. In a note we are in- 
formed that '' the structure stands at the north- 
east corner of Mill-street, Wollaton-street, and 
is of a veiry unpretending character." It was 
converted into small dwdling-houses. 

Th& house in which Mr. Hacgreaves liveil was 
situate on the opposite side of the street. Mr. 
Thos. James's son John died in the Lambley 
Hospitals, lately upon Toll House-hill (Derby- 
road), 29th Apnl, 1836, at the advanced age of 
92 years, and remembered Mr. James Hai^ 
greaves well, who died 22nd April, 1778, aged 
60 years. I have a thorou^ remembrance of 
Mill-street and that part of the town from my 
early boyhood (70 years since), and delioht at 
intervals to renew my acquaintance wiu the 
old plaoes. 

Wnen walking up Wollaton-street a lew yeais 
bttok I saw, wiih much surprise and disgust^ 
that another street name recalling memories so 
interestingly associated with Nottingham of the 
last oentury but one had been absinfdly and in« 
considerately changed from MUl-street to Bow- 
street We know of Bow-street in London, 
bat as applied here it is unmeaning and ridicu- 
lous, but espeoially when it lobs us of a title 
so long in use, and descriptive of what had 
once been carried out or had occurred in the 
sti^otw 

Mr. T. 0. nine, F.8.A., in his "Nottinrfiam 
Obstle," page 30, when speaking of the year 
1767, also says the "First oottxm mill in the 
world (was) Iniilt at Nottini^Mun, in a passage 



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S7 

GAlled Mill-streot, leaduig into WoUaton-street, 
by HargreSreB, of wiiiob a portion still re- 
mains." 

The thoroiufhfare is a small one, but it is 
connected with a matter whioh is exceedingly 
great, and this change of name is as perfectly 
uncalled for and obiectionable as the renaming 
of Outffang-road and entitling it Hartley-road. 
In both instances those most inexperienced or 
having a very imperfect knowledge have lK»^?n 
unwisely allowed to x)revail, and old ph"** 
names which intimately connect us with f»ld<ni 
times are recklessly obliterated for what is 
worthless, from being entirely out of character 
with former events. If imnartir.l justice be 
meted out, both of these old rut most stritahle 
and descriptive titles will be restored at once. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM. 

ITS STREETS, PEOPLE, &c. 



In paievious articles reference was ccm- 
cluded to the last of the fifteen windmills which 
formerly stood and were in the borough of 
Nottingham ; and also of three in Sneinton 
Parish. I shall end this narrative with an 
£<M:ount of three oh Sherwood-rise, in Basford 
Parish, and saying that these parishes and 
others were by Act of Parliament included in 
the borough, July 11th, 1877. 

Two of the windmills on Sherwood-rise were 
to the left when ascending the hill, and near 
to where Beech-avenue is now formed. The 
first was about two hundred yards from the 
road, and the other a little further. The first 
was owned and occupied by Mr. £dward 
Cooper, who was eccentric in character, and 
commonly known as NN'eddv Oooper. He car- 
ried on the trade of a baker in Milton-street, 
opposite to Trinity Church. At that time the 
shop was a step or two below the level of the 
rood. 

Having given up corn-grinding, he decided to 
sell the mill, if possible, but no customer ap- 
pearing in a short time, and having an offer 
for the mill stones, he parted with fliem ; buc 
this proved to be unfortunate, as it afterwards 
prevented the sale of the mill as a whole. He 
therefore pulled it down, and disposed of the 
material to anyone needing it. A few places 
could still be pointed out in the city where the 
oak from that old mill was used more than fifty 
years since for gateposts, beam^, &c. 

It will be interesting to some for the fact 
to be recorded that this mill onoe stood upon 
the Forest-top. It was between those belonging 
to Mr. John Hall and "Dame Mo6«," and 
raider nearer Alfreton-road than the upper end 
of Little Larkdale. 

The second mill on Sherwood-rise (and near 
to the first) was owned and occufHed by Mrs. 
Mary Beddith, a respected lady of New Bas- 



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29 

fatd. She had three sons connecfted with the 
millering business. One was Mr. William 
Beddish, of Bobbers Mill. The second was 
Mr. Paul Beddish, who occupied that well- 
known smock mill which cyclists and many 
others when out hare so often seen at the top 
of the elevated ground near East Bridgford, 
where it is a noted landmark to an ezteinsive 
circle of the country. The third son remained 
at home and worked the mill for his mother 
until the time came for its removal. 

The next and third mill was on the opposite 
or eastern side of Sherwood-rise, as compared 
with the others. It was most likely in poor 
condition at the period of its demolition, for it 
had been unoccupied a number of years. 

In Article No. 33, when ' referring to the 
fourth windmill on the Forest from Alfreton- 
road, I say that it was owned by Mr. P. Wright, 
which is an error, as it was the property of 
Mr. William Wright, Mr. F. Wright being his 
son. This inaccuracy was pointed out, and 
I am glad to correct it. 

AnoUier cotton mill was also built in Not- 
tingham at a very early period as regards that 
business ; in fact, the editor of the Date Book 
asserts that " this " was the first to be con- 
structed in the world, though from' the par- 
ticulars obtainable others think that the facts 
are much more favourable to the one in Mill- 
street being first erected than to what is under 
consideration, for Hargreaves came a year the 
earliest. The one under consideration was on 
a piece of ground between Woolpack-lane and 
Hockley, and the prominent name associated 
with it was that of Bichard Arkwright, the in- 
ventor of the spinning frame, who resided pre- 
viously at Preston, Lancashire, and removed 
to Nottingham in 1768. 

lb is probable that at a similar time botli 
Hargreaves and Arkwright were engaged in per- 
fecting their inventions, and without doubt each 
for its purpose was eminently useful and appro- 
priate. Unfortunately for Hargreaves, from 
various regrettable circumstances he reaped but 
little benefit personally ^m his contrivance, 
though of vast importance ; whilst Arkwright, 
who commenced m equally humble cireum- 



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30 

stances, is said, with eveir probability of trutli, 
to have accumulated a fortune of ab<Hit five 
hundred thousand pounds before his death. 
In 1786 he became High Sheriff of Derbyshire, 
and was knifhted. 

His son, Mr. Richard Arkwright, succeeded 
him, and with such a foundation for a fortune, 
and beintt a keen business man, it is not rery 
surprising that at the time of his decease at 
Willersley Castle, in 1843, ne was probably 
tho richest individual in the British Isles, for 
he appears to have possessed nearly seven 
millions sterling, without including his landed 
estates, ^. 

There was one line in his will which in 
character was most laconic, though in value 
probably disposing of more than had ever pre- 
viously l>een the case in so short a phrase. It 
was as follows : — "I bequeath to my son-in-law. 
Sir W. Wigram, one million sterling." Allowing 
for ihe sixty years which have since elapsed, 
and the much greater proportionate value of 
money at that date than the present, it was an 
enormous Hum. 

For many years the Arkwrights' gains upon 
cotton were very large, and there was most 
likelv much truth in the statement that for a 
considerable period they reaped a profit of more 
than a shilling where those in the business at 
the present time would be thankful to obtain 
from a halfpenny to a penny. 

It will be noted above that Bichard Ark- 
wright came to Nottingham a year later than 
James Hargreayes (1767), and the impelling 
motive was in each case the same — the threats 
by and the fear of an attack from the unthink- 
ing rabble in Lancashire, who boldly stated that 
the result of their inventions would be sure to 
lessen the opportunities of gaining a living by 
the people. Both men upon their arrival were 
practically without means of their own. Har- 
greayes shortly after reachins; here became 
acquainted with Mr. Thomas James, who was 
a resident of Nottingham, having a moderate 
freehold, and they entered into partnership 
and erected the small structure in Mill-street, 
or, as recently and senselessly renamed. Bow- 
oti^esit. 



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Hafgreavee was a meohanic, and could him- 
aell execute moat or all the wotk connected 
with his models and inventions. This Ark- 
Wright was compelled to get done by others. 
He was at first much imj^ed in his labours 
from insufficiency of capital, and recommended 
to api^y to Mr. Jedediah Strutt, whose know- 
ledge of mechanics would enable him to judge 
as to the probability of the invention being 
successful. Mr. Strutt immediately observed 
that Axkwright's proposed system wa« an im- 
mense improvement upon the old methods, and 
required but little to make it complete. The 
latter then appears to have become a partner 
in the firm of Messrs. Strutt and Need. 

Shortly afterwards Arkwright commenced the 
erection of a mill on some ground at the lower 
end of Goose-ffate, and between there and 
Woolpack-lane, being almost opposite the lower 
end of Coalpit-lane, and on or near the site 
of the present Hockley MiU. The power foi 
working the mill was supplied by or derived 
from horses, which proved a costly mode ; and 
as steam power was then practically unknown 
he was obliged to look out for other means to 
carry on the business, and built a much largei 
mill at Oromford, where he succeeded in ob- 
taining water power, and in 1771 removed 
there. 

He was a man of indomitable energy and 
perseverance, who for manv years could be 
found attending to his work from early morning 
until late at night. His partnership with Mr. 
i*(trutt continued until 1783, and in concluding 
it they mutually agreed that the mill at Orom- 
ford should become the property of Mr. Ark- 
wright, and that the works at Belper should be 
owned by Mr. Strutt. Unfortunately for Not- 
tingham, the two important inventions con- 
nected with the machinery for making cotton 
wh'ch have been mentioned were before the 
time when much was known respecting steam 
power, otherwise there can be little doubt that 
the manufacture of cotton would have become 
an important trade and source of employment 
in the town. 

As regards the inventions of Hargreaves and 
Arkwright, it is certain that each allowed of 



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greatly increjwed facilities in the manufacture 
of cotton, and I think that all will agree that it 
was becoming and desirable that the name of 
" Arkwright " should be used as the title of the 
comparatively new but main thoroughfare from 
the town to the Trent Bridge, Ac. This choice 
of an appellation belongs to a class which un- 
fortunately in recent years is small in number, 
for it is one with old associations and keeps 
the past in rememluance, which all antiquaries 
will rejoice in. 

There is yet more to be mentioned respecting 
Hargreaves. He has been most shabbily 
treated, for though deserving well of the town 
in having erected the first known cotton mill 
in it, there is now nothing, as far as I am 
aware, of any kind whatever allowed to remain 
which will associate him with the city bv 
name or otherwise after the street with which 
he was so closely connected had, without proper 
consideration or just cause, its old title can- 
celled. 

I have strongly protested against the recent 
abolition of various very old historic names — 
such as Outgang-lane or road, Longhedge-lane 
or road, Ac. — ^which was a great blunder cc«n- 
mitted by some one or more known to the 
Council, which is rendered more objectionable 
by appellations being bestowed upon them of 
persons who in Nottingham are practically un- 
known. Why, I would a^, has tiie name of 
Hargreaves never beeo given to any important 
street or thoroughfare of the city, seeing that 
he so riohly deserves it? Numerous other old 
names of persons might be mentioned whose 
claims for remembrance are immeasurably 
greater than many which are selected. 

I have previously remarked that in olden 
times the open space which we now entitle " St. 
Peter* s-square " had no distinguishing name, 
and that when described it was nearly as 
follows : — " That piece of waste land to the west 
of St. Peter's Churchyard, and at the lower end of 
Wheeler-gate and Hounds-gate." Even in 
Deering's History, dated 1751, when examining 
the index, which is certainly a good one, brought 
out by Mr. Rupert C. Chicken, F.R.O.S., in 
1899, I did not see any refeiienoe to 8t. PeterV 



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: » . ^ ' ^ 

square as such ; thecefoiv, aooorduifl to thait, it 
must have been sometime after 1751 before it 
had a dengnatioiL 

We have in Nottingham (following the old 
mode of deecribing yarious plaoee) another 
*' piece of waste (?) ground," considerably 
larger than St. Peter's-square, in a pait of the 
city where there is muoh traffic, for *even 
thoroughfares of yarious sorts, but all for 
ordinary vehicles, run into it; yet, strange to 
say, and I believe the staitement to be true, it 
has never had a distinguishing n&me. It is 
the open space at the top of Toll House-hill 
(Derby-road), and in front of the entrance to 
the General Cemetery. If no other prominent 
place is found, would it not be paying " a debt 
of honour" long due to call it ** Hargreaves- 

I think all, when fully aware of the particu- 
lars, will agree that it is. Though there is 
still another ''waste piece of ground" in an 
exceedingly throng part of the city, which also 
I believe to be larfrer than St. Feter's-square, 
and unto which in the fitness of things it would 
really be the most suitable place in Nottingham 
to attach a noted local name, for, like the other 
and larger one mentioned, I believe no title has 
«ver b^n applied to it, and this is the open 
sp^e containing the Walter Fountain, into 
which run Lister-gate, Greyfriars-gate, and, I 
might say, Stanford-street, also Carrington- 
street and Broad-marsh. 

The designation of " Hargreaves-s^uare," if 
applied to it, would be most appropriate ; and 
respecting the large open ^>aoe at the front of 
the General Cemetery, as three main roads 
commence there to Dcurby, Ilkeston, and Alfre- 
ton, and also to keep our oldest title in mind, 
I would recommend that it be called ''Qutgang- 
square." 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM. 

ITS STEEETS, PEOPLE. &c. 

VL 

In mj firat article (32) of this series 
Nottingham and Ba&ford Lings are referred to, 
and in a form that may possibly cause surprise 
to some, for though Basford is joined in them 
with the old town (see Borough Becords, Vol. 
v., p. 41), they are desoribeS as "lying and 
l)€ing within the precincts and libwlies of the 
town of Nottingham aforesaid." This is an- 
nounced in the "Exemplification of the Claim 
of the Mayor and Burgesses to the Forestal 
Bights, &c. (by charter) and the allowance 
fhereuf. September 8th. 1675." 

It was * among the pleas of the Forest of 
Sherwood, held at Mansfield before William 
Marquis of Newcastle, Justice in Eyre of all 
the Forests beyond the Trent.*' Goin^ back 
from the above date nearly three hundred and 
twenty years, something occurred which may 
probably throw light upon the inclusion c^ 
Basford with Nottingham. 

It appears t^iat an acknowledgment by our 
forefathers had been given "for Common of 
Pasture in Basford" (see Beoords, Tol. I., 
p. 163), and in 1356, April 30th, ihe town was 
released from the myment (6s. 8d.) to Bobert 
de Cockfield. Knignt, as follows: — "Whereas 
the Mayor and Burgesses of the town of Not- 
tingham axe bound to me and my heirs in an 
annual rent of six shillings and eightpence by 
their writing, sealed with the common seal, for 
having a common of pasture with all tlieir 
animals and cattle whatsoever in Basford Wood 
and in the Lings of the same vill of Baaford 
(which is in the Forest of Sherwood) belonging 
to me as is more fully contained in the aforesaid 
writing : 

" Know ye that I have for ever granted, re- 
mitted, and quit-claimed, for me and my heirs, 
to the Aforesaid Mayor and Burgesses of the 
town of Nottingham and their heirs and suc- 
cessors free common of pasture belonging to 



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me, with all their animals and oattle whaitso- 
fivet in the viU (village or parish) and places 
aforesaid, in form aforesaad, and also all my 
rit^ht and oUim which I have, had, or by any 
means oould or majr have in the aforesaid 
annnal rent of six shillings and eightpenoe," &c. 
This, I think, will in a great degree aoooimt for 
the coupling of the two names Nottingham and 
Basford in connection with the Lings, other- 
wise Nottingham Forest. 

At the end of the release it is very interesting 
to ca(refully note the names of all the witnesses 
(ten or eleven^. I propose to Anglicise the 
French word *^de" (meaning of or from), and 
it will be found that most of them appear to 
have assimied as surnames the appellation given 
to the places from which they oame — namely, 
Richard of Willoughhy, Knight, Eoger Mich ell, 
then Sheriff of Nottingham, William of Eland, 
Richard of Strelley, Stephen of Broxtowe, Hu^h 
Martell, Richard of Stapleford, Robert of Bram- 
cote, William, son of Richaid of Beeston, 
William of Manchester, Robeot of Oossall, and 
others. 

The present-day equivalent for the above 6s. 
8d. would probably be five or six potmds. 

From the Norman conquest not only was the 
French term "de" constantly used in denoting 
a surname, but also '* le " (the), and each, ac- 
' odding to the Borough Records, were more or 
lees frequently employed until a.d. 1400-1410, 
when they gradually ceased, and a recognised 
iumame was generally adopted. 

Applying the English definite article for the 
French "le," and going ba^k from five to seven 
hundred years, and generally amongst thuse 
connected with the government of the town, tlie 
following names will be found, and also many 
others : — Hugh the Fleming, John the Fleming, 
^dam the Pidmer, Michael the Orfevere (Gold- 
smith), Walter the Peynter, Richard the 
Cupper, John the Bere, John the Colier, Ralph 
the Tavemer, Robert the Orfevere, Laurence 
the Spicer, Roger the Mason, Hugh the Spioer, 
John the Oupper, &c. Excepting about two, 
all the above at various dates between a.d. 
1285 and 1360 were Mayors of Nottingham, 
and the others were Bailiffs. At this date no 



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36 

Sheriffs had been appointed at Nottingham. 

It is interesting and somewhat amusing to 
read what was said and done three hundred 
^rears since by the Corporation in oonneotion 
with the Free School (now High School). Oa 
28th April, 1610 at a meeting uiey say : '* And 
whereas by an order formerly made, when 
Maister Lowe was schoolmaster, the Usher's 
wage« were made £12 per annum, aokl the Head- 
master £18 per annum, and so 40s. per annum 
was taken out of the Master's waees (which 
were £20 per annum) and added to Uie Usher's 
(which were £10 per annimi), and this was done 
then in respect of Maister Lowe's declyningo 
sufficiency, and that the Usher then was to be 
most trusted with the discreet gorernment of 
the said school, and by Maister I^we's consent, 
which rate of wages hath stood ever si thence 
(since) ; now, forasmuch as this company is well 
satisfyed of the suffioiencie and well deserving 
of Maister Scoresby, the Headmaster, as hath 
appeared by tryal of him in the sayd place, 
therefore they are contented and do order that 
the said former order shall be voyde, and that 
now from henceforth the said 40s. per annum 
shall be fetched back agayne from the Usher 
and annexed to the Headmaster's wages as of 
right ytt ought, and that now from henceforth 
the Master's wages is and shalbe £20 per 
annum, and the Usher's £10 per annum. And 
hereto Maister Sooresby and . . . Sully 
have assented.'' 

The " wages " paid were then entirely different 
to what is at present ttie case, but all connects 
with the school has since been most materially 
altered, and specially the amount of income, 
size, and importance of the buildings, and great 
increase in the number of scholars. 

Although, as explained, the schoolmasters 
"wages" were very small in 1610, they were 
considerably less, as shown in the Records, Vol. 
IV., p. 51, A.D. 1578, when the school wardens, 
after mentioning other payments, say: — "And 
£8 6s. 8d. paid to John Depupp, Schoolmaster, 
for the Salary due to him for the year finished 
at the feast of the Annunciation of the Bleeeed 
Mary, last past, £8 6s. 8d." 

On page 57 there is an entry showing that 



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37 

in 1583 the schoolmaeter's wages had been 
raised to £13 6s. 8d:, though as regards the 
usher, even when full allowance is made for 
the great difference in the value of money (ten 
or twelve times more than at present), his re- 
muneration Whs ridiculously small. The memor. 
andum h next to that of the schoolmaster ; it 
says : — "And £3 paid to the Under-Shoolmaster 
for his salary for the year." 

On p. 235, Vol. IV., of the Records, there 
is an entry of February 2l8t, 1592, which says : 
"Discharge of the Master of the Free Scliool 
and his examination on a charge of theft " ; 
and " Yt ys a^jrede yat Maister Cnstofer Heyloe, 
nowe Shoolemaister of the Free Shoole, shall 
be no longer Shoolemaister there," Ac. He 
appears to have been charged with stealing 
books. 

This IS a strange charge to be made against 
anyone holding a position so responsible, though 
tLn regards its senousness it would have to give 
place to one made in Vol. IIT., p. 372, 1532, 
at the sessions, where it is said : " We present 
. . . (the) soolemaister for wylfulle murder 
doone to Ser John Langton " ; and at the same 
time the constables say : "We indyte theSkolle 
Mayster of welfulle murdar." In a note it is 
. said that a true bill was found against the 
schoolmaister. 

There is evidence that the Free School was 
already in Stoney-street, a.i>. 1613, for the 
Mickleton Jury said: "We present Stonne 
Stret to be in dekey for want of pavinge from 
Saint Maries dhurch stylle (stile) towards the 
Free Scolle being warn awaie for want of filling 
up with earth and pavinge." Respecting the 
"stylJe/* or stile, I hope to say more afterwards. 

The present High School (formerly Free 
Grammar School) was established in 1513 bv 
Dame Agnes Mellers, though from the Borough 
Records it must not be supposed that it was the 
first school of its kind, for in Vol. II., p. 13, 
AD. 1401, there is an "Enrolment of Grant to 
the Master of the Grammar School and others." 
This was " to Sir Robert Fole, Chaplain, master 
of the Free Grammar School of Nottingham, 
John Hodyng, John de Lichfield of Notting- 
ham/' Ac, 



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38 

In Vol. I., p. 247, an "Enrolment of a Grant 
from the Executors of William, Son of William 
d^ Adbolton, Master of tlie Grammar School," 
is noticed. In a note mention is also made of 
another grant in which William de Adbolton is 
referred to as '' Master of the Grammar Students 
of Nottingham." The first of the two last en- 
rolments was in 1390, and the last in 1382. 

In Vol. III., p. 402, 1512, the year before the 
first establishment of the present High School, 
reference is made to a children's school in an 
account for work done, namely : " Reparacions 
made by Ry chard Halom opon the Dotage boght 
of Thomas Shyrwod of Notyngham standyng in 
the Peperstrete at John Howes bak yate. uem 
for a loode of cley to the tofalle (a |)enthouse 
or lean-to) that ye chyldem lem inne 3d. 
Item, for a bonche of ston lattes to the same 
hous yat the children lern inne 3d.'* 

In Vol. III., p. 356, A.D. 1522, there is a 
Report from the Constables at the Sessions, 
when they say : " We prey sent Ye Skolmester 
for castyng forth they (the) molle (dirt rubbish) 
off hys sckolhows in ye Kynges hywey." They 
further say : " We presennte alle the bochers 
Felly nj5 flessh that is nomans meyte ; it is 
keppid so long that it is fulle of magettes." 

In the Records, Vol. II., p. 297, a.d. 1478, 
April 23rd, there was a noticeable presentment 
at the Sessions. "The Jurors say upon their 
oath that Robert Alestre, late of Nottingham, 
in the County of the town of Nottin^j^haim, 
gentleman (?), on Thursday the ninth day of 
April in the eighteenth year of the reign of 
King Edward the Fourth, after the Conquest, 
at Nottingham in the County of the town of 
Nottingham, with force and arms, to wit, a 
daorcrer commonly called in English *a whin- 
yard ' of the value of 12d. made an assault upon 
John Hill, and then and there feloniously slew 
the said John with the aforesaid da^rger against 
the pe-.ce of our Ivord the King." 

In a note at the bottom of the page we are 
told that : " On May 3rd, 1478, Robert Aleetre 
of Nottingham, gentleman, took sanctuary in 
Beverley Minster for the death of John Hill, 
late of WestminMer, in the County of Middle- 
sex, yeoman, slain by him at Nottiu^am on 



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AjprH 16th (this should be April 9th, aooofding 
to Uie above presentment) and_ was sworn and 
received into the peace of St. John of Beverley." 
Poulson's Bevorlac, Beverley, 1829, p.249.— 
There appears to have been nn other preeent- 
ment preserved relating to this oase. 

The Alesiree or Alastres probably first oame 
from AUestree, near Derby. They were «i 
family of considerable note in the town. In 
1402-3 John de Alostre was one of the liailiffs 
(before there were any Sheriffs). In 1409-10 
he was Mayor, and also in 1414-15, in 1420-21, 
1486-27, and 1430-31. Aooording to this he 
must also have been for many years orn* of the 
aldermen. 

After him, on five occasion? ending; 1469-70, 
Thomas Alestre was the Mayor, and in 1485-86 
Bichard Alestre filled that post, and was, I 
believe, the last of that name to occupy it. 
Ninety-eight years later (in 1583) William 
AUystre or Alestre was living in HenneOrossi* 
(top of the Poultry). 

In Article No. 10, p. 51 (first series), I refer 
to and dispute the statements of Deering and 
others that the. first tiled house in Nottii^ham 
was erected on the Long-row in 1503, said* to 
have been the Unicorn Inn, and in further 
proof of the statement being thoroughly incor- 
rect, there will be found in the Becoids, 
Vol. n., p. 391, A.D. 1483 the copy of a bill for 
repairs at the Grown Inn, whicn also was on 
the LoiMf-row, when 12 ridge tiles and 250 otJier 
tiles were used, and a tiler is mentioned. 

On page 475 the Ram Inn (also on Long-row) 
is nobc^, and that John Mysterton was sued 
for failiM to repair that tenement, in tiling, 
Ac., in 1499. This is conclusive, and there 
is but little cause for doubting that in the ^ear 
1503 there were many tiled houses in Notting- 
ham from the proofs furnished that they hail 
been used at that time for more than one 
himdred years. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM. 

'.\m STREETS, PEOPLE. 4c. 



VII. 

J.I -i^ropos^ In this article to take into 
eoQsideration a very old thoroughfare in Not- 
tingham which, all considered, in these, times 
may probably not rank very high in public esti- 
n^ation, but, looking back a few hundreds of 
yeArs, it will be found that the case was very 
different. I am now referring to Narrow- 
marsh. The first mention I find of it in the 
Borough Becords is in a.d. 1315, or 688 years 
since, when there was a transfer of property. 

The mode of spelling it varied oonmderably, 
for> as before mentioned, our ancestors claimed 
cpnsideorable latitude in that respect. The 
name on various occasions was written as 
follows : — Naromershe, Narromersshe, Narow 
Mershe, Lytall Merssh, Littilmercfae, Litil- 
raerohe, Norrow March, and Narro Marsh. In 
this case the "Littil," or Little, waa no doubt 
understood to be respecting the width, for in 
len^h it was much the greatest. 

(hir ancestors must, h'om the bad state of 
the roads and streets, even in the town, have 
suffered great inconvenience. Judging by what 
we read in history, and aided by iiSormation 
derivable from the Becords, we have ample 
evidence that the term ** Marsh" was rightly 
applied, and that as a fact it extended from the 
west end of Fisher-gate to the north-eastern end 
of Greyf riars-gate ; for, as places where the traffic 
centred more than elsewhere in those parts, we 
are frequently told of the abominable state of 
the road at iBridgend (Plumptre-square) in the 
east and at the bottom of Lytster, Littster, or, 
as now called, I/ister-gate in the west. 

As a centre of business, and in various other 
ways. Narrow-marsh in olden times ranked 
m a marked degree above the average of town 
thoroughfares in importance. The truth of 
this assertion is proved from the payments made 
by the different streets, Ac., of liie town ac- 
ooiding to a Subsidy Boll, dated 1523-24, and 



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41- 

granted by Parliament on 15th April. See 
Records, Vol. III., pp. 162-179 (Time, Henry 
VIII.^. The total collected in the town was 
£50 OS. 8d., of which more than one-seventh 
was found by Narrow-marsh. 

A large number of tanners were carrying on 
business in the locality at that period. Deering 
merniions 36 in 1641 as being masters, and by 
1664 they were 47 in number. The assessment 
for "Chapelbarre" wa« lis. 8d. ; "Gretemyth- 
gate," £2 9s. 6d. ; "Gos^gate,'* 2s. 4d. ; "Bw- 
kergate," 2s. 4d. ; " Fisshergate," 15s. 2d. ; 
"Narroumershe," £7 13s. 2d.; " Brodmarssh," 
£3 28. ; "Oa«t€lg»te," 7b. ; "Whelewright Gate," 
278. 4d. ; "TymberhiU," £6 3s. 8d. ; "Bridel- 
smith Gate," £2 14s. 8d. ; "Lowpament, £8 
6«. ; " Walsergate," £2 2s. 8d. ; " Highpament," 
£5 lis. 6d. ; '^Stonistret,". Ss. 8d. ; "Hencrosse," 
£3 198. 6d. ; *' Frerow,*' 13s. (Friarow or Beast 
Market-hill); "Infants," 48. 4d. 

Even at that date the result is somewhat sur- 
prisinflr as regards several places, for the amount 
contributed by " Longrow ' was less than one- 
third of what waa paid by " Narroumershe " 
Thia is a great contrast to what would probably 
be the case at the present time, but it will be 
foimd that even Broad-marsh in its contribu- 
tions exceeded Chapelbarre, Gosegate, Berker- 
gate, Oastedgate, Stonistrete, and Whelewright 
Gate combined by 5s. 8d. 

On examining Speed's map of the town dated 
1610, it may be seen, as regards buildinfips, that 
there is little or nothing between the back of 
the houses on the south side of Narrow-maT»h 
and the south of the present Leen-side, or even 
to the canal as now made. In another old 
map dated 1670, a few scattered houses or 
other buildings are shown there, but Deering 
(about 1747, p. 13), in his table of the 
names of streets, Ac., and number of houses 
and souls in each, savs : " North sida of the 
Leen 8 houses (and) 34 souls " ; though as 
shown on his map this would probably be re- 
presented in a great measure ty some of the 
nouses on the north of the "Leen-side," as 
now named. 

Bespeetinff the tanners, according to Black- 
ner: '*fn 1661 they beg?»n to shackle the. trade 



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by combining to prevent each other from taking 
apprentice**, except on extravagant conditions, 
A system which is sure m the end to injure 
the business it is erroneously intended to pro 
tect. because Nature is regular in her proceed- 
ings, and therefore requires a succession of 
Touth to fill up the chasms occasioned by old 
age and death. 

"The tanners, likewise, by combining to 
keep down the prices of hides, skins, and bark, 
drove the owners thereof to seek other markets 
and thus completed the ruin of their trade in 
the town." 

He further tells iis that • " From the great 
number of *hom snufifs/ and old vats which 
have been frequentlv found, it is pretty evident 
that near the whole of the croiind between 
Tumoalf Alley (Sussex Street) and Bridge 
S^treet has been occupied by the tanners, and 
fellmongers, the vats appertaining to both." 

This is very interesting, and to a considerable 
extent I can testify to its correctness. It has 
been a p!easure to me durina; recent velars, if 
excavations were made in the neighbourhood 
mentioned, to visit them for the purpose of ob- 
Ferving what miffht be seen or cast out ; though 
this was specially the case when the Great 
Central and Great Northern Railway Com- 
panies were constructing their railways to or 
from Victoria Station, and in the part between 
Narrow-marsh and the canal. 

I then saw a large number of horns, &c., 
belonging to cattle which were found in the 
holes excavated for the concrete and brickwork 
to carry the arches and girders. I very fre- 
quently examined most of them as the work 
progressed, and was surprised to see many 
matters belonginc; to animals and connected 
with tanners and fellmongers turned up at a 
depth even of about ten feei or more below 
the present level of the ground. It was also 
verv noticeable in this pjr^ that the subsoil 
was generally very black. I said and believed 
that much of the spare soil would have made 
excellent manure. 

The brickwork or concrete for carrying the 
aarohes of tlie viaducts had to be taken down to 
a thick bed of gravel in the marshy and meadow 



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45 

land, tlie depth of which varied considerablj. 
There were three of these places to which, for 
different reasons, I gjare special attention. The 
first was the excavation for the brickwoik, Ac., 
close to the south side at the west end of 
Narrow-marsh on which one end of the iron 
girders rest. 

On the northern side oi the Marsh the found- 
ation is on the rock, and I had often wondered 
whether the rocky cliff which is on that side 
terminated abrup^v or otherwise. 

I Uiink any douot connected with that ques- 
tion is now fully settled, as no rock was found 
within ten or twelve yards south of the 
cliff: nor did they even find a solid bed of 
p^avel until the bole had been sunk nearly 
thirty feet, which was far more than the average 
and considerably lower than any other place I 
noticed. 

The two other excavations were for the brick- 
work to carry the arch which spans the canal. 
Tlie one on the northern side was about the 
avera^^e depth of probably twelve to fifteen 
feet, when the jjravel bed was reached, but the 
material thrown out was to a large extent 
thoroughly black, which also applied to other 
Minkings near but rather more northwards ; and 
though at that part the excavations were on the 
south of the Leen they were close to its old 
course. Here, also, many horns, &c.. of 
cattle were to be seen amongst the refuse. The 
very black character of the soil may possiblv 
have been caused by its being imprecated with 
the chemicals, &c., of the old tanyards. 

I f.dmit havincr rather wandered from " Lytall 
Marssh" or "Littilmerche," though not from 
the marshy jrround of olden times. By way of 
contrast I will now refer to the hole due nut 
for the foundation of the brickwork sustaining 
the arch over the canal on its southern side. Tn 
this case the subsoil appeared to be clear of 
any impregnation whatever, and in its natural 
state ; it really might have been called "clean " 
as compared with other cases mentioned, many 
of which had the appearance of filth, and it was 
a relief to be clear of such an objection Able 
locality or portion '^f the work. 

In returning to Narrow-marsh I wish to re- 



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mark tiiai abo^kt eighty-five jean since an at- 
tempt was made to change its name to "Red 
Lion-8tx«et." It is more than passing strange wh j 
sudi an alteration should have been desired, for 
there was nothing abou^ the town, as far as I 
am aware, that ought to have influenoed <he 
choice of such an appellation. It is true that 
about 1818-1820 there were two public-houses, 
if not three, in the town each of which was 
called " The Red Lion " ; Mie of them was, aaad 
I believe, still is in the Marsh, another was- 
once near to its eastern end, and a third in 
Pelham-street. 

It is hard to believe that this fact would b<» 
'considered of sufficient import^wce with the 
public to cause them to wish for such am 
alteration. I certainly cannot say that I have 
at present seen anything officially pointing to 
the Corporation as authorising or ordering the 
change ; though, as I shall presently show, an 
onJeavour was undoubtedly made to cause one. 

It oocaaionally happens in anomalous and 
unusual ca«es that information may be obtained 
from sources which by many would be un- 
thought of. ' In this instance I turned to lists 
•^f the Burgesses and Freeholderrs (of Notting- 
ham) who polled at the elections of 1818 and 
1B20, and from |hem I obtained the knowledge 
required. 

In the first-named election there were very 
few voters living in Karrow-marth who did not 
mention that old name in the poll booth when 
asked where they resided ; whereas at the elec- 
tiosi of 1820 there was a complete change, as by 
far the greater number of voters on that occa- 
sion when questioned respecting the place of 
their abode gave it as being in "Red Lion- 
frtieet." Still, there are certain circumstances 
which, I think, point strongly to the probability 
of this attempted change being made by private 
individuals, and not by the Corporation or 
Council 

In Article 13 I havo given an account of the 
mode adopted by "a would-be" Parliamentary 
representative to change the title of the place 
he lived in from "Back-side" to "Parliament* 
street," and I consider it most likely that 
similar means were adopted in relation to 



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'' Norrow-mainh " in an emdceTour to have it 
deeignAted ''Red Lion-street." (This more or 
less applies also as regards a change to what 
ve now tenn " Plumptre-sijuaie.") 

I can remember people in my younger days 
apeaJdng of "Red Lion-stireet," though I look 
upon it as having no official sanction, and gener- 
ally it was called Narrow-marsh at that date. 
In the large map of the town (before men- 
tioned) brought out by the town surveyor under 
the auspices of the Corporation about seventj- 
five years since, there is no refeffemce whatever 
to "Red Lion" as regards either Narrow-mar^ h 
or Pliimt re-square. 

White, in his Directory of Nottingham (1832) 
and in the list of thoroughfares, ^c, p. 213, 
says : — " Red Lion-street is now Narrow-marsh, 
the original name " ; and Dearden, in his 
Directory of 1834, makes the same remark re- 
specting it. It will be seen that the alteration 
of the term did not last long, and that, fortu- 
nately, the town retained one of its noted and 
cltstinctive old titles. 

Seventy-five years back, aooording to the large 
map, thefTt were various names in use in Narrow, 
marsh which l^rought up memories of the pist 
when Nottingham was noted for its tannen 
and tanning. Entering the Macrah from Dmry- 
hiU there was (1) "Tannera' HaU Ooiirt," (Z) 
"Vat Yard," (3) "Pelt AUey," and (4) "Leather 
All«7.^ 

The first was reached when a short distance 
up Maltmill-lane by a turn to the left. The 
Tanners* Ck>mpany, &c., is frequently mentioned 
in olden times. Blackner says, as regards 
Tanners' Hall, " that the Corporation gave the 
Oompany the use of the buuding ... as 
a general storehouse for their goods ; and as a 
place of general sale, hence its present name." 

The next, or "Vat Yard," was abo>ut the 
seoond place past Maltmill-lane. Probably 
eight places further on was •* Pelt Alley," whi<di 
appears to be a large open yaid, and in abotft 
two places more " Leathetr Alley " is reached. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM: 

ITS STREETS. PEOPLE. &(v 



vm. 

On various occasions from 250 to 550 
years since Nottingham, with other parts of the 
country, suffered severely from the plague, then 
called "sickness." In 1637, June 20th, the 
Corporation were taking steps to prevent its 
getting to Nottingham (see Records), as it was 
prevalent in West Bridgford, Cotgrave, Bing- 
ham, and £^t Bridgford. Collections were 
made for the relief of the distressed. 

In 1646, September 16th, the Council ;* Voted 
and ordered generally, that the goose fair shall 
bee wholly cryed downe and proclamation* be 
sent to market townes, to forbid the people to 
come to it, by reason of the sickness (plague) 
in tJie country, and to prevent danger to the 
towne, throu^ God's mercies." This is the 
earliest mention I have noticed of "Goose" 
Fair. 

On March 30th, 1609, to prevent the spread 
of the plague, the Council resolved: — "Ytt ys 
agreed tbat from this tyme forwardes for 3 
weekes. there shall be a watch sett for the towne 
to looke to the passengers that shall c^me from 
any visited place (that is visited by pestilence), 
and to look to ye takin^e upp of forayne (non 
burgess) wandering people ; tnis watch to con- 
sist of 4 men, and theyr wages for these 3 weekee 
to be paid out of the townes stock ; and then to 
take a forther coorse. — The men assigned were 
Samuel Bell, Chapeil B«rr ; Robert Pight for the 
Trent Bridge ; Edward Garland, Eiahard Par- 
ky ns to be pafsant (passing) to and fro. Ttt 
ys agreed that everie Alderman shall choose 2 
deputies under him to assist his business (to 
prevent ^e plague) in his ward." 

On October OTd, 1604, watchmen were as- 
signed to various roads leading into the town 
to examine all entering, and, if necessary, to 
prevent anyone coming in of whom they were 
doubtful. At different times wooden " cabins " 
were erected on the (Mapperley) plains, to 
which some who resided in the town were sent 



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if attacked. It was in 1604 when the plague 
was so exceedingly severe at Colston Basset, 
and which in its desolating effects could rival 
Eyam in Derbvshlre. Out of a population of 
about 155 to 160 inhabitants 83 actually died in 
the three months July, August, aoid Sepjitember 
of that year. Thoi^h other places within a 
moderate distance of Nottingham were ** visited," 
unfortunately for the village of Oolston Basset, 
their misfortune appears to have been much more 
desolating than in any other locality near. 

I desire to rectify an error in the first article 
of this series (No. 32) which I was glad to have 
pointed out. It is in relation to "Thomey- 
wood," the southern and smaller ])ortion of 
Sherwood Forest, and its adoption as a title to 
a road in substitution of old Wod, Wodd, 
Wodde, Wode, or Wood-lane. There is no room 
for doubting that (as in numerous other cases 
with our ancestors) this name was descriptive 
of the locality several centuries sin^^e. 

The first reference to it (incidentaUv) is in 
the Borough Records, Vol. I., p. 368, May 2nd, 
1295, when some l?.Tid was transferred, and is 
described as being "towards tlie Wood." In 
Vol. II., p. 359, A.D. 1435, on two occasions 
reference is made to "Nottingham Wode," and 
in each case the little rivulet called the Beck 
is mentioned, which proves its location. In 
the same volume, pp. 369-70, there are five 
item;t (1463-4) referrini? to men who were paid 
" for hcggeyng (hedging) at the Wodde." 

There are many references to Tynsill bein*^' 
tut (in the wood) ajid carted to nimierous places 
to repair the hedges, &c. This was the small 
branches of the trees, and also brushwood or 
underwood. In Vol. 2, p. 485, reference is 
made to the " Coppice." and that none are to 
taki! wood in, without licence. 

In Vol. v., p. 106, AD. 1625 (Borough Ilc- 
cords) the Mickleton Jury report, or "present, 
Maister Alderman Nix, for havinge towe load 
of wood which was not fitting for him. which 
was the towne's, in the copies" (coppice). On 
p. 235, Vol. v., it is order^ by the Oouiicil, 
" that as many trees and as much crooked 
woode, and fire woode in the coppies' (coppice) 
shall be speedily cutt downe, and the wood and 



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barke thereof sold, as will raise fotrty pounds 
or thereabouts" ... 

On page 316, 1671, Septomber 8th, reference 
is made to St. Niohoia« Church, and further 
that " It is this day ordered by this council that 
upon the humble petidoo of the Inhabitants of 
the said parish, to this Oounoell, for some 
tymber towards rebuilding of the said Ohuorch, 
the said Inhabitants shaU have Tenn Tymber 
Trees, to be felled in tihe Townes Copmes 
(coppice) of Uie best treee beinffe there. (Ex- 
ceptinge those Trees atandinge aboute Saint Ann 
Wellhouse) ; And thee 10 trees to be sett oute 
by the Oversight of William Jackson, Alder- 
man ; John Greaves, Coroner ; Robert Malyn ; 
Boberte White ; and Francis Ooxe ; (and) 
Bioharde Hodgkyn, Alderman ; or any fowre of 
them, which said tymber is to be imployed for 
the said use, and not otherwise-" 

From what has been mentioned, it will be 
observed as a fact that in olden times "Not- 
tingham Wood " and '' 1^ Coppice " were almost 
gynonvmous terms as regarded the locality in- 
tended to be understood or deecribed ; and 
Wood-lane was the road to and near the wood. 
As regards its quality aantA character as a road, 
I remember it when in a state very inferior to 
what has now been the case for many years. 

In looking back, unless there be something 
to ^de us, we are liable to err in dates ; but, 
as it appears to me, barely sixteen or eighteen 
years since, I observed that old " Wood Lane *' 
had been renamed " Thomeywood Lane *' or 
"road," and until the last few days, when re- 
minded of it^ I was entirely unaware that ita 
title had again been altered, and this time to 
"The Wells Road." It is true that I had 
heard of or seen that name at various times, but 
never in auoh a way sa to cause me to under- 
stand that it had superseded "Thomeywood 
Road." Wood-lane or road was no doubt an 
appropriate name, explaining its former rela- 
tionship to Nottingham Wood, and had been in 
use about 600 years in conskeotion with the old 
town. 

Much of this might be said of St. Ann's Well, 
had tuch a term been applied to the thorouffh- 
lare ; but hittoiy knows nothing of "The WeilTs" 



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40 

road, ^o^^ m regards suitabDitj it may be as 
good a« "Thomcywood" road, for p^aotioally 
the whole of Thorneywood was in the county 
and what relates to i. While such ''re- 
naming'' oan oooor in one part of the cdty, in 
the fitness of tihings, historioal associations, &c., 
they ought to take place in others whioh have 
been mentioned, and return to Outgang-road and 
Mill-street. 

In the Borough Records, Vol. IV., it is shown 
that there were two coppices belonging to the 
town, though not far apart. In varioufi places 
the "Far Ooppey" and the -'Neire Ooppy," or 
"Narre O^ie," are mentioned same oenturioB 
since — ^in Vol. I., namely, a.d. 1295 and 1335, 
and frequently on more recent oocasion«. 

In the Ghambeiiain's aocoimts for a.d. 1558 
(p. 119, Vol. IV., Borough Records), the fol- 
lowing noticeable entry will be found : — 
"Item 2 wriglits 2 deyes' works fellync and 
squaring 3 (oak) trees for to make the galiousse 
(gallows) 2s. 6d. Item Robert Leane, a deye's 
worke about the oomen pasture, and making 
holies (holes) for the galoes trees, 8d. Item 
Biohara Welohe. oariedge for the gallowes, 
from the Oopy (coppice) to tiie assigned place 
12d. Item 4 men helpvng to rere them ; 4d." 

" The assigned place wsb at the top of Mans- 
field-road, which at that time (1558) and for 
more than two and a half centuries later was 
called "Qallows £Q1L Nimierous accounts 
may be found respecting the processions from 
the town of those condemned to be hung. 

From the time mentioi.ed, and before, until 
well into the last or nineteenth century the 
total of criminals executed was far greater with 
a comparatively small population than is now 
the case with immensely increased numbers. 
Though this may be easily explained, for during 
that long period there were almost scores of 
illegal acts for which the penalty was death, but 
for many of them if committed in the present 
time the punishment would not exceed a few 
weeks' or months' imprisonment. 

The first direct mention of "the Gallows" 
to be found in the Borough Records is, I be- 
lieve in Vol. III., p. 292, a.d. 1496, where refer- 
ence is made to "gravell that cam from the 



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60 

galiowes to Oow lane." In Vol. I., p. 86, 
AD. 1316, Gerraae Aubrey, of Wilford, was found 
guilty of stealing a cow ; the sentence recorded 
is " Therefore let him be hung." This, though 
inferential, is proof that there must have been 
gallows belonging to the town, but the penalty 
for the crime would now be very different. In 
the same year, Walter, xhQ shepherd of Sawley, 
was hung at Nottingham for stealing eleven 
sheep; 

Executions took place n the top of Mansfield- 
road until 1827 or 1828, and the first which oc- 
curred at the House of Ooriection was, I believe, 
in August, 1831. At that time the old Town 
Hall was to some extent used as a prison. Two 
men had been sentenced to be hung, and the 
day b^ore their execution they were taken from 
the town gaol to the House of CJorrection. The 
new drop was in course of erection, which, in 
passing, they perceived and intently surveyed it. 
They were executed the next day, August 24th. 

According to the Date Book, an executioKi 
look place on 16th Aphl, 1800. Two men 
were oondemned to be hung on Mnjch 17th, 
after bein^; tried at the County Hall. In con- 
nection with or relating U) the carrying out of 
the sentence some noticeable circumAtanoes hap- 
pened which at this date are singular, and give 
U5 an idea of the great change which has hap- 
pened in cases like this and many others during 
the last century. 

Abraham Whitaker, aged 46 years, and John 
Atkinson, aged 36 years, were condemned to b« 
hung for forgery. " They had been accustomed 
to tTaveorse tlie country as hawkers of muslins, 
principally, it was saad, for the purpose of pass, 
ing spurioufi Bank of England notes. They 
had uttered several to Mr. John Greafieley, of 
Stapleford, for which they were pursued and 
apprehended at Eastwood, and a roll of similarly 
forged notes was found upon them. 

In the night of Tuesday subsequent to their 
conviction, they were very near effecting their 
escape. Having been supplied with a knife 
by one of their friends, they managed to re- 
move the lead which secured the iron stan- 
chions in the window of their cell, and to de- 
ceive the turnkey substituted for it bits oi 



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painted wood. With half a potind of buttr» 
they had aeked for, they oonthved to find 
material for a lamp to enable them to explore 
their way to the roofs of the adjoining houses, 
from whence they contemplated deeoending to 
the street; but, making too much noise in 
foFoLng a passage through a wall, they Were 
orerheani by the gaoler, and heavily chained 
down in their old quarters- 
Through the powerful interoeesion of his 
friends, Whitaker, though known to be the 
principal in the uttering, had his sentence com- 
muted to transportation for life. Atkinson, 
after a month's respite, was executed. Up to 
this period the gallows, which woe simply two 
upri^hte and a transverse beam, about foiv 
yards or a little more in height, remained per- 
manently on the hill near the summit of Mans- 
field-road as one of the standing 'institutions' 
of the country. Thus the first object that met 
the eye of the traveller from the north on his 
approach to the town was the apparatus of 
death, and it wa« regarded by many with deep 
cariosity. 

Barly on the morning of Atkinson's execution, 
to the astonishment of the authorities, it was 
fouDd that in the night-time some one had out 
down the gallows and taken it aw^^^. A.nother 
had therefore to be immediate^ erected, and 
to prevent a repetition of the occurrence the 
apparatus was made so that it could be taken 
down M soon as the execution was completed. 

It was subsequently ascertained that the 
gallows had been removed by some young men, 
who viewed their performance as a capit«J joke. 
Though it was made of heavy pieces of oak. 
its great age and exposure to the weather had 
lelt indelible marks upon it, and especially 
near the junction with the ground. The re 
maine of it were dragged into the town and 
placed on a haystack in Dickinson's-yard, which 
occupied part of the site at present bounded by 
Orose-etreet and Our-lane, and near to Portland- 
place. 

tJttlike the generality of prooeesions to the 
place of execution, this of Atkinson's was com- 
paratively unattended by those noii^ demonstxa- 
tiooui oi popular hatred to the prisoner which 



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flenred to embitter the last momeate of many. 
(He was much oommiseonted.) It wns c(u»- 
tooQAry on all such oocaaioiis for the uii^mpar- 
thisin^ members of the crowd to s«at themselves 
on any lamp-poet or wall, or eligible position 
which might preeetnt itself, from whence they 
would saline the criminal aa he passed them in the 
cart with cries and exolamatians, the nature of 
which was regulated by the idea they might 
form of the magnitude of his oSeoce. 

One position in particular was always eagerly 
contended for. This was a ponderous beam of 
wood that extended across Oow-laoie (of that 
date, but now Olumber-street) from the Long- 
row to Gridlesmith-gate (now Pelham-street) at 
the comer, from the centre of which was sus- 
pended the signboard of the White lion Inn. 
On this elevated station a compact row of ad- 
ventinrous fellows were usually perched to see 
the object of their curiosity 'ride backwards 
up Oow-lane.' On this occasion the man was 
allowed to pass in silence." 

At this date the beam mentioned would be of 
a very moderate length, for, jud^ng by old maps 
in 1800 and at the part mentioned, Oow-lant* 
would probably be less rather than over four 
yards wide, and at that period the Ump-poets 
would have oil lamps attached to them for 
lighting the streets. 

We are told that at the place of execution 
he was oalm and resigned, heaving no sigh aud 
shedding no tear ; but to the last he continued 
to assert his complete innocence. The crime 
was committed in the countv, biit he (as well 
as others from the shire under similar circimi- 
btances) was executed on the town gallowa 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM. 

ITS STREETS, PEOPLE. &c. 



IX. 

War waa declared hy the BriUali iupiiin«t 
the French on February 11th, 1793, whi(£ has 
generally been termed '*The French Bevolu- 
tionary War." Numeroiu incidents relating 
to it occurred in Nottingham not only strange, 
but also regrettable. There were riots on 
many occasions from different causes, amongst 
which the deamess of food, but of bread in 
particular, may be mentioned. Muoh informa- 
tion is to be derived from the Date Book re- 
specting what took place at that period. 

The people appeaor to have been quite in- 
clined, especially in the early part, to com- 
memorate at least all the successes of the allies, 
as well as of €hreat Britain, in the war, and 
within a month of its declaiation they were re- 
joicing, but the successes afterwards proved 
to a great extent imaginary. There was muoh 
exultation on the capture of Yalenoiennes, and 
also Toulon the same year, but they remained 
in the hands of their captors for a short period 
only. This was in 1793, and at that time 
news travelled slowly. 

In 1794 the Bev. O. Walker, minister of 
High-pavemeni Chapel, informs us that ''It 
had been the custom in Nottingham for several 
weeks previous to the month of July, on the 
receipt of any intell^ence in favour of the allied 
Powers, for the mail to enter the town with a 
blue flag, or ornamented with blue ribbons. 
From various elevations in and near the town 
the people were thus enabled to see the coach 
when a good distance away, and be prepared 
for the receipt of good news, or, as the case 
might be^ bad news or no news. 

AH will severely reprobate and oondemn 
the outrageous acts which were perpe- 
trated in France duoring the first f&w years of 
the Revolution, and wish it were possible to blot 
out their history and remembrance. To this 
I have UttLe doubt that people of the most 



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54 

yaried shades of opinion would a^pree. l%ere 
is, however, another and moet imxxMtant point 
on which in theee latter days both €k)yemment 
and people are a^;reed, for we have gained 
wisdom by experience, though at a terrible 

OO0t 

If a revolution n6w takes place, and a 
monarchy is changed for a repuolic^ provided 
that country will continue to oe fnendly and 
work harmoniously with us and others, we have 
given up the ridiouloue notion that our own or 
any other nation has, or of right ought to have, 
any mandate or claim whatever to interfeire with 
them in' their choice of a government. 

One hundred and ten years since the opinion 
of the Government and many of the people at 
home was very different to that, and it resulted 
in the loss of scores of thousands of lives, im- 
mense destruction of property, an untold amount 
of distress, together with the piling up of an 
enormous National Debt. (Query : Why not 
"Royal Debt" the same as "Royal Arsenal," 
or Army or Navy ?) 

The war in its effect generally delayed social 
legislation, and to a certain degree deferred the 
advancement of the people during much the 
greater part of half a century. Theee were 
some of the changes made or "advantages" 
gained in the French War, which was mainly 
for the purpose of Imposing an effete and dis- 
graced monaiTohy upon that country, though, 
excepting b^ force of arms, it has never reigned 
in France smce. 

Many of our countrymen stron^y protested 
against commencing or continuing the war for 
such a purpose, and for that comparatiTely early 
date spoke out strongly, as opportunity oc- 
curred, against the pnnciple of interfering with 
the internal affairs of other countries ; but 
hounded on by William Pitt, Edmund Burke, 
and others, the British Parliament voted in 
favour of war, and it appears to have been 
declared on February 11th, 1793. Those in 
advance of the times suffered severely for their 
opinions, though they are now recognised by 
all people as being right, just, and wise. 

In this year much "duddng" took place. 
"Tbe Leen and the newly-formed canal were 



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the wtAean- ^ign^M hv the name, of 'JordMk»' 
where the ' bapiisms ' py immereioti took place " 
of those disa^eeins with the war. Tlioee per- 
formed (baptisms) by "sprinkling" were ohieflj 
at the Ezonanfie Pump bj being pumped upon. 
This pump will be remembered by many of my 
older fellow-citizens as standing on the front of 
the Exchange, in the centre and near to the 
edge of the causeway. The popular distich 
waa : — 

W«'ll pump upoD ihom UU they wum 
Upon ihfi&T knees "Ood eeve the Kinc." 

I hare known and spoken with those who 
had been dudced, and with one who only escaped 
such an ordeal W the sj^eed with whicih he was 
able to run, but he lost a basket of tools. One 
of the poor fellows (John Helps, a master 
stocking-maker) never reoovetred from the shock 
caused by being ducked. He was a stout, 
large-ma4ie man, and from endeayouring to 
escape was in a state of much perspiration when 
forced into the water. 

About sixty years since I knew an old man 
named Evans, who had been ducked in those 
times. He passed the last years of his life in 
the Lambley Hospital, which was then at the 
top of Derby-road. I was also well acquainted 
with his son, William Evans, and frequently 
beard him speak of what had once happened to 
his father. He, too, ended his days in the 
Lambley Hospital. 

Kespecting Mr. Belps, in my younger days 
on various occasions I heard of his abominalne 
treatment and untimely death from various per- 
sons who knew him, and remembered the facts 
as stated- 

"On October 3rd, 1794, the 'Gentlemen' (!} 
Yeomanry of the Town Troop had a grand 
field day. Their number was sixty-seven, and 
in the evening Ichabod Wright, Esq., their 
captain, gave them a sumptuous entertainment 
at Thurland Hall. Troops of Volunteer Yeo- 
manry Cavalry, of which the above mentioned 
was one, were common throughout the country. 

"November 3ni. — The Nottinghamshire Regi- 
ment of Militia, after an encampment of six 
months near Danbury, in Essex, went into 
winter quarters at thirteen villages in the nor- 



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86 

ahem part of that county, of whidk Baintree 
and Bockin^ were bhe chief." 

Hie activity of the recruiting partiee at thia 
period, and subsequently, was particularly 
great. Besides five or six regiments of the 
fine, there were others for local corps. Every 
poseible inducement to enlist was held forth. 
The Loyal Nottinghamshire Fencible Foot com- 
manded by Colonel O'Connor, offered a bounty 
of eight giuneas, with a guarantee that recruits 
should not be drafted nor sent on foreign 
service. 

The Prince of Wales's Loyal Leicester Penci- 
bles, commanded by Colonel Parkyns, offered 
'^the most glorious opportunitv since the world 
began to all spirited fellows ^ : Becruits were 
to serve at home '*only" durins ihe war, and 
were to receive " a most liberal bounty." 

Major Newton's corps of Infantry offered 
*' great encouragement to all gentlemen volun- 
teers, free, able, and willing to serve His Majesty 
King George the Third, and very large lx>un- 
ties. This Major Newton resided at Bulwell 
Houae, and tJie headmmrters of his regiment 
was the " Blackmoor's Head " (at the comer of 
High-street and Gridlesmiih-gate, now Pelha^- 
atieet). 

Substitutes for Militiamen and recruita for 
the Yeomanry were also eagerly and continually 
sought after. " Exertions eqittlly greait, though 
on a less extensire scale, were put forth to 
obtain men for the Navy. The Navy Act com- 
pelled the authorities of every parish in the 
county to provide a certain number of men, and 
the overseers were accustomed to offer bounties 
for volunteers. 

In St. Mary's, as an instance, the placard ran 
thus : — " God save the King, and Success to the 
Kavyl House I Bouse! Rouse I To Arms! 
To Arms ! Conquest leads the way I All bold 
and daring Bobin Hood's men, who are known 
to be brave and true, have an unexamnled op- 
portunity to make their fortunes witn prize 
money ; also the honoir of enrolling thp'»'- 
selves with the bravest seamv^n in the world, 
the British tars of Old England ! I ! A bounty 
of twelve guineas to efl^ dashing hetpo to 
serve in Bus Majesty's Boyal Navy, whieb 



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67 

rides triumphant on the seas, and dares the 
Gttllio foe to combat. . . . 

'* As Robin Hood's men are known to be good 
marksuken, braye, and true, the admiral may 
appoint them all u> serve in frigates, when 
tney are sure to make their fortunes to a man. 
Now Or Never, as only a few are Wanted — no 
time is to be lost at this glorious opportunity, 
or they will lose it for ever. 

"As a further encoura^i^ment, every gentle- 
man volunteer will receive a handsome Itoyal 
undress navr uniform, hat, jacket, trowsers, 
&c. All able-bodied men who wish to enter 
this noble service, immediate application may 
be made to Mr. Sturt, Black Horse, Stoo^y- 
stfeet ; Mr. Howard, Wheeler-gate ; or to Mr. 
Shackleton, at the Barley Mow, Narrow-marsh ; 
where each loyal hearo will be honourably re- 
ceived, kindly entertained, and enter into 
present pay and full allowance.*' 

In 1799 I find in Willoughby's Nottingham 
Directory that the "Black Horse" was in the 
hands of Mrs. ^lirt; possibly Mr. Sturt had 
died in the interval. At that date there is no 
reference to Mr. Howard or Mr. Shackleton ; 
it is therefore probable that they had ceased 
keeping public-houses in Nottingham. 

During the Flench war there were constant 
disturbances by the people from various causes, 
most of which originated with or were caused 
by the scarcity and cost of food, which was fre- 
quently at famine prices. April 18th, 1795, 
Saturday : " This evening, in consequence of 
the assemblage in the Market-place of a larae 
mob, with the avowed intention of sacking the 
Shambles, the Biot Act was publicly read, and 
the Yeomanry called out By their diligent 
exertions during four hours, seconded by the 
Dragoons from the Barracks, thirteen of the 
ringleaders were apprehended, and the tran- 
quillity of the town restored. 

"This disturbance led to the introduction of 
a row of stalls for country butchers, extending 
along the north side of the Kschange. The 
Mayor authorised them for the purpose of secur- 
ing a better supply of meat, and a spirit of 
oompetition." 

At the latter end of the eighteenth century, 



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amd for gome years at the oomxaeneenkent of 
tlie nineteehth, the wages of labourers ih Not^ 
tingham would be little, if any, more than a 
third of what is a^ present the oase. As an 
example, take a bricklayer's labourer, who, if 
an able man, can now obtain twenty-seven 
shilUnjgs per week of fifty-four hours, or rather 
less time ; whereac u* 1795, and for a long 
period after, the week's work would consist of 
from fifty-nine to sixty-four hours, and for that 
their wages would probably not exceed nine 
shillings per week 

There is good authority for this assertion, an 
many now in the citr can easily remember, 
even in oomparatirely recent years, when the 
labourers in some of the agricultural oounties 
of England were no^ paid muoh, if any, more 
than nine shillings per week. 

In my remembrance, bricklayers generally in 
Nottingham were paid twenty-one killings per 
wedc or less. These amounts have, however, 
for a long time been very much greater ; but 
there is proof that quite within the period of 
living memorv town labourers' wages have been 
so largely added to, that they not only obtain a 
shilling per day more than bricklayers did 58 
years since, but they also work one hour per 
day less. It is a cause for rejoicing that cir- 
cumstances have allowed of such a desirable 
change, and that the men and their families 
can now, with cheap food, acquire many ad- 
ditional comforts and conveniences. 

Sixty years, or rather more since, I remem- 
ber talking with an aged man, a native of 
Derbyshire, who informed me that in 1785, 
when he had completed his apprenticeship as a 
joiner, he could not in that part get more than 
10s. or 10s. 6d. per week, that being the or- 
dinary amount then paid in the locality. He 
shortly afterwards left that county, and was 
able to obtain an increase in Nottingham. 

I relate these facts so that those reading them 
may be better enabled to judge and compare 
respecting the ability of working men to obtain 
from their wages a sufficiency of food for them- 
selves and families, dating about eighty-five to 
one hundred and ten years since, as compared 
with those of the present time- 



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« 

In July, 1785, "wheat waa seUin^ ai lOOs, a 
quarter, and bread could not be obtained by 
worrking people without much difficulty. At 
the present time whei^ ijs almost exadtljr one- 
third of that price, and wages, as mentiooied, 
hare enormously increased. In 1786 a labourer 
would have to work about eleven weeks before 
he could earn as much money as would purchase 
a Quarter of wheat, whilst at the present time 
and for a number of years he would only have 
to b^ engaged from seven to seven and a half- 
days to earn what would buy a quarter of wheat. 
Here is an astounding difference in favour of 
modem times, wlien the Great Powers of the 
world are Tery much more impressed with the de^ 
sirability and necessity of peace than they were 
in former times. 

On 25th Anril, 1796, "It having been 
rumoured that Mr. Qervasse Smart, baker, of 
this town, had hoarded up a large stock of com 
with a view of raising tne price, a number of 
persons, who thought the price of wheat wae 
sufficiently high at 778. per quarter, assembled 
about his house and, after abusing him in un- 
Tieasured terms, broike his windows and 
threatened to pull down the premises." 

The magistrates endeavoured ineffectually to 
cause the mob to disperse, and the Yeomanry 
and a troop of the 12th light Dragoons were 
called out. They were ridiculed a^. '(»antered 
by the crowd for an hour or two, and ultimately 
they were commanded to fire, but most of them 
held their musket^ pointed upwards, and there- 
fore only one person was hurt, and that was a 
youth, who was struck by a bullet in the heel. 
Some were arrested, and the others immediately 
fled. 

On August 26tfa, 1796, from "the disposition 
io tumultuous excesses,'' the magistrates warned 
the people, and further said : " It is therefore 
their determination to take away the licence 
from every public-house which may be proved 
to entertain company in it after eleven o'clock 
at night." 

In this year the (rovemment gave permission 
to James Murray, Esq., of the 90fch Begiment, 
to raise a corps of one thousand men, to be 
called the Loyal Nottinghamshire Foreetara, 



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60 

The headquarters was at Mr. James £de<n- 
borough's, victualler, Punch Bowl, New 
Change. 

" a1 a specimen of the extravagant misrepre- 
sentations held forth to recruits entering tob^- 
ments of the line> the local newspaper simpUes 
the following evidently satirical address, 'said' 
to have been given by an Englislh Officer: — ^I 
will lead vou into a country where iAte rivers 
consist of fine nut-brown ale— where the houses 
are built of hot roast beef, and the wainscots 
papered with pancakes. l%ere, my boys, it 
rains plum-pudding every Sunday morning, the 
streets are paved with quartern loaves, and nice 
roasted pigs run about with knives and forks 
stuck in them, and oryins; out, *Who will eat 
me? Who will eat me?"^ 

By February, 1797, the aspect of affairs in 
the country was particularly gloomy ; the Bank 
of England had suspended cash payments, and 
its effects generally were very disastrous. It 
caused the stoppage of great numbers of frames 
from want of cash, and to prevent the closing 
of the ordinary business in the town the local 
bankers issued a large number of seven shilling 
tickets. 

On April 10th a public meeting was called 
together by Mr. John Fellows, of the High- 
pavement ; Mr. Wm. Dawson, Sussex-stre^ ; 
Mr. John Wyer, Oaetle-gate; Mr. T. Bawson, 
St. James's-street ; Mr. Charles Homer, of the 
Exchange ; Mr. Thos. Simpson, €k)ose-gate ; 
amd Mr. Francis Bestow, Hounds-gate ; and, 
attended by about four thousand persons, was 
hold at the Malt Cross, in the Market-place, 
to |)etition the Kin^ for the removal of his 
Ministers as a preliminary step to peace. 

Mr. Fellows was called upon to preside, and 
a resolution embodying the purport of the meet- 
ing was moved by Mr. F. Wakefield and Mr. 
Ttobert Davison, and unanimously adopted. The 
petition received five thousand signatures. On 
April 20th the Corpbratioi agreed to a similar 
memorial. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM 

ITS STREETS. PEOPLE. &o 



1797. By this time, and no doubt from 
the deamess of food, with other very undesir- 
able ciroumstancee, and afteir an experience of 
four and half years, the enthusiasm for the war 
had greatly abated. On October 16th news 
arriv^ of Admiral Duncan's great victory over 
the Dutch fleet, and almost the only public 
demonstration of joy was given by tJie Scots 
Greys, then stationed here, who fired three 
volleys in the Market-place, and at night illu- 
minated the barracks. 

In the following year, 1798, October 3rd, 
much gratification was shown by t)he people on 
the receipt of the news of Nelson's great victory 
over tlie French fleet at the Battle of thfl Nile. 
It happened to airive during the festivities oon- 
neoted with Goose Fair. A public subscrip- 
tion was afterwards raised in the town to assist 
the wounded seamen and' marines, together with 
the widows and diildren of those killed. 

1799, September 30tli. On this date colours 
were presented to the Loyal Nottingham Volun- 
teer Ijifantry and Oavalry, when tibe chaplain, 
during his address, said : ** I will quote to you 
the remaifk of a gentleman who, I believe, is 
now present, not less eminent for skill in his 
profession than for the accuracy of his observa- 
tion and experience. His assertion was this : 
* That he had lived seventeen years in the town 
of Nottingham, and during that period there 
have been seventeen riots, which on an average 
16 a riot onoe a yeair. Eighteen months have 
elapsed since the corps have been emtx)died, 
ana there has not appeared the slightest ffvmp- 
torn oi disturbance. ' This is ample evidence 
that the so-called "good old times" in most 
things are not to be compared with those of a 
more recent date. 

In January, 1800, a large public subscription 
was raised for the relief of the poor, and the 
establishment of a public soap kitchen. " Bread 
was an artiole of great scarcity during part oi 



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this year. In Jannaty ibe quartwn loaf sold 
for Is. 3d., in February for la. 4d., in Maroh 
for la. 5d., in Apdl for Is. 4d., in May foi 
la. 5d., in June Is. 6^. (at which time wheat 
realiaad from 1408. to 1458. per quarter), and in 
July l8. 6d." 

April loth. The high pricea of nroyisions 
at the market provoked a not. Early in the 
afternoon the people of the lower parte of the 
town congregated to a large extent in the 
Market-place, and proceeded to acta of violence. 
First they surrounded the butter stands, aind 
rifled them of their oontente ; the gardeners 
and fiahmongerB were the next victims of their 
rapacity ; and then t^ey attached the Shamblee, 
and bore away jointa of meat in all direotions- 
It waa not until the military exerted themselves 
that the riot waa suppressed. Several of the 
nngileaders were apprehended and sentenced 
to terms of imprisonment. 

August 31st. Although this waa Sunday, it 
waa marked aa ihe commencement of a serioua 
riot. (The second this year.) A great in- 
crease in the price of provisions, more e^>ed- 
ally of bread, had roused the vindictive spirit 
of the poorer classes to an almost ungovernable 
pitch. They be^an late in the evening by 
breaking the windows of a baker in Milk^one- 
lane, and in the morning proceeded, with an 
increase of numbers and renewed energv, to 
treat others of the trade in the same unwelcome 
manner. 

Granaries were broken into at the canal 
wharfs, and it was very distressing to see with 
what famine-impelled eagerness many a mother 
bore away com in her apron to feed her off- 
spring. The Volunteer Infantry were piaced 
upon duty wherever popular fury waa diapLayed, 
wnilat the civil airtnoritieB and the Dragoons 
from the Barracks exerted themselves in vain 
to induce the rioters to desist from their pur- 
pose. Thus matters contintied until Septem- 
oer 3rd, when oniB of the most awful stonns of 
thunder and lightning ever witnessed in this 
town put a final end to the protracted diaturb- 
anoe. 

Kovember 6th. A liberal subscription waa 
oommienioed for the eatablishment of soup kit- 



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68 

ciheinfl. On Noreanbor lOtli, the Corpoiraition 
unrfWiiTnously vated a petition to the King pray- 
ing him to immedia4«ily oonrene Parliameint for 
the purpose of taking into oonfiideration the 
alanningly hi^h price of bread (good 
wheat was selling at 130b. a quarter, and at 
the end of the year wheat was ISOs. a quarter). 
Whilst being reminded of these enormous prices, 
the amount of woiking people's wages, as pre- 
viously stated, must not be forgotten. 

1801. "This was aJso a year of famine and 
distress. The ]Hice6 of wheat in suooessiye 
months will sufficiently indicate the fact In 
January the purchase money of wheat of the 
best quality was 142s. per quarter, in February 
1668., March 178s. (! !), April 172s., May ISOs.,. 
June 1358., July 165s., August 90s., September 
88s., October oOs., November 82s., December 
82s," We are told that in June, 1800, when 
wheat realised 140s. to 145s. the quarter, bread 
sold for Is. 64d. the quartern loaf. 

In March and April of this year (1801) it was 
328. to 33s. more than that sum, therefore the 
quartern loaf would not be sold for less at 
tnose dates than Is. 9d., which was 3d. addi- 
tional to what a labourer would generally earn 
m (as compared with the present period) a long 
day's work, and as a fact he would then be 
completely engaged for seven days before he 
could earn as much money as was required to 
purchase six quartern loaves, whereas at iihe 
present date, and for a number of years past, 
labourers have been paid for one day's work 
sufficient to pay for eleven quartern loaves ; while 
for seven days' work his wages would no;w pur- 
chase seventy-seven quartern loaves in i^aoe of 
six. 

In my younger days I have frequently con- 
versed with men who lived throiigh those times, 
and their complaint was not alone that bread 
was so excessively dear, but that much of it was 
of a quality so inferior a to be scarcely eatable. 
All of us have no doubt heard the old saying 
respecting things whith iie "cheap and nasty, 
and also that " there is no rule without an ex- 
ception," and bread in this case is a most 
noticeable exception. 

For many years of late It has been cheap, and 



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I here no heBitation in listing thai, wiubt so 
easily obUinable it has, generally speaking, 
nereor been surpaased in qnality. Cheap com, 
as a rule, not only imdjies cheap bread, but 
"sood bread." Frc»n 68 to 110 years since, 
when bread was at the famine prices mentioned, 
it was worse in quality, as a role, than on other 
end ordinary occasions. 

There cannot be any doubt that much of the 
com was then very unsound when sold in the 
market, and such as would now only be thov^h^ 
of as being eaten by oattle, &c. It requires 
good flour to make good bread, but respecting 
some of the com I have mentioned, it scarcely 
deserved a better name than " rubbish." It 
was quite an ordinary matter to find the inside 
of the loaves of a consistency much resembling 
the internal part o- a half-cooked batter pud- 
<?ing, soft and unset. 

Loaf for loaf, one of our excellent present- 
day quartern loaves (making a fair allowance 
for its extra quality) k at least double the value 
of many of those mad3 and sold at so great a 
cost a century sinoe in Nottingham. Going 
back to about 1840, I have frequently heaid 
this subject brpught forward in conversation 
when the hardships of the people were related 
which occurred during the French War. 

In my recollection there is one class of bread 

Ithe commonest), which I oft^i saw in the 
makers' shops as a youth sixtj years or rather 
more since, which has I think, been entirely 
superseded and "driven from the market 1^ 
our cheap and good wheat. In colour it was 
daik, but entirely different in shade and charac- 
ter to what is now termed "ground down" 
bread. I believe that rye flour entered lar^y 
into its composition. It might be a fairlr 
healthy sort of food, but, all considered, much 
inferior to whai is now obtainable. It is prob- 
able that many of my older readers will still 
remembefr this kind of bread being sold in 
Kottin^ham. 

When in Qemnany a few years back my 
curiositf was somewhat excited on seeing 
amongst the bread, a portion of this sort placed 
upon the table, when I once more tasted it. I 
heaid from someone in Oentnkl and Southeni 



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65 

Qennany during the last summer, aikl this kind 
was again remarked upon ds being^ with white 
bread, provided for meals It is still, I believe, 
in Germany the ordinaTy food of the working 
people. In that respect we are more than half a 
eentury in advance of tliem 

During the last fiftv y^-^Js I have frequently 
visited France, and observed that, generally 
speaking, the " quality " of their bread is similar 
to what we have in England. There is cer- 
tainly a difference in their methods of making 
it as compared with cut own. 

In 1803, July, the publicly advertised pre- 
mium for Militia insurance for St. Mary's 
Parish was 14s., paid at the parochial office. 
Thus, to prevent pauperism by the. removal of 
heads of families, the overseers were accustomed 
during the war to provide substitutes for those 
balloted parties who had previously assured 
against such a contdngency. The cost of a sub- 
stitute varied from £5 to £20 or £30, and the 
premium at assurance graduated proportion- 

llovember, 1804, the best wheat was 104s. 
per quarter. Bespeoting "The victory of Tra- 
falgar and deaAh of Nelson" (October 21st, 1805), 
there was neither an illumination nor any out- 
ward public rejoicing in Nottingham to com- 
memorate the event, but liberal subscriptions 
w^re made in most of the churches and chapels 
for the relief of the families of the killed and 
wounded- 

1811, February. " Such was the reduced state 
of trade and the high price of com that half- 
famished workmen belonging to nearly every 
branch of the local manufacture were con- 
strained to sweep the streets for a paltry sup- 
port. They were so employed bj^ the overseers 
of St Maiy's, the Worknouse being too full tu 
receive their families, and no other employment 
presenting itself." 

In August this year recruiting for the Army 
was specially active ; large boimties were given 
to lads even when only 5ft. high. The Dog 
and Drake, Ohandler's-lane ; the Volunteer, 
Meadow-plate ; the British Tar, Newoastle'^ 
street; and the Durham Ox, Pelham-stieet, 
were the principal places for Army recruiting 



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66 

purposes in the town. It wae during the year 
1811 that the Luddites first commenced Uieir 
excesses, and destroyed a number of stocking- 
frames, Ac At intervals these wanton a^ 
ridiculous proceedings oont^oed for six or eight 
years. 

Bespeciing Nottingham, we are told, a.d. 
1812, that " The year opened gloomily. A pro- 
tracted and ruinous war, with its usual aooom- 
panimeots of prostrated uommerce, proyisioins 
greatly enhanced in price (wheat selling at 
108s. per quarter) ; a depreciated currency and 
scarcity of employment produced suflfering, which 
the excesses of the Luddites served only to 
aggravate and increase 

** There was a general feeling of dejection in 
thu town ; and the nightly recurring outrages, 
the unintermittent fear of the frame-owners, 
the presence of numerous l>odies of troops, ready 
at a moment's notice to sally forth in pursuit 
of the enemy, and the night watching and garri- 
soning of houseti realised more than at any other 
period in the memory of the inhabitants a con- 
ception of the horrors of a state of siege.*' 

The "Nottingham Journal" of January lOUi 
says: — "Scarcely a night passes without some 
fresh outrage or robbery, and hordes of banditti 
infest the country to such a degree that neither 
persons nor propertr can be considered safe 
either by day or night." A piquet consisting 
of seventy-five of the Berkshire Militia, divided 
into separate parties, and attended by coo- 
stables, patrolled the streets of the town every 
night from the hour of five in the evening (in 
February, 1812) until five the next morning. 

To prevent the destruction of frames, Ac., 
the Mayor and Corporation appointed a 8e45rot 
committee, invested with discretionary power 
to expend any bum not exceeding two uiousand 
pounds, f(^ the purpose of obtaining such in- 
formation as might be useful in suppressing 
the disturbance and bringing the rioters to 
punishment. 

This committee offered rewards for secret in- 
telligence, and promised never to divulge the 
names of informants ; and for enabling them to 
conduct the inquiries with efficiency and secrecy 
they were absolved from all liability to render 



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67 

asiy aoooimt of tiheir expeDditure. 

On the 14th of November, aocording to re- 
quest, too. additioai of one troop was made to 
the military in the towzi, and all appeared 
quieter for a short time ; but on the 27tli there 
was a ohamge, " and the Lord-Lieutenant of the 
county signified his apprehensions that the same 
diapofiition was likely to extend to the counties 
of Leicester and Derby." From the 14th of 
Norember to the 19th of December between 800 
and 900 cavalry and 1,000 infantry were ordered 
into Nottingham, a greater force than Lad ever 
been necessary in ariy part of our history to le 
employed in the quelling of a local disturbance. 

A law was sanctioned by Parliament by 
whioh those breaking any machines or frames 
were, <m conviction, liable to the punishment of 
death ; and it was in connection with this 
matter that Lord Byron's maiden speech was 
addressed to the House of Lords, on the 27th 
of February, 1812. The Act rendering frame- 
breaking a capital offence continued m force 
until the 1st of March, 1814. 

On March 1st, 1812, a number of men were 
in custody oharg^ with the breaking of machines 
or frames, and there could have b^n observed 
the very unusual sight of the military attending 
divine service with fixed bayonets. An appre- 
hended attack upon the County Gaol to liberate 
a number of frame-breakers therein confiiied 
was the cause of the extraordinary precaution. 
This wa6 doubtless on Sunday, asid at St. 
Mary's Ohurdh, it being near to the County 
Hall. 

On March 25th, 1812, we are told that the 
price of fine wheat was 142s. per quarter, or 
exceeding four fcimes what it is at present (1903), 
or has generally been of late years. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM. 

ITS STREETS. PEOPLE. &c. 



XL 

On May 11th, 1812, Mr. Perceval, the 
Prime Minister, was assassinated in the lobby 
of the House of Oommons by Bellin^ham. 
"The Journal " informs us that — "As soon as 
the truth of the report respecting the murder 
of Mr. Perceval had been ascertained a few 
deluded men and ignorant boys, who had been 
taught that the deceased statesman was the 
prime caufe of commercial distress and suffering 
amongst the people, assembled in Fisher-gate, 
and proceeded with a band of music through all 
the principal streets. Tliey were quickly joined 
by a numerous rabble, who in the most in- 
decent and reprehensible manner testified their 
joy at the horrid catastrophe by repeated shouts, 
the firing of guns, and enrei^ species of exulta- 
tion. It was not until the militaiy were called 
out and the Riot Act was read that the dis- 
^aceful scene was put an end to." August 21st, 
1812. — The market price for good wheat was 
155s. per quarter. 

September 11th. — A riot engendered by 
the prevailing famine commenced in the 
morning of this day. The immediate 
cause arose from a baker asking twopence a 
stone more for flour than he had received the 
preceding week, notwithstanding tJiat wheat 
had descended in price on the intervening Satur- 
day. The disturbance began by several women 
in Tumcalf-alley (now Sussex-street) sticking a 
halfpenny loaf on the top of a long rod after 
having streaked it wi h red ochre, and tied 
around it a shred of black crape, emblematical 
it was said of " bleeding famine, decked in sack- 
cloth." By the exhibition of this and the aid 
of three hand-bells, two carried by women and 
one by a boy, a considerable crowd of people, 
chieflv women and children, soon congregated 
together. They were joined for a short time by 
a number of the West Kent Militia in their 
undress, who had been irritated in consequence 



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of their "tommies" (or loaves) being short of 
weight. The promiscu ms assemblage, wrought 
up to a high pitch d fury, first proceeded to 
the bouse of the offending baker, and com- 
pletely demolished his windows, and exacted a 
promise that he w<>uk[ at onoe reduce the price 
of flour sixpence per stone. Mobs directly set 
to work in every part of the town. Almost 
every baker experienced similar illtreatment 
unless he at once complied with the demands 
of the mob. 

In September the harvest proved favour- 
able, and wheat fril greatly in price. At 
Newark as much as 63s. a quarter in a fortnight. 
August 26, 1813. — The price and assize of bread 
set by the Mayor for the ensuing week directed 
that the peck loaf (wheaten) was to weigh 
171b8. 6oz., and to be sold for Ss. 3d. July, 
1815. — A public subscription amounting to 
£1,200 was raifed in the town and neighbour- 
hood for the relief of the families of the killed 
and wounded (of the British) who fought at 
Waterloo on the 18th June. There had b«en no 
public celebration in Nottingham of this, the 
most memorable of British victories, excepting 
the simple circumstance of the Oambridge Regi- 
ment of Militia, which then happened to be 
quartered in the town, disohargini;^ voUeya from 
tiieir muskets in the Market-place. 

"Ned Lodd" had of late not been 
very active, but on Juaie 9tti, 1816— 
"About 1.0 a.m. a party of men, dis- 
guised and armed with various sorts of 
weapons, broke into the house of Mr. 
William Wright, of New Radford, and seven 
of them rushed upstairs into the workshops. 
Twelve valuable point-not frames, the object of 
their visit, were then utterly demolished. Mr. 
Wright was away from home, but one of the 
inmates, supposing? she knew two of the men, 
gave such information as led to their appre- 
hension. The trial of these men, Thomas 
Glover and John Chettle, before Mr. Justice 
Graham, on Saturday, the 3rd of the following 
August, was one of the most memorable in our 
local annals. It commenced in the afteomoon, 
and did not terminate imtil about two o'clock 
on Sunday morning. The men were charged 



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. 70 

with felonioualj entering Mr. Wridit^s dwell- 
ing-house and breaking therein twelye frames. 
Mr. Denman was the only counsel for the 
accused, and added to his rapidly-rising reputa^ 
tion by the way in which he oonduotod and 
established the ''alibi" set up, unqueationablj 
one of the most p^eot erer submitted to a 
Court of Justice. Fortunat^y for the 
preservation of the public peace the result 
of the trial was the acquittal of both prisoners- 
Had it been otherwise the most fearful oonse- 
quences would doubtless have enaned, as the 
body of the hall waa for hours in possession of 
a number oi determined men, who would njot 
suffer a light to appear in Court, excepting on 
the bench and the counsel table. It is also 
notorious that a number of confederates with 
loaded pistols were in the outer hall, and that 
the constables and javelinmen were ouite unable 
to maintain oider. The verdict of " iJot guilty " 
was received with a tremendo'js and continued 
shout of exultation, notwithstanding the 
attempts of the Jud^ and oflScers of the Court 
to suppress it. It is understood that had the 
verdict been adverse both Judge and jury would 
have been assassinated, and so serious was the 
alarm afi^wards produced that it was oomtem- 
olated to make Newark the Assize town instead 
of Nottingham. Chettle died at New Radford 
in July, 1838, aged 64 years ; and Glover at his 
house on Mansfield-road in Jamiary, 1830, aged, 
64 yearn. 

1816. December 10.— Owin^ to tjhe deamees 
of food, good wheat realising 1408. per quarter, 
there was much suffering and a great deficiency 
of employment. A public meeting was held in 
the Town Hall and a subsoriptian resolved upon. 
The amount realised was £4,184. A London 
association gave " twenty tons of red herrings,'* 
Lord Middleton gave three hundred tons of coal, 
and the parish of St. Nicholas expended £500 
in a separate soup establishment. The poor 
rates were also excessively heavr. 1817. — A 
public meeting was held on February 24 in 
opposition to the precipitancy with which 
Ministers were passing the Habeas Corpus Sus- 
pension Bill through Parliament At the 
Assizes held in Nottingham in March, 1818, the 



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71 

following were sentenced to be hung, namely — 
a woman for uttering a counterfeit shilling ; a 
man for stealing a horse ; a youth aged 16 for 
stealing a scarf ; two youths 18 and 19 years old 
for breaking into a house ; two men for stealing 
a sheep ; a nuui for breaking into a houee ; 
another man for burglatry ; two young 
men aged 21 and 22 years for burglary 
at Burton Joyce. The two last were hi^ig, 
but the first nine were reprieved and punish^ 
in another form. At that date and for centuries 
before, but especially for about 15 to 20 years 
afterwards, the Government were morally 
almost as culpable as the cul^Nrits for allowing 
such vindictive laws to disgrace the Statute 
Book. 

August, 1819. — Bridlesmith-gate underwent 
a great improvement. The footpaths weore 
formed of flagstones (which replaced boiilders), 
the horseroad was newly paved, and by the 
voluntary consent of the tradesmen and owners 
of property the whole c>f the numerous pro- 
jecting signs, doorsteps &c., were removed. 
These alterations with the newly-introduoed 
gaslights ffave the street quite a new appear- 
ance. It Being the most fashionable ana beet 
business street in the town an effort was made to 
change its name to Bond-stieet (the name of 
what was then one of the most fashionable 
streets in London), but the attempt wae un- 
successful. 

This proposed alteration of title was just at 
the period (mentioned in a previous article) 
when it was endeavoured to cn&nge the name 
of Narrow-marsh to Red Lion-street, which by 
good fortune also failed, though there is still 
little, if ajiy, evidence of the speculation being 
official in either case. March, 1821. — At the 
Town and County Assizes no less than thirty- 
two persons were sentenced to be hung. The 
whole of them were subsequently reprieved. 
Many of the laws at this -'^mt were infamously 
unjust, and cruel in the extreme, which to a 
crreat extent appears *c* have been acknowledged 
by the Government, for they certainly seem to 
have been ashamed of them from their action in 
reprieving the whole of the condemned. The 
Becords, 1695-6 givee rs some curious and Inte- 



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72 

reeting partifcuUrs reBpectin^ the town. In 
1695 a Bill was before Paruament for the im- 
provement of the navigation of the River Der- 
went; a committee of the Corporation being ap- 
pointed to draw up reasons against it, and sub- 
aoriptions were raised to defrav the ^pensee of 
the pppofiition. By way ol snowing their ear- 
nestness in the matter tlic Corporation agreed 
to add as much out of their funds as should be 
raised by the town. It was the Derby people 
espeoialbr who desired this change, which would 
enAble wem to get goods from Hull and GbLns- 
borough by veeiels ooming up tihe Trent, and 
to a Qfreat degree render it unnecesaary to come 
to Not&igham and purchase them. We are 
told that the subsoriptians weane abouit one hun- 
dred and twenty pounds, though its equivailem/t 
in money at the present time would probably be 
five hundred pounds. But there is also another 
very important point to remember, which is 
that Nottingham in 1695 wa« probably not much 
more than one- twenty-fifth its preeent size. In 
previous articles some account has been given 
resDecting the arbitrary proceedings of the old 
Corporation towards varioiLS persons who would 
have introduced work, and in some instances 
new trades, into the town, but were prevented 
because they were not burgesses. It may be 
hoped that thiey ultimately saw the error of 
their way, for in the Reocids, Vol. V., p. 375, 
1691, we are told that at a meeting of the 
Council it was " ordered that Maister Alderman 
Hawkins treat with the Governor of Qie King 
and Queen's Corporacion for the linen manu- 
facture at Salisbury Exchange for agreeing with 
him upon terms for setting up the said manu- 
facture in this town aoeording to the proposalls 
received in print." 

Amon^t the presentments or dharges 
at the Sessions, July 20th, 1620, is the 
following: — "I, Thomas Garratt, of Not- 
tingham, joyner, doe here in open Sessions pre- 
sent Dorothy Newton, of the same, widowe, 
for a common scold, sower ofif striflPe, and debate 
amongst neighbours, a seducer of others, and a 
sclaunderous person, and that she is neither of 
good name, fame, or conversaoion ; to all which 
article© I wilbee deposed before your Wor- 



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73 

ahippB : ijberefore I humbly orave the good 
henaEdouor against her. (Ordered to be) 
* Ducked.*" 

On tfve 2l8t of July^ 1515, a present- 
ment was made at the Seasionfi of an attempt to 
murder the Mayor, and "The jurors say upon 
their oath that whereas of late, to wit, on the 
eighth lay of June, in the eighth year of the 
reign of King Henry tha EighOi, certain vener- 
able man, to wit, the Abbot of Dale, the Prior 
of Lenton, and Thomas Mellers, Mayor of the 
town of Nottingham, as well as divers other 
honeet men, were assembled in friendly manner, 
and ioyfully conversing and drinking wine in 
the house ol one John Williamson, one of the 
aldermen of the town aforesaid, in the county 
of Nottingham ; the aforesaid Abbot and Prior, 
with otheirs sitting at the injierside of the table 
d>ere, and the aforesaid Mayor and other trust- 
worthy men, sitting at tht outerside of the said 
table ; one Henry Steeper of Nottingham in 
the county of Nottingham, mercer, with force 
and arms, to wit, witJi a dagger ; the day, place, 
and year aforesaid, suddenlv entering the afore- 
said house with a dagger of his, secretly drawn, 
and hidden in his sleeve, intending to kill and 
minrder the said Mayor, stood for a little while 
ait the back of the said Mayor, and suddenly 
struck him with the aforesaid dagger over the 
left shoulder of the said Mayor, in his left arm, 
amd in his left side ; and gave him two wounds ; 
and so soon as the said Henry had so done ; he 
suddenly went out of the house aforesaid ; 
running with speed to the Church of Saint 
Peter ; anil tlien sought the privilege of the 
Ohurch (sanctuary) asserting that he nad there 
openly slain the Mayor ; to the pernicious 
examole of evildoers, uia^ condign punish- 
ment follows." The bill is endorsed "We of 
the West Parte of the town fyn this by lie a 
jrud and trewe bylle and present." This is very 
i;nteresting as giving us an idea of the life and 
doings of some of the chief inhabitants of the 
town and neighbourhood in pre-Keformation 
tones. 

It will be noticed that Henry Steeper is 
said to have been a mercer ; this would also 
seem to imply that he was at lea49t in mode- 



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74 

nM^ oomfbrtalble oironmstanoes. In the 
BecmU, Vol. HI., p. 123, a.d. 1512-13, h« is 
mentiosied wiUi Jamee Reeve ae bein^ a surety 
for JoAxn Bowl, a pewterer who had been enrolled 
as a bur^s. On pages 163-179, a.d. 1523-24, 
we find ms name ofi a subsidy roll when all in 
the town at the time, and liable to pay, appear 
to have their names reccMrded. and it is rather 
singular that he is entered as living in the same 
thotoug^are as the Mayor, Thomas Mellers, 
namely. Low-pavement. It seems probable 
tiiat the Mayor had a favourable recovery from 
his wounds, but I have not seen any account of 
Steeps being punished for his misdeed, though 
it may have occurred. 

The lowest amount at which anyone was 
assessed to the subsidy was, I believe, fourpence, 
and many menservants appear to have paid that 
sum. for which the modem equivalent would, 
I consider, be from foiir to five shillings, 
l^omas Mellers paid £3, or representing about 
£35 or £40 of our preseait money. Henry 
Steeper was assessed at Is. 6d., eqiuvalent to 
about ISs. or 2l8. at the presejit time. Robert 
Mellers (probably a relation) paid 50s. He was 
livin? in Gretsmyth-gate (now Pelham-street). 
In the prejeptments to the Sessions, Vol. III., 
p. 345, A.u. 1516, is the following: — "We pre- 
sent Herry Steper for takyng a Uverey cote of 
the Priour of Lenton." This was contrary to 
law as regaorded a butges.) c^ Nottingham, and 
an offence against the Statutes of Liveries and 
Maintenance.. Another item says: — "We pre- 
sent the Priour of Lentcm for meynteneng of 
Herry Steper in weyrying of his livery, contrary 
to the Statute." This bill was found true by 
the iury from the Western side. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM 

ITS STREETS, PEOPLE ftc 



xn. 

xn this article I propoee to bring under 
ji>n6ideration an open spaoe or piece of ground, 
with its surrounding, outlets, &c., on the 
Bouthern side of the city, also the v-arious 
changes in its name, &c., which in olden times 
WM associated with one of the three main roads 
of the town. I am refening to what is now 
entitled "Plumptre-square." This is a case in 
which our ancestors almcft appear to have 
specially endeavoured to vary the mode of spell- 
ing which we shoidd term "Bridge End." In 
Vol. L, I first find it mentioned in 1362, April 
9th, when an enrolment of land occurred, which 
is nearly five hundred and fifty years since. 

On various occasions in the course of cen- 
turies that opeoi spa< e is entitled Brighetnd, 
Brigend, Bregeend, Bryg Ind, Brygende, Brydg- 
ande, Bridgend, and also spelled in other ways. 
Applying the name in our modem form, I may 
say that in the Borough Becords this part of 
the town is probably in all cases termed 
" Bridge End," or its old equivalent, and Deerimg 
generally so terms i^ though upon his map 
" Bridge-foot is entered as iU title. 

That style is also used in another case or 
two which I have seen^ bul one of them de- 
serves special miention, for it is in that rare 
book, "Compiled and arranged by E. Wil- 
loughby. Printed for the Author, C. Sutton, 
and sold at his shoo • . . and by Mr. 
Willoughby, Oastle-gate, Nottingham, 1799" 
On one occasion at least, even at that date, he 
calls the place "Bridge-foot," thoiwh on many 
other occasions in the Directory h^ terms it 
Bridge-end. 

This I believe to be the first known Directory 
of Nottingham, and e? occupying a somewhat 
midway position between the present time and 
the seventeenth century ; it gives us much in- 
teresting information, and excellent ideas of the 
past as regards place names, Ac- (of which 
many old ones then remained), together with 



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76 

the part of the town where a nnmber of those 
persons lived of whom ^ome of us had frequently 
read. Amon^t suoh as are mentioned, I can 
remember in my young days seeing a few names 
still left in the town or those who in 1799 had 
been in business foi different periods up tu 
twttnij years. 

On two occasions — on:i; in Vol. II. of the 
Kecords, and once ^n Deering when Plumptre 
Hospital is mentioned — it is stated to be "at 
the End of the Bridges of Nottingham." In 
my seventh article, pp. 34-35, I prive a brief 
account of the Leen Bridge, but which was also 
known as " The Town Bridge " and " The Bridge 
of Nottingham," although as a fact and by law 
the county had to keep full seven-eights of it 
in repair. 

It is probable that many of my readers, until 
it is explained, will scarcely realise the great 
size ana importance yf this bridge in olden 
times, which by name is associated with so 
small a river as the T.een. Oertflinly as a 
stream, though of in*erior size, it was the 
largest that ordinarily ran under the bridge, 
biH as a fact the bridge was in reality more 
necessary, with its numerous arches, for the 
downflow of the flood waters in rainy seasons, 
and to allow of persons coming into and going 
out of the town uninterruptedly than it was for 
the Durpose of spanning the Leen. 

I propose by wav of explanation to give some 
extracts from the Records, Vol. II., pp. 223- 
241, January 8th, 1457-8, being an " Exemplifi- 
cation of an Inquiry regarding the Repairing of 
the Leen Bridge." This was in the thirty-third 
year of Henry VI., and he appointed nine jus- 
tice© to inquire into and report respecting the 
dilapidation of the Leen Bridge. 

His letters patent commence as follows : — 
"Henry by the Grace of God, Ac, &c., to 
Ralph Oromwell, Blnight, William Babingt'On, 
Knight, Richard Bingham, John Portington. 
Thomas Ohaworth, Knight, William Babington, 
Esquire (query, the Recorder), John Plumptre, 
Mayor (1464-1455) of the town of Nottingham : 
Richard Samon (Mayor, 1451-1452), Thoma*s 
Babington, and Richard HHnQrworlb greeting. 
Know y<e, that 86 we are fully informed the 



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77 

ffreat bridge oirer Uie water of Leen in the 
Oounty of Nottingham, between our town of 
NottlDgham, and the brixlges called 'Heyegh- 
beythbmgge' (now the Trent Bridge), in the 
County aforesaid — ^whereby frequent and com- 
mon passage was daily had for men on horsc- 
badk, and on foot, and for bea«ts, carts, car- 
riages, as well afi for all other things necessary 
to be carried, both to the town, and out of tJie 
name — is so destroyed and broken, by the strong 
and unwonted rising of flood waters, now lately 
falling, that such passage is wholly impeded, 
and delayed, whereby grievous disadvantage, and 
irreparable damage to our people is caused, and 
hsd ; and that the aforesaid bridge ought always 
to be repaired, mended, and suaitained, when 
any necessity or dangei threaten ; by the in- 
habitants of the Wapentakes (or Hundreds) of 
the County aforesaid, and so from time to time, 
whereof memory of tVo contrary does not exist, 
has been wont to fce repaired, mended, and sus- 
tained : " &c, Ac. 

Any of the above-named persons, from nine 
in number down to two, might meet to make 
inauiry upon oath (provided that Wniiam 
BaDiogton, Knight, or Bichard Bingham, or 
John Portington he one), " of upright and law- 
ful men, na well of the town, as of the county 
aforesaid, by whom the truth of the Matter may 
be the better known, by whom the bridge afore- 
raid ought to be repaired, mended, and sua- 
tained, and to compel, and cause to be com 
polled, all those and sin^ar, that you may 
find are bound to such reparation, ... to 
repair and mend chat bridge, with such speed 
as can conveniently be made, and to compel, 
and cause them to be compelled by distraints 
if need be ; and by other due and proper ways 
,->nd moans of old time to use ; . accord- 

ing to the law and custom of our realm of 
Encrland." 

We are then further told : — " It is found by 
f.n inquest before the .said Richard Bingham, 
John Plumptre, &c., &c, now here taiken as 
weU by thp oath (of many persons from the 
different towns and villages) upright and lawful 
men, of the Wapentakes of Bassetlaw, Thur- 
garton and Lythe, Newark, Bingham, Broxtow 



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78 

and Ruaholiff in the Ooiinty of Kottingbftm 
(also men from and at Nottingham), that the 
men of . . . Nottingham ought to repair, 
and have time out of mind repaired . . . 
the Northern head of the fpeal bridge aforeeaid 
and the two arches of ihe same nearest to the 
Northern head, whicn two arches and the 
Northern head contain in len^h 464 feet, and 
also to repair and sustain hmf of the pier at 
ihe Southern end, and that the head and two 
arches aforesaid are defective, in default of the 
men of the town aforesaid, &c" 

The men of Broztowe, as had of old been the 
ca«e, were ordered to repair and sustain the 
next three arches, which contained in length 
SLi feet, and half the northern and southern 
piers. The men of the Wapentake of Thur- 
garton and Ljthe were, as of old, to repair and 
sustain the next five arches, whidi contained in 
length 135^ feet, and to repair and sustain half 
of the piers at the northern and southern end 
of the nve archee. The men of the Wapentake 
of Bassetlaw were, as of old, ordered to repair 
and sustain the next five arches of the great 
bridge, which contained in length so muoh space 
as we six arches were wont of old time to 
contain— to wit, 169^ feet The men of Bas- 
setlaw also had to rei^air half of the piers at the 
northern and southern end of their quota. 

The men of the Wapentake of Newark were, 
aa of old, ordered to repair and sustain the next 
three arches of the gieat bridge, which three 
arches contain in length 69 feet, and alao to 
repair and sustain half of the northern and half 
of the southern piers (oanying the arches). The 
men of the Wapentake of Bingham were, as of 
old, ordered to repair and sustain a part and 
parcel of the gi'eat brid^ aforeeaid, adjoining 
on the southern side the three arches that the 
men of the Wapentake of Newaxk ought to re- 
pair, as aforesaid, which part or parcel con- 
tained in length 105 feet, andjilso to repair and 
sustain half oi the northern pier and half of the 
southern pier adjoining the ends of their (joota. 

It i^ipears that there were no arches in the 
portion of the Wapentake of Bingham. Tlie men 
of the Wapentake of Bushcliffe, as of old, were 
ordered to repair and sustain two other aiohes 



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70 

and iihe southegm head of the aforesaid zreat 
bridge, which two arohee and the southern head 
contain in length 57 feet. They were also 
called upon to repair, in conjunction with the 
men of Bingham Wapentake, half of the pier 
at the nofrthem end of their quota. 

In all cases the various portions of the great 
bridge appear at the date mentioned (1458) to 
have been in a bad state of repair, and orders 
were given for the work to be carried out and 
v*ompleted by a date mentioned — namely, Tues- 
day in Whitsun Week. The town and each of 
the six Wapentakes seem to have been fined 
6s. 8d. for having allowed the bridge to become 
BO delapidated. 

The portion of the great bridge at its northern 
end for which Nottingham was responsible ap- 
pears to have been "well and sufficiently" re- 
paired within the time ordered or allowed, but 
SB regards the various Wapentakes, it appears 
as though threats of unpleasant proceedings 
had to be made before the whole of the work 
was fully completed. 

The total of the measurementa "given" re- 
specting the length of this great bridge amount 
to 664 feet, but this does not include the six 
piers, for each of which two parties were re- 
sponsible for repairs, &c It is probable that 
these would each be from eight to ten feet thick, 
but allowing 50 feet to represent the six, the 
full length of the old and noted Leen Bridge 
will be found to have been 714 feet, and that in 
1458 it had twenty arches, and at some earlier 
date possibly an addition of another or two (sec 
Bingham) to the one acknowledged respecting 
the Wapentake of BaesetkCw, in which portion 
at one time were six arches. 

From these explanations the magnititde of 
this old bridge may be comprehended, and that 
the desi^ation " Great " was not out of charac- 
ter considering its size ; nor can there be any 
surpdae that our forefathers ahotild entitle the 
open space into which the bridge opened out at 
its nor«iem extremity " Bridge-end '^ or " Bridge- 
foot." For three centuries or more after the 
date of the commission of inquiry it is probable 
that there was no outlet from the bridge, either 
east or west, nor any streets or houses near it 



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80 

esEcopt at iU arfareme Dortiheni part, and pfo- 
portioBfttely but ferw evea thei^ compared with 
modem times- 

I now propose to make some remadu respeciu 
isg the names given at different times to old 
"Bridge-end," or, as now called, "Plumptxe- 
sqiisre/' The changes or those attempted ap- 
pear to have all oocurred duriai^ the last nundred 
S»r8. In 1799, acootding to WiUoughby's 
irectory-— except possibly m a solitary in- 
stance, when it was termed " Bridge-foot *' — 
after searching, I cannot find any name applied 
to it except Bridge-end," and it is very prob- 
able that it had been the title for about 500 
years, when it was disused. 

Though this was the oaee in 1799, tliere is 
eridence that seven years afterwards (in 1806) 
it was weU known as " Red Lion-square," which 
appears to have probably been tlie accepted 
title for about serenteen years aftej* with most 
of the residents of thai); part. I have not seen 
or heard of anything from which I oould obtain 
some idea why the altemtion was desired by 
a^nyone, but, judging from inference, there ap- 
pears much probability that the attempted 
change was not made by the Oorporatian.. 

There were elections for members of Paarlia- 
ment in the years 1806, 1812, 1818, and 1820, 
and on each of the four oooaeioais all those re- 
cording their votes in answer to the question 
in the poll-booths appear to have meotiivned 
"Red Lion-square" as being the place where 
they resided. Those voting for that part 
varied generally from six to eight in number, 
and sometimes those occupying uie shops at the 
boUom oomers of Hollow-stone mentioned their 
residences as being in Hollow-stone, and at 
other times as in the Square. 

In 1825 tihere was a severe and excdting 
contest for several days during the election of 
two members of the Senior Ooimcil of the 
town, when persons were brought from distant 
parts of the country to vote. It appears from 
this drcumstaaioe and others that tne contest 
was a town affair, and fiot merely for a ward ; 
it oootnred in the time of the unreformed muni- 
cipalities. Persoois are entered when votang 
as residing at Southw^ik, Warwick, Leicester, 



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Afihby-de-la-Zauoh, LonghborotuHh (14 in a row), 
Qmniborough, Newark, Mansneld, Ac. By 
tjtis time a greait ohaogpe had taken place fa. 
speotina bhe name of *^ Red Lion-sqiuure/' for in 
tne poU-bootli only one person appears to have 
mentioned that title when aeked about his reei- 
demee, but sevem said that they lived in ** Plump- 
tre-square." 

• In the following yeaor (1826) theore was another 
Parliameoitarjy content, and again there was 
ojtily one person when voting who said that he 
lived in ** Ked Lion-square/' though another re- 
vived an old name used ocoasionaUy b^ Deetring, 
and onoe by Willoughby in his Directory as 
before mentioned, and gave '* Bridge-loot as 
the place where he lived; the remainder said 
they resided in Plumptre-square. 

• In the large official map of the town by the 
borough surveyor issued in 1829, it is called 
Pliimptre-square. In White's Directory of the 
town (1832), and also in Dearden's (18^4), it is 
entitled Plumptre-square ; and it has just been 
shown that there was good oause for so naming 
it, as it was aooepted and used almost exclu- 
sively by those refiidemt in the square when 
voting. This apptrozim^tely is nearly eighty 
years since. At the Parliamentary election, 
1852, the name used by voters appears to be 
"Plumptr^square" exoluadrely, for when look- 
ing thimigh the Poll Bode of that date I did 
not observe a sin^e instance in which **Red 
Lion-square'' was mjenitioned. On examining 

'The Register of persons entitled to vote at 
any election of a Member or Members to serve 
in Paris ament. Which shall take place in and for 
the Borough of Nottingham, between the 30th 
day of November, 1843, and the 1st day of 
December, 1844," I failed to notice any entry 
or mention whatever of a voter as residing in 
Red Lion-square. 

Stevenson, Bailey, and Smith, in their map of 
the town, dated 1877, also call it "Plumptre^ 
square." Yet, strange to say, the editor of the 
Boiough Records, in Vol. IV., p. 434, dated 
1889, or twelve years later, when mentioning 
"Bridge-end," gives "Red Lion-square" as its 
modem equivalent, 'Tlumptre-squaire" being en- 
tirely ignor^. 



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In Vol. IL, p. 436 (ptMubed 1883). we ttn 
told Uiat Bridge-end (Fims Pontis) is '^The end 
of the Leen Bridge ' in Fiaherjiate/ now known 
ae *Bed Idon-s^uare.' " In "\^L I., p. 429, in 
reference to Bndge-end, we are told tJiai it is 
"The end of the *Leen Bridge' in *Nmtow- 
marsh,' now covered by St. Patrick's (R.C.) 
Ohurch." l^ie nortiiem termination of the old 
*• Nottingham Bridge," or "Leen Bridge," ran 
into the open space called Brid^;e-end/mit not 
into Nanow-manh or Fiaher-gate, for they each 
finished also (one at the norhh-east and the 
other at the south-west) in the open space called 
Bridge-end in olden times, but wiiich, as I have 
shown, for nearly eighty years has been officially 
and generally known by Uie name of " Plump- 
tre-square." 

In Willoughby*8 Direotoiy, p. 63, we are in* 
formed that ^'The HoepitalB are mentioned in 
this Directory according to the seniority of their 
foundations.'' As those in the square were the 
first instituted in Kottinffham, he commences \ 
by saying "Plumptre's Hospital. Bridge-foot" 
(called " Bridge-end " in the birectory in nearly 
erery other instance). 

I am leluctantly compelled to differ with 
TariouB conclusions of lihe two editors of th« 
Borough Beonrds, and consider that I have 
prored some aesertions reepectlng "Bed Lion« 
square," otherwise Plumptre-square, to be quite 
incoTxect, though in sudh cases I am persuaded 
that my age, whvdh allows me to distmctlT re- 
member many thinjs oocnirrinic full two-tliirds 
of a century since (whidi to them are mere 
matters of history), gives me a decdded advan- 
tage, for, comparatively aipeAing, they ai« yet 
young men. 

I also, as before mentioned, poesees much 
excellent "material" of various kinds which is 
most useful to the subject under conei deration. 
In what I may say I w'sh to ignore any appear- 
ance of censoriousnees. though much hoping I 
may be able to assist in the furtherance of his- 
toric accuracy. In the next article (No. 44) I 
expect to continue my remarks in relation to 
" Piumptre-square," together with the various 
thoroughfares, &c., abutting upon or near to it^ 
The Borough BeoordB being an official work, it 



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88 

is the duty of all, when possible, to make tbem 
cemplete and correct. 



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OLD NOT riNGHAM. 

ITSSTEEBTS, PEOPLE, 4c 



xin. 

I propose to oommence ihie astidle by 
taking into consideration more especially, various 
matters relating to the norU^m part of the 
chief southern outlet to the old town ; or as it 
was piroctically, evem in the rememhanunce of 
many of my fellow-citizeois, the only outlet ap- 
plicable for all purposes in that direction. I 
am referriu<;r to what 1 believe is now termed 
London-road. I have the recollection of more 
than one name being applied to it. 

From Plumptre-square to the southern end of 
the Trent Bridge, af it has been entitled in 
modem times, tiie distance is probably about a 
Tpile. Except incidentally, 1 wish to confine 
my remarks to the part near or streets running 
into Bridge End, or Bridge Foot, or, as now and 
for nearly eighty years generally known and 
ofl&cially termed^ Plumptre-square. 

Respecting the old Leen Bridge and its lengtJi, 
I believe it to have been 714 feet. In my 
seventh article, p. 34, when referring to it, I 
say that it mui»t have been full 650 feet long, 
but renewed opportunities of oonsidering the 
matter have convinced me that it was nearly 
70 feet longer, and that it would approximately 
reach from "Bridge End," or Plumptre-square, 
to Island-street. 

On the same page I refer to the narrowness 
of the Old Trent Bridge, which many of us still 
remember, and by what may be gathered from 
various accounts of the "Great Leen Bridge," 
otherwise "The Bridge of Nottingham," I am 
compelled to believe that it was quite as con- 
stricted as the one crossing the Trent once wae, 
though it must not be forgotten that but little, 
if any, more than one hundred years since it 
is probable that there wafi not one thoroughfare 
in Nottingham which had a causeway in it. I 
have often regretted that such great conve- 
niences were not thought of a few centuries 
earlier, afi it would have compelled our ancestors 



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85 

in maaiy oasefl when forming stieets to kan^ 
made uiem double i^ widui that wae then 
ftrraiDged. 

I am glad to poesess some very laarge and 
excellent old en^^vio^ representuog the south 
and east of Nottmgham, in which fine views are 
given of the Great Leen Bridge, two of them 
exhibiting its eastern side, and the other ^ of 
extz«k size, chiefly souithwaids, but showing 
fifteen airohes on the southern joist of the bridge. 
In many respects the Greait Old Leen Bri&e 
appears to have been a oounterpart of the Old 
l^ent Bridge. The latter I believe to have 
been raised somewhat higher above the waiter 
or flood, but, judging by appearance, I consider 
that the Leen Bridge was rather narrower than 
wider, if there was any difference between the 
two. 

In the old engraving (dated 1743) a lumber- 
ing old kind of chaise with a coachman driving 
and footman standing? up behind is shown, 
together with three pairs of horses, and there 
does not appear to be much more room in width 
on the bridge, than vhat is desirable for the 
Iprge, ancient, and grotesque conveyance. At 
that time a number of good-siaed trees are ex- 
hibited as growing in the meadows, on each side 
of the Leen Bridge, but on one of the fine old 
engravings mentioned (vetcj rare), and dating 
bade to about 1685-90, it is shown that those 
entering into the town from the south more than 
two hundred years since, after crossing over the 
Trent and until reaching the first end of the 
Great Leen Bridge, came throi^h an avenue of 
trees ; for a row may be seen on each side of the 
road and also on one bank of the Biver Leen as 
it ran on each side of the bridge, and in two 
other instances in the Bast Croft, where there 
may perhaps have been a little running stream. 

There is another matter to which I must refer 
in o(»mection with the Great Leen Bridge, and 
when all the engravings mentioned difiFer with 
what we are told in the Borough Records. In 
the preyious article where reference is made to 
this bridge, after reciting the parts or shares to 
be sustained and kept in repair by Nottingham, 
and the Six Wapentakes or Hundreds forming 
the county, it is mentioned that thene doefs not 



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86 

appear (as none are recorded) to ha^e been any 
arches in the portiooi aUotted to Bingham (lOo 
feet). 

Ruaoliff, or EcuAuiliff, had the ahare of two 
arches next, but soutiiwafda, to Bingham, and it 
completed the bridge to the length announced ; 
but the share of Bingham was amplj long 
enough for four if not five arches, but it is made 
to appear that it had none in its portiofi to re- 
pair, and as there were two arches enumerated 
as being more southwards than the share of 
Bingham, which in this respeot was "blank," 
and as the old and excellent engravings show 
'* no blank," though fifte^i arches are exhilnted 
at the south end of the bridge in one case and 
fourteen in another, it may haye happened that 
additional arches had some time since 1458 been 
constructed in tiie part allotted to Bingham. 

The total of the arches mentioned is twenty, 
though as regards tae Leen it is very probable 
that two or three would have been ample for its 
water to run through at any time, but the re- 
mainder of the arches were dooWeee intended 
to be available for use in flood times when the 
l^rent overflowed its banks. 

In 1764-65 the old Leen Bridge was taken 
down, the county magistrates having met and 
accepted a tender for its demolition and re- 
erection, when it was expected to have three 
additional arches and also to be of S^^"^^ width, 
which was much needed- A Mr. Thompson, of 
Lichfield, is understood to have been the ocm- 
tractor. Whilst this important work was in 
hand advantage was taken of it to straighten the 
northem end of the bridge by bringing it more 
eastwardly and nearer tne centre of the open 
space, once called "Bridge Foot" or "Bridge 
End " (now styled Plumptre-square), and it was 
tJien flJ^ost opposite to the bottom end of 
HoUow-stone. 

The end of the bridse at one tim^ appears to 
have been near to the ea«t end of Kanow- 
marsh (one running southward and the other 
westwa^). Undoubtedly the present acrange- 
ment is a great improrement upon the old one, 
for in getting aoross the square an opportunity 
is given to gradually increase the height of the 
roadway, and so enable them to lessen the 



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m 

gradient ci HbUow-fltaie. 

Jodguig by old maps, Ac., relatiiig to the 
town. I am inclined to tlunk it nrobdl>]<e that 
at some not very distant date the lower part of 
HoUow-stone on its eastern side may have been 
tafeen lather nea-rer to Fisher-gate than was 
once the ease. Both Speede, in 1610, and Deer- 
ins, about 1748, on their maps show the western 
side at the north end of tne Leen Bridge as 
being almost exactly level with, and close to, 
the eastern end of Narrow-marsh, but thoroughly 
in the place we now term " Plumptre-square." 
Another old man, dated 1670, locattes the 
northern end of the bridge rather further east- 
ward than the end of Narrow-marsh. 

In 1795, February, there occurred the heaviest 
flood in and near Nottingham of which we have 
any record. It was caused by a rapid thaw after 
miikoh anow and a long frost. In some parts of 
Karrow-marsh the water was full three feet 
deep, and said to have .been 34 inches higher 
than any flood previously known. It exceeded 
our hi^iest in recent times — 1875— by ten 
inches, and the next hishest in 1852 by fourteen 
inches. I have heard those who remembered it 
and the damage dome in the town term it " The 
little Koah." Bven in the meadow pleits houses 
weire flooded in some parts, though, I think, this 
was scaroely possible to arise 'from the Trent 
overflowing. 

The teoraroh bridge on the London-road of 
thoee days, and between the Trent and Leen 
Bridjges, was muoh damaged and rendered un- 
serviceable by the great flood, and in 1796 Mr. 
John Bradshaw, of Old Sneinton, was the con- 
tractor to reconstruct the work on an improved 
plan. He was the ^grandfather of our well- 
jBDOwn and respected citizen, Mr. William Brad- 
ahaw, o( Tine Park. 

Whilst present with his workmen engaced in 
pulling down one of the airches, Mr. J. Bradshaw, 
with various other persons employed, were stand- 
ing on the two next arches, and when the first 
feu the two others immediately followed, pre- 
cipitating Mr. Bradshaw and his men with 
mat force into the waiter. By good fortune 
Mr. Bradshaw and some others escaped with 
bruiaes, Ac., but, most unhappily, three men 



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lost iheir lives. Two bodies were ' in a short 
time recorered, but the third wae not found 
until the next day. 

An Act of ParUament had been obtained, 
dated 19th May, 1796, entitled "An Act for 
raising, maintaining, and keeping in repair the 
road from the north end of the Old Trent Bridge 
to the west end of St Mair's Churchyard (Why 
to High-pavement ?) by the way of Hollow - 
stone, in the town of Nottingham ; and for 
erecting and maint^ning such, and so many 
flood bridgee (? arches) upon the said road as 
may be neoessary to carry off the flood water, 
and for widening and improving the entrance 
to the town." 

Blackner complains strongly of this Act, and 
says that there if a olause in it which compels 
the Corporation to oay £100 per year out of an 
estate which was given them for quite a dif- 
ferent purpose, towards keeping the flood road 
in repair. 

In my recollection there were, I believe, in 
1840, and no doubt a little later, only two hotises 
between the north end of the Trent Bridge, or 
close to it, and where the canal passes imder 
the rood. They were each on the weetem 
side, one being the Finders house, and the 
other for the use of the Toll-bar Keeper, which 
was not far from the end of Trent-lane or the 
bridge over the canal, but on the opposite side. 
From this time the thoroughfare became more 
or less known as "The Flood Road," and was 
frequently so-called. 

At the latter end of the eighteenth century, 
or in the early part of last century, both sides 
of the road from where the canal passes tinder 
it until Bridge End (now entitled Plumijtre- 
squore) was reached, buildings of various kinds 
to a lar^e extent occupied the frontage ; and 
this portion was called "Bridge-street." It 
was not known as such in Willou,^hby*s Direc- 
tory of 1799, but at an election in 1806 it is 
mentioned as a place of residence in the poll- 
book, therefore it must be about one hundred 
years since it was first so named- 

I find it so designated in the large old oflScial 
map (1827-1829), and the remainder of the road 
to the Trent Bridge is termed "London-road." 



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Before oooioltidiiig with thi« thoroughfare I de- 
sire hv way of prevemting any misunderetAWJaTig 
to refer to the tenth paragraph of Article 38, 
which mainly relates to Narrow-mairBh and 
maitters connected therewith, and where it is 
said that " nedrly the whole of the ground be- 
tween Sussex-street, or Turn calf -alley, and 
Bridge-street has been occupied by the tanners, 

In this oase, as in others mentioned, the 
ridiculous and blameworthy system was a^gain 
carried out of giving another street, within a 
short distance of Tumcalf-alley, what I think 
I may say is pracdoally the same name, and 
that is "New Bridge-street." Such an act is 
almost sure to cause confusion, for the original 
Bridge-street, or as afterwairds, I believe, <illed 
London-road, was the one I referred to ; but I 
do not doubt, in consequence of that title having 
been superseded for probably forty years or 
more, and with the great increase of population, 
there are proportionately but few left who will 
haye any knowledge of it, and the larger number 
will imagine "New Bridge-street," which is 
westward, to be the one under notice, whereas 
it is the Bridge-street which was once consider- 
ably further eastward- 

There are most undoubtedly appropriate 
names in abundanoe to choose from, when 
necessary, for all or any of our tihorou^hfaree, 
and no need whatever to haye two which, are 
even nearly alike. It certainly appears that 
scuh a proceeding deserves to be considered as 
wilfully and knowingly ordering or allowing 
what is absolutely certain in time to perplex 
and muddle. 

I now desire to refer to a subject entirely 
d'fferent. There is one most important estab- 
lishnient in the town which must not be over- 
looked, for in my remembrance it has developed 
to a degree which is almost bewildering. I 
am here referring to the Post Office and ita 
work, or the many changes in it, that I now 
\rish to direct attention. In WiUoughby's 
Directory of 1799, on p 60, in a list of "Offices 
(7) and streets where kept, Ac.," it says "Post 
Office, High-street, John Raynor * ; and in the 
Directory on p. 28 will be found " Raynor John^ 



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90 

'Seedsman' and Poetmaflter, Higfa-streei." 

He oould poeitivelj boa«t (rf haviii^ one 
"letter carrier/' whicdi oonsidering that the 
time was during " last century but one " without 
doubt makes a considerable difference. Under 
these ciroumstonoes it would be' a pity for his 
sole assiflftAnfs name to be overlocKief^, and 
therefore I fpre it as inserted on page 9, namely 
— "Crofts Thomas, Letter-oamer, Greyfriar- 
gate.'* As far as I can make out, I have now 
given the names of "all the officials" who at- 
tended to and carried on the work ol the Not- 
tingham Poet CXffice in the year 179Q. 

I have little doubt that at the present time 
as many letters (but pirobably considerably more) 
pass through the Nottingham Post Office in a 
week than was the case then in a year. It 
will be observed that the Postmaster was obliged 
to carry on a businesf of his own to eke out a 
living. 

I will now givf some account of the Notting- 
ham Post Office as i^ was seventy years since, 
and when I remember it, though young. This 
is about thirty-four years after tie date men- 
tioned first, but the office still remained in 
High-street, though I have good reasons for be- 
lieving that it had been removed to the oppoeite 
side, and into High-sfcreet-plaoe. Mr. Cfeoige 
Kepple White was Postmaster, but now there 
is Utile doubt that the allowance or remunera- 
tion from his post would be sufficient to provide 
him with what was necessary. 

By this period, proportionately, a considerable 
change had taken place in the staff, for he 
actually had four men to direct, namely : — Mr. 
W. G. Neilson, the office clerk (see White's 
Directory) , the letter cairiers G5) being John 
Simpson, Byafd-lane; William Brown, Ooalpit- 
lane; and Joseph Fletcher, Parliament-street 
I remember William Brown well, and if it wa« 
possible for me to see him now amongst a 
number of others I think I could pick him out. 

When he brought letters to where I then 
lived, afl nosie were prepaid in 1333, there was 
generally a most important question to be asked, 
namely, "How Much?" (that was to pay), and 
the answer varied generally, I believe, from 
sixpeiiee to m^tpmo^, though some letters 



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91 

cost tenpence when braugbt a looiger disUmce. 
Many if not all the letters had the amount 
marked upon ihem, and I could piobably jet 
find a few relics of that 80(rt. 

Possiblj there .mj^ht be some letters for 
which the charge was fourpenoe, but that would 
be for sueh as came from places near, and I 
believe there wa£ nothing less than that, even 
if so little. The Nottingham Post Office at 
that time was annotmced to close *'At 10 at 
night and open every morning at 7, from April 
to October, and at 8 during the rest of th4» 
year." 

There were stringent laws at that period 
a^inst unauthorised persons carrying or de- 
livering letters, and when in the country about 
66 yeairs since I remember as a youth receiving 
letters disguised as small parcels, with tuts of 
wood, &c., wrapped up witn them. These were 
then brought l^ villa^ carriers. This subject 
will probably be contmiBdd. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM. 

ITS STREETS, PEOPLE, &c. 



xrv. 

The thoroughfare to be noticed firet in 
this article will be Hollow-stone. In living 
memory, as regards building, it has in appear- 
ance scarcely differed from what it now is, 
except by the addition of a large waiehouae at 
iU north-west angle. It ^ppears to be first 
mentioned in Vol. I., p. 4o2r of the Borough 
Records in 1357, though I consider we baTe 
good cause for supposing that there are docu- 
ments belonging tc the Oorporation in which 
it is referred to at a still earlier date. The 
period mentioned is approximately 550 years 
since. 

As with many other of the old town streets or 
roads, our ancestors spelled its name in dif- 
ferent ways, as follows: — ^Hologate, Holough- 
stone, Holoweeton, Holow Ston, and Holow- 
8ti>n. Great changes have certainly tdken place 
in connection with this roadway in the oourBe 
ef time as regards its width and level, or 
gradient. Of this we may obtain some informa- 
tion from the Borough Beoords and other 
sources. There seems cause for doubting 
whether it was much more than a foot^way when 
going back three hundred and fifty to four hun- 
dred years. 

Its importance in olden times must propor- 
tionately have been very considerably less whilst 
it was possible to describe it in one case as 
being "Wear Malyn-hill." Prom what Deering 
tells us on p. 4, until 1740 the passage was so 
narrow that probably vehicles could not pass, 
for in reference to the Oorporation he speaks of 
"their design of making the Hollow-stone a 
more gradual descent, and enlarging the south 
entrance into the town so that two or more 
carriages may convenieatly pass each other, to 
which purpose men were set to work on Tues- 
day, 17th December, 1740, and this useful and 
pleasant way into the town wa6 completed in a 
few weeks-" 



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96 

The iprouiid or rock on the north is much* 
higher than the opposite side, und I have no 
doubt it was so in its natural state, and that' 
it fell towards the south. On the north the 
excavation is, I believe, of the greatest when at 
or near to the lowest part of the hill on that 
side. 

In the port I mention are two houses, the 
entnuioe to each of which is In » passage. The 
building is five stories in height, and of these 
the three bottom stories alone belong to the 
two houses in Hollow-stone, and at the back 
of them the cliff or ground must be nearly 
thirtv feet above the street, for the top stories 
are let off as two tenements, access to which is 
by Tree-yard in Plumptre-street. It is probabl v 
near this part, where the road has been sank 
the moet below the original level of the ground. 

Whilst the alterations w«re being made in 
1740 a house was pulled down which was in the 
way, and had been given to the town by the 
Duke of Kingston. We are told that it wa* 
" against, and upon the rock," and probably on 
the northern side of the road, as that, in oulk, 
was the most rocky side. I am decidedly of 
opinion that since 1680 to 1685 Hollow-^tone 
has been lowered or sunk from the level of 
Short-hill to what it is at the present date. 

I foirtunately possess a large and fine old 
engraving of that port of the town, dating back 
approximately to the period I have just named, 
and on it the whole width of the roadway from 
the rocky cliff on the northern side to the 
houses on the southern side on Short-hill is of 
the same height and level across, being also 
unobstructed by any fence to Short-hill as at 
present. 

This hill is mentioned in the Records in con- 
nection with a new well in March, 160l, and 
under these and other circumstances it would 
be interesting if it was possible to have Short- 
hill fully described, but m history we find very 
little respecting it. The only occasion where 
I have at present observed any reference to it 
in the Records is in 1662, when the CJouncil 
decided: — "That the present Chamberlyns 
shall pay unto some disoreet person, inhabitant 
upon the Short-hill, the some of forty shillings 



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towards the smoking of a draw well the>re.*' 

At the time stated (1685-90), jtu^ng by the 
large old emgnying, the diff on the northern 
side of Hollow-stone wae much leee in height 
than now, and the edge of it is botdeced by a 
number of trees. No buildings are shown upcn 
that side when going down the hill until witnin 
a short distance of Bellar-gate. 

In the Records, Vol. V., p. 152, connected 
with '' BeparaciooB " there is an item which is 
somewhat enigmatical. It says "for o«rriage of 
stoops and rabies to the Hollowston and Broad- 
lane, and laying them at the Howell (a small 
stream or sewer) in Lister-gate." Respeoting 
''stoops" the editor in a note says that they 
are **rail^," which is, I consider, incorrect, for 
that would make the wood ttken there to be 
all *' rayles " or rails, and if so without doubt 
they would all hare been called by that name, 
and not a part only. 

In Lloyd's Encyclopeedic Dictionary we are 
told that a "stoop" is (1) a "port;" fastened in 
the earth, a "stump"; (2) a pillar. I have 
constantly heard that old word used during mv 
time in and near Nottingham, and always with 
the idea of conveying the same meaning as the 
word "post." It was usually pronounced 
"stoope,'' stoupe," or "stope," and also 
" stulpe," with exactly the same purport, has 
now and then been used (see Vol. III., p. 502), 
but " stoli)e " I have rarely heard l 

Bespecting the oarria^ of " stoopes and rails 
to Hollowston," and laying them i.t the Bowell 
in Lister-gate, why were tiiey taken to Hollow- 
ston if they had to be "laid" elsewhere? There 
is a vagueness and uncertainty in the " item " 
which must be left for the editor of Vol. V. to 
explain. In connection with thoroughfares 
near to St. Mary's Ohurch I may probablv sug- 
gest a place for the " stoopes and rayles '^ in a 
future article, judging by the knowledge to be 
acquired from the before-mentioned old 
engraving. 

We are there shown that when it was pub- 
lished ^approximately 220 years since) that more 
small nouses were on Bhort-hill than large 
ones, and |;enerally of two storeys, but few now 
remain which were there at the date mentioned. 



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96 

Old St. Mary*8 Viottrage is shown, but the laige 
old family house to the west o( it, and the three 
old residences to the east, have since been 
erected, though now much transformed in being 
made suitable for lace warehouses. 

In my time the recently-used Vieajrace as such 
lias been rebuilt, in accordance with modem 
ideas. At present I do not know who in former 
years owned as their town house the one men- 
tioned to the west, though as regards the first 
three to the east I have a knowledge of the 
old names of people once occupying mem, but 
not of the particular house or houses they lived 
in, though possibly it might be acquired 
without much difficulty, as the title deeds would 
explain that fully. 

In my Twenfcv-Third Article I extract from 
an old book of account the fact that Mrs. 
Gregory paid two shillings and sixpence per year 
to w Corporation as an acknowledgement for 
permission to use a road under Short-hill to 
get into her house there. This was in the year 
1773. On January 17th, 1781, Mrs. Susannah 
Gregory, one of an old and noted family in the 
town, died at her house on Short-hill. Sht 
appears to have been possessed of considerable 
wealth, was of a generous disposition, and taken 
to Denton, near Grantham, for interment. 

Strange to say that during the eighteenth 
century two persons were hung who were con- 
neoted with Short-hill, or Hollow-stone, and 
each it will be allowed wer^in position much 
above what is ordinary. The eldest was driven 
by his own coachman to the gallows. They were 
both of the vilest disposition, and lost to all 
sense of honour or self-respect. One was an 
old sinner, and the other a young one. 

I have what appears to be a contemporaneous 
account of the nrst. He is entitled William 
Andrew Home, "Esq.," and was the eldest son 
of a gentleman possessing a considerable amount 
of pro|)ertv at Butterley, Derbyshire. The 
father ^^as supposed to have been at the time 
one of ihe best classical scholars in the county, 
and endeavoured to instruct his son, but from 
over-indulgence and other very undesirable 
causes little progress was made, and he spent 
much of his life unrefttrained by law or morality. 



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96 

H« wu chaig^ at tiie Oountr Hall, Nottiii^. 
ham, cm August 10th, 1759, with the wilful 
murder of a young child many years previously, 
which he had brought from Butterley to An- 
neslev in Nottinghamshire, and placed in a bag 
(at night) under a haystack. He had proposed 
to have left it at the hall if possible, but the 
dogs gave an alarm, and caused him to return 
a short distance to the stack, where the child 
was afterwards found, but life was extinct. 

A younger son, Oharles, was to some extent 
concerned in taking the child, but the elder, 
who inherited most if not all of their father's* 
property, took and placed the child under the 
stack, aiid always conducted himself towairds 
his brother in the harshest and most unbe- 
coming manner and allowed him to live almocrt 
as a common labourer, which at last provoked 
Charles to give information of what had once 
occurred, which after a considerable interval 
resulted in his brother's imprisonment, trial, 
and condemnation for wilful murder. Oharles 
promised before the trial that, as he was the 
most important witness against his brother, he 
would leave the country if William would pro- 
vide him with £5, but this was bluntly refused. 

There was an immense number of people at 
his execution on Gallows-hill, a considerable 
portion of t^em coming from Derbyshire. He 
completed his seventy-fourth year on that day, 
and regretted that he could not have his accus- 
tomed plum pudding on the anniversary. As 
remarkwi, he was dnven by his own coachman, 
he riding uncovered, and the procession pro- 
ceeded from the County Hall up Mansfield-road 
to the place of execution. 

His Nottingham house was situated in 
Hollow-stone, and it is still associated with his 
name, though in my time and remembrance a 
little ohanjre has been made in its outward 
appearance. It faces up the hill, is four if not 
five storeys high, and now a public-house named 
"Home's Castle." It is rather peculiar as a 
building, and 1 think the ground at the back 
must be fifteen to eighteen feet higher than the 
road yn the front. 

I have a full recollection sixty-five years since 
or more of making a oaU upon someone on those 



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97 

pfremises with an a^ relative, who would b€ 
alite & t^6Ti time after Home's execution, and 
by whom the circumstances were afterwards ex- 
plained to me. 

In the chancel of the church at Stanton-on- 
the- Wolds Sir John Parsons, Bart, is buried, 
who was Lord of the Manor, and died in 1704, 
aped 48 years. He was succeeded by his son, 
Sir William Parsons, Bart., who erected a good 
town residence on Short-hill. Of the three old 
town mansions eastward of, but nearest to St. 
Mary's Old Vicarage, this was no doubt one, 
and I have often wondored which, but believed 
it to be the second and middle one, which ap- 
pears to be the largest. I cannot be certain 
who owned the third house, though according 
to Willoughbjr's Directory Robert Dennison, 
Esq., was livinj^ on Short-hill in 1799, and 
possibly he may have been the proprietor. 

Sir William had two sons, the eldest of 
whom was also named William, and bom in 
1717. He was sent to one of the best schools 
of the time (Eton), but though attending it for 
eight or nine years, made little progress, and 
being detected when stealing from a bookselleir's 
shop, he was sent to sea, with the hope that 
it might be the cause of an amendment, but 
whQst in the West Indies he took an early 
opportunity to desert, and rebumed home, when, 
his conduct becoming abominably depraved and 
corrupt, he was shipped as a midshipman to 
Newfoundland, and on his return he found 
himself slighted by old friends. 

He was then persuaded to aooept a post on 
the West Coast of Africa under the Governor, 
on the River Gambia, and stayed about six 
months, but, notwithstanding iie preoautions 
adopted to prevent his leaving the dependency, 
he escaped and returned to England. In a 
short time after he married a young lady living 
near London, who possessed a fair amount of 
property. He then entered the army as an 
ensign in the 34th Regiment of Foot, and 
appears to have seen some active service with 
his regiment m Flanders, but his most extrava- 
gant mode of living and great losses by gam- 
bling? soon compelled him to leave the army, 
and n3 again returned to England, a beggar and 



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d8 

& ■ 



He saw yarious "upe and downs," asid iJtum, 
for fraud or forgery was sentenced to senren 
years' transportation. At that period he and 
others (ahout 160 years since) were sent to 
Maryland, now one of the United States of 
Amerioa. Someone residinc there who had 
known his family in England behiended him, 
and managed to obtain his freedom (in that 
part), and he requited this very kind act by 
stealing his friend's horse, and turned highway 
robber, but afterwards managed to get to 
England onoe more. 

Ill a short time subeeqiienily he was aiveobed, 
and tried for returning from transportation 
before the expiration of the term mentioned in 
his sentence, and, according to the law of that 
period for such a bfeach, he was sembeneed to 
be hung, and was executed at Tybum on 
Pebruanr 11th, 1751. If he had lived ten years 
longer he would have succeeded his father in 
the title and estates. 

His brother John was for a nimiber of years 
Yioar o^ Arnold, and Sir William Parsons 
resided with him during the latter part of his 
life, and, dying, was buried there. Tiie William 
Parsons who was executed left a son, Mark, 
who succeeded his grandfather at his death to 
the estates and title in 1760. He lived in a 
very quiet and retired manner near London, 
and died there in 1812, leaving no successor. 

It is a strange fact that until 1901 the vil- 
lagers at Stanton-on-tbe-Wolds, from tradition, 
hid, an idea that it was Sir John Parsons, 
Bart, (buried there in 1704), who was hung, 
whereas it was his grandson William Parsons, 
who suffered the extreme penalty of the law, 
forty-seven years after his grandfather's death, 
or in 1751. It was with pleasure that I rectified 
this very strange notion when at Stanton in 
the summer of 1901. In this latter instance I 
have been enabled to make much use of a 
copy of the " ManuscrijD^s Belating to the 
County of Nottingham in the possession of 
Mr. James Ward, of Nottingham," which in 
many cases are of great value. 



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OLD NOTTINGHA.Vf. 

ITS STREETS. PEOPLE. &c. 

XV. 

In this commimicatian I wish to first 
refer to Butcher's Close, with the street after- 
wards made through it, and nained from it, of 
wrhich a commencement was made very early 
last century, for in a poll book dated 1806 I 
have seen Butoher-lane " mentioned, which to 
my mind is proof that the thoroughfaire was 
then being used, but not generally occupied with 
l.uildings. In all cases it is probable that 
n^ore or less time is required before the old name 
of a street or road is with the public fully 
superseded by a new one. In Article 29, p. 176. 
I refer to the strong dislike manifested by some 
of the (id people to ohangee of titles. 

By 1812 no doubt a number of houses had 
been built in Buboher-street, but when, voting 
half stated that they lived in that street and 
the other half asserted that they resided in 
"Butcher's Close" (the old name). In future 
poll books Butoher-street was gradually and 
generally accepted as the title, but it was nearly 
forty years lifter being so named, and when 
(practioally) all the old folks had died off. 

In former timee, and probably in the memory 
of a few who are still loft with us, the Leen 
passed under what is now termed London-road, 
and on its eastern side it was not much more 
than one hundred yards to the south of Plump- 
tre-square (as now called), or Plumptre Hospital 
with its ground ; and the land between fliem 
was called " Butcher's Close." It reached (east- 
ward) most or all of the way to the little rivulet 
called the Beck, in the angle formed by its 
jimction with the Leen. 

In my time there was no outlet at the east 
end of Butcher-street, when it reaohed the Beck, 
which was, and perhaps I may even now say is, 
the extent on that side of the old Nottingham 
borough. The opposite side of the Beck was a 
field, but it was also in Sneinton parish, and if 
described at this time I imagine tnat fact might 



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100 

have to be mentioned. 

It is tharoi^hlj against mj wish to act tlie 
part of oritio or oensor, and it is only as a 
matter of duty that I refer to a statement re- 
specting this close m the fifth volume <^ the 
"Borough Records." But this is an ofl&cial 
work, as regards the city, and I consider that as 
far as possible it ought, specially under audi cir- 
cumstajices, to be correct and reliable, and that 
there is a reafionable claim upon us all to do our 
part in making it so. 

On page 447 of vol. 5, whan referring to the 
thorougMare imder oon&ideiFation, the editor 
says : " Butcher's dose ... in Fletcher- 
gate.'' Undoubtedly this is a singular error 
which I must leave to the editor for explana- 
tion. It is true that the field is located by him 
in the neighbourhood where the butchers or 
"fleshewers" in olden times had their head- 
quarters, though at that period it was entitled 
Fleshewer-gate." In my fourteenth article I 
have explained how, in the course of about two 
hundred years, " Pleshewer-gate " (Butcher-gate) 
wa« transposed to " Fle^er-gate " (Am>w- 
makers-gate), but this was in thf centre of the 
town, the fields there being verv rare, and there 
were none of a good size like Butchers' Olose. 

In that part (so very central) the " fields," if 
they exceeded an acre, would proportionately 
be large. There were several acres of land, it 
is true, attached to a large house which once 
fronted to Swinegreen (of which more will after- 
wards be said), but its situation waa totally dif- 
ferent to Fletcher-gate, though even here the 
ground was considerably le^ in size than 
Butcher's Olose, which waa on the outside of the 
town wall, and a portion of meadow land always 
liable to be flooded ; it was really a part of the 
Eastcroft. 

In the "Records," vol. 5, p. 178, these last 
statements are fully verified in a "presentment" 
of the Mickletorn jury, 1636 — October 13, when 
thev say : " We present the Leene for want of 
scoweringe against Eastcrofte and Butcher's 
Close : Maister Richards." (Probably in his 
occupation.) This extmct of iteelf fully proves 
that Butcher's Olose was against the IJeen and 
Ihe Eastoroft, and that it could not poesibly be 



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101 

in tihe middle of tibe town wliere Brfaated ; t>ut 
perhapB this did not oame imdeir the notice of 
the editor of that volume. 

Man/ years since the butchers of the town in 
a court of law daimed, and endeavoured to porove, 
that as such they had certain rights in this field, 
but their efforts were not successful. Under 
the^e circumstances there can be little doubt 
that it was once town property, if not so now. 

A very short time since, when looking round 
Plumptre-square, I was again astonished and 
pained to find that another old historic street 
name had been, with gross thoughtlessness and 
indiscretion, changed for a title which early in 
last century was without doubt imported from 
London, but in Nottingham is meaningless, and 
as compared with the old one entirely unbecom-" 
ing and out of place, for it supplaoits most cul- 
pably another oi the old place names and land 
marks, associating ib for centuries with the 
past. 

I am referring to Buftoher-street. This 
thoroughfare to my amazement, when in it about 
a month since, I found had been renamed 
"Poplar-street." I cannot tell how long that 
has been the case, but it was first brought to my 
knowledge as stated, for I am not often in that 
locality nor in the least prepared for such an 
im justifiable substitution, and with many others 
can only look with pity upon ^hose who cannot 
see the impropriety of thwr actions when carry- 
ing out sucn worse than useless changes. 

in article 12, page 63, I give a short account 
of Fisher-gate and its undesirable condition, 
without causeways, &c. (1750), and during some 
part of the year of the muddy and terribly bad 
state of the roads in and near it. I have no 
doubt whatever that there has been a consider- 
able raising of the level in that locality, but 
especially in Plumptre-square, which, with good 
drainage and paving of the best kind, makes it, 
I thini, as good as we can expect, and better 
than many other places. 

Anyone dose to the bottom of Hollow-stone 
will observe that the way across the square to 
London-road, especially on the northern part, 
has been raised the moet, and that on the 
eastern side in Fisher-gate thelre is a depression 



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oi probal>ly two feet or more, and modi the same 
on the west side near to the boittom of Malin- 
hiU. 

In the last paragraph of article 15, page 87, 
I make a brief refefranoe to Malin Hill, the 
lower end of which is entered from the north- 
west corner of Pliunptre-square. Thoi^h really 
not much more than a footpath, it was, I con- 
sider, in olden times constantly used from the 
number of ocoasionfl on which it is mentioned 
in the Borough Records. To a large extent I 
beliere this to have been necessitated b^ the 
condition of Hollow-stone in olden times ; 
which, at the lower end especially, was ^bably 
steep, and difficult to ascend, and if so, it would 
cause this alternative walk or footway to be 
more utilised. 

From various causes I believe that horses. 
&c., were frequently led up that pathway in 
olden times, tJiough It womd then most prob- 
ably be unpaged, and merely a sandy passage. 
In volume 5, page 449, in reference to this part, 
is an entry as follows : "Malinge Hill, Maylin 
Hill, going down to the Marsh." This is cer- 
tainly a misconception, for when at the top 
most people, to save time and distance, would 
go down Long Stairs to get to Narrow-marsh ; 
as the bottom of Malin Hill was in "Bridgend" 
(now Plumptre-square). 

Fifliher-gate is an old thoroughfare. Th^ 
earliest i^erence to it I have noticed in the 
Borough Becords is on page 431, volume 1. 
which takes us back to A.D. 1315, or nearly 
590 vears since. Our amcestors had various 
ways of spelling the name, such as Fesshec^te, 
Fisshergate (Vicus Piscatorum), FvBhergate, and 
Fysshergate, and iVs^^^'^i^^* I^ has, gener- 
ally speaking, I believe, run a more uneventful 
course than many of the other old streets in 
Nottingham. For a long period it was for that 
part, tne outer street of the town. 

The land belonging to Nottingham extended 
southward to the Trent, but the cast end of 
Fisher-gate was probably within two hundred 
yardfi of the Beck, which little stream divided 
the borough from Sneinton in that locality. 
On the Nottingham side there was a stile— (it 
was ^ footway) and on the Sneinton side of the 



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103 

stil« (in aiD exoellent old engraying) gome planks 
to walk on wppeear to be fixed over tne nvnlet. 
Here wag the old "Pennyfoot Stile." 

Bespecting Plumptr«'s Hospital, Decring also 
tells us tliat it is the most ancient of i3l the 
hospitals in Nottingham. "John de Plumptre, 
a merchant of the Staple of Calais^ living in 
Nottinghftm in the r^ijgn of King Richard U., 
of whom he obtained licence, dated at Notting- 
ham, 16 of RiohaTd II the 8th of July, A.D. 
1392, to found and endow within the said town 
an hospital or house of God, consisting of two 
chaplains, whereof one should be the master 
or guardian of the said hospital, and tiiirteen old 
and poor widows." 

He built the hospital and a chapel (Chantry) 
adjoining thereto, "as appears by the instru- 
ment of foundation diied in Nottingham the 
12bh July, 1400, which was oonfinned by . 
lUohard, Archbishop of York, th« samp year, 
July 22nd," &c., Ac. There is evidence about 
ten years previous to this time that he had fully 
decided to build a hospital, for in the reoords, 
volume 1 pages 249 — 2S3, there is an account 
of two occasions on wliidh he puzichaeed houaes 
and wardens adjoining. The first was enrolled 
on November oOth, 1390, and the second on 
Deoember 24ih, 1390, and on each occasion men- 
tion is made o^ the hospital almost as though 
it migbt have then been ereoted. 

Fisher-gate alone is mentioned in connection 
with the hospital in these two cases, but it 
must be undeorstood that at this period, and 
for nearly if not quite four huindred years lator, 
the houses on the south side of Fisher-gate were 
the last in the town at that part, fuid it is 
{irobable there was not one house between that 
side of the road and the Trent. As I have 
previously explained there was no Butcher-street 
until rather less than one himdred years since. 

The first hospital, after erecUon, probably 
stood for two hundred and fifty years, or until 
about A.D. 1650. Of thi^ bmlding we obtain 
a fair idea from a good engraving in " Deering's 
Nottingham" (1750). It was in a very poor 
condition and pulled down in 1823, the wesent 
building hean^ then oommenoed, and nnished 
tbe next year. 



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104 

ThAt the hospital urgently needed attention 
is prored bj what Orange telln us in his hiBiorjr, 
when the question was raised and discussed in 
the year 1822, whether ofr not it should be 
re-«rected, he says ''that the hospital wva an 
ancient building, haying been rebuilt about the 
year 1650, and in great decay ; and that from 
the raising of the street three or four feet above 
the basement floor it had become a veiy incon- 
venient and unwholesome habitation ; aod that 
it was absolutely necessary that the same should 
be entirely rebuilt," &c., Ac. 

It is specially to the part respecting the street 
beiufr raised tnree or fttur feet that I wish now 
to refer. Deering on page 17 notices the state 
of Bridge End in 1641, or a few years before the 
first rebuilding of the Hospital (1650), and calls 
it " deep and miry," and it might reasonably be 
expected that we should find it so when the 
ground was three or four feet lower than at 
present, as theore would practically be no fall for 
the drainage. At the same time it gives us a 
good idea how little our ancestors thought about 
drainage and other (to us in recent times) most 
importont sanitary matters. 

This hospital, no doubt, is capable of^ and is 
doinj^ a great amount of good in Nottingham, 
for in addition to the inmates of the building 
itself there were, many years back, according 
to Orange, thirty out-pensioners, and if that is 
not the exact number at the preeent time, from 
the great increase in value of the property be- 
longing to the foundation, and in the amount 
of rents, it is probable that the out-pensianers 
are now considerably greater in number. 

I wish for a short time to refer once more 
to the the " Ducking days " of- 1794-95, to make 
amends for a lapse of memory. It is in relation 
to what occurred when an attempt wa^ made to 
seize Mr. Joseph Woodhouse for the purpose of 
ducking hira. He was a framesmith, whose 
premises were in St. Mary's-gate, on its eastern 
side, and probably about thirty to forty yards 
from the Warseff-gate end. 

Between sixty and seventy years since I re- 
member some old workshops there being occu- 
pied, as I believe, by Messrs. Brookes and 
Mason, joiners, which I have no doubt ome 



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himchred and ten yeaars since were in ibe poeses- 
sion of Mr. Woodhouee as mentioned. The 
site of tbeee shops is now included in the 
the warehouse of Thomafi Adams and Com- 
pony, Limited. 

Mr. Woodhouse was one of those who then 
objected, as praotioally all people would now, 
to the declaring or carrying on of war with the 
French for the purpose of forcing upon them a 
regime or government which they had repudiated 
aiS disowned- When returning to his works on 
one oooaflion he observed a suspicious gathering 
of men, who gradually increased in Jiumber, not 
far off, and whom, he was confident, had evil 
intentions towards himself, and being a youngish 
man he started off at his greatest speed towards 
his business premises, and was Amraediately fol- 
lowed by them. Luckily he reached his woi^- 
shops first and managed to j^et inside, but 
closely followed by the mob. 

His workmen were quickly informed of the 
circumstances, when, having some hotted irons 
in the fires, and promptly heetin^ others, they 
threatened his assailants that they would most 
certainly use them in defence of Mr. Woodhouse 
or the premises if attacked. It may easily be 
imagined that in such a dispute a red-hot iron 
"would be likely to prove most weighty and 
convincing " in argument ; therefore, perceiving 
from the decided attitude adopted by the men 
that they would be unable to carry out their in- 
tentions upon Mr. Woodhouse, the rabble gradu- 
ally dispersed. 

Pull sixty years since I received these par- 
ticulars from Mr. James Smith who was a resi- 
dent during this period, and the whole of the 
French war, on the opposite side of St. Mary's- 
gate to Mr. Woodhouse's premises, where he 
could see all that took place, and who ended a 
\onfi life about fifty-seven years since on Toll 
House-hill (Derby-road). 

I am favoured with the friendship of a vener- 
able lady, whom to know is to respect. I can- 
not remember the time when her features were 
strange to me ; she forms a most interesting 
and unusual link with the century before last, 
being a neice of the Mr. Joseph Woodhouae who 
has just been noticed. I am glad to say that 



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she is rtdl Kesiduig in the 011(7, thoogii from 
length of yean unforUBifttely yery inSrm, 

On page 99 of '' WiUov^Ws Duectoryof Not- 
tangjiam'' (1799) may he found ibe fdlowing 
en^: — "Joseph WoodhouBe, framesmith, 
Maiys-gAte/' At that time he must have been 
carrying on business for some years, as "the 
diKsking time" w^as about 1794. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM. 

ITS STRBBIU PEOPLE, &c. 



XVI. 

In this aartiole I desire to continue my 
remarks respecting the Post Office, or Offices, 
im iuocession at JNottin^ham during the last 
hundred years, and possibly add a few particu- 
lars relating to matters indirectly connected 
witii that department, when mail ooaohee, gigs, 
&c., will probably be considered. 

I have preyiously observed thait more than a 
century since the Nottingham Post Office was 
ai the 'shop of Mr. Johm Kayner, a seedsman in 
High-street (1799). It appears that it muet 
have remained on that side of the street for 
about thirty-fouir years longer, and to have 
Ibeen removed in my time, for White in his 
'* History and Directory of Nottinghamshire" 
(1832) tells us that " ihe Poet Office in High- 
sti^eet ha€ long been too small and inconvenient 
for the extent of itf business ; but a now and 
more appropriate building is now erecting on 
the opposite side of the street by the Diike of 
Newcastle for the use of that t^anch of the 
public revenue." 

There is full evidence in the fact that the new 
building was not a Governmental erection, to 
explain how differently the Poet Office was esti- 
mated by the public and the Gk>veniment at that 
period, to what it is or has been the case of late 
years. It would oe hard to believe ihat in any 
large town or city there is a single individual 
who would undertake the responsibility of erect- 
ing the great buildings which in -recent years 
have been required for such purposM. 

"The Blackmoor's Head'^ Ian and Po«ting- 
house, or. as we should now term it, "Hotel," was 
to some ext^t pulled down and alterations made 
in tiie building during the latter half of 1830. 
Of its kind it had for many years b€|en noted. 
It waa at the north-east comer of High-street, 
and including the yard, &c., oocujned also a con- 
siderable frontage up Peiham-street. It was the 
property of the Duke of Newcaatle, and shortly 



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108 

after the changee mentioned he erected fresh 
quarters for the Post Office at the top of High- 
street-place. lo was used for that purpose 
barely three yearn 

From that spot, with a brief interval, it was 
removed to Bridleemith-gate, on it6 eastern side, 
by 1834, and a little more north than the top of 
Pepper-street ; I consider the premises now 
occupied by the Nottingham Permanent Benefit 
Building Society, or the north part of Lloyds 
Bank, to be upon or close to the site of that old 
Post Office. There will be no difficulty with 
most in believing that the business of the ofhco 
would be likely to increase to a large degree, aud 
shortly exceed the capacity of such premises for 
conveniently carrying on Uie business, when it is 
known that it was during the time the p^iny 
postage was initiated ; that this office, wlJch 
was once a house continued to be the postal 
headquarters in Nottingham, both then and for 
several years after. 

The next removal was to the north-east 
corner of Albert-street, which was not formed, 
however, until 1846 ; and then at least another 
year must be allowed for the erection and fitting 
up of the new building ; and it is probable that 
the new premises were not occupied before the 
end of 1847. In this instance the building was, 
I believe (as it is now), the property of the 
Corporation. It was materially larger than 
the one previously used in Bridlesmith-gate, but 
the postal business constantly went on increas- 
ing until the acoommodatiooi was again in- 
sufficient. 

On this occasion the Government purchased 
some laBd at the south-east comer and upper 
end of Yictooria-street, and raised a consideraoly 
larger building in 1868. Business, however, 
continued greatly to expand, and in a few 
years it was thought advisable to add another 
storey to the stmctiare. This found accommo- 
dation for a number of years additional, and 
furobably until about 1895, when it was con- 
sidered necessatry to erect a very much larger 
edifice, and it resulted in the purchase of 
ground and the construction of the great build- 
ing whi^ has been occupied seveial years in 
Queen-fftreet. 



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lOQ 

I ought to have said, respecting A.D. 1846, 
and shoirtly before the Post Office was removed 
from Bridlesmith-gate, that Mr. O. T. Oldknow 
was made Postmaster of Nottingham. I re- 
member the incident well. He was one of the 
Sheriffs under the old municipal law, and when, 
as the town was of old divided into two 
boroughs (French and English), it had two 
sheriffs, two coroners, two diamberlains, &c., 
but only cme Mayor. Mr. Oldknow was Sheriff 
in 1806 and Mayor in 1822-3 and 1829-30. He 
suooeeded Mr. «f. Crosby as Postmaster, who I 
am glad to know is still worthily represented in 
the city by a grandson, a solicitor. 

Considering the immense proportions of the 
present Post Office, I ihink we may all feel 
much more assured than was the case previ- 
ously, that it will be able to meet all that is 
likely to be required from it for many yeajs. 
It would be very interesting^ if possible, to be 
supplied with the information respecting the 
number of persons now engaged or employed in 
connection with the Post Office at Nottingham 
for the purpose of comparing them with those 
mentioned in the years 1799 and 1832. 

It is almost exciting to read of the wonderful 
change which has taken place during the last 
seventy years, not only as regards the buildings 
in which the postal work has been transacted, 
but also in matters relating to the increase of 
business and various facilities, the arrival and 
despatch of mails, delivery of letters, &c. 
In 1832 the letter bags for London and the 
South were made up at 3 p.m., and were re- 
ceived from that part at 10 a.m., but no mail 
bags were sent to London on Saturday nor re- 
ceived from there on Monday. 

Letter bags for Leeds and the North were 
made up at 9.30 a.m., and arrived from there at 
5.30 a.m. Mail gigs ran to and from Derby and 
the West, and Newark and Lincoln with the 
county and the East; there were return bags, 
and the same to Loughborough and Stamford. 
Tile London mail coach went by Melton, Bed- 
fwd, &c. The London express left every mom- 
in;; at eight, the Leeds express coach started 
everv morning at eight, the Manchester and 
Liverpool coach, "Lord Nelson," left every 



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morning sfc 5.45, going through Mailock. 

The Birmingham '* Dart '' went br Cattle Don. 
ington, Ashby, and Tamworth, at 8 a.m., on all 
days except Sunday. Two coaches ran to Derby 
daily, and one to Newark. The ** Pilot " ran to 
Ldloeater every morning at 6.45, by way of 
Loughborough, aud returned at 7 p.m. 

In 1832 there were four places specially in 
Nottingham from which coaches generally 
started, or called at, when passing through Uie 
town. These were the lion Hotel in Clumber- 
street, and of those starting there, many be- 
longed to Thomas and John Simpson and Oo. 
I have a full recollection of that name. The 
next was the MUton's Head Inn, at the southern 
end of Milton-street. This place was much used 
by Benjamin Bower and Co. Then there was 
the Black Boy Inn and the Maypole Inn, each 
on or near to the Long-row. 

I should have mentioned that the mail gigs 
were allowed to take parcels Kut not passengers. 
Respecting these, one started for Derby from 
the Crown and Anchor, Brkige-street (London- 
road) every morning at 6.30; one to Lough- 
borough, hom the Durham Ox. Pelham-str^Bt, 
at 3.^ p.m. ; the third, to New^k and Lin- 
coln, also started from the Durham Ox every 
morning at 4.30, and the public were informed 
that *Tarcels for the North arrived one day aooner 
in the North bv this conveyance than by any 
other which leaves Nottingham" ; which must, of 
course, have been a great inducement for peoplt 
to make use when possible of this carriage. 

In my young days I have a recollection of 
going into the Market-place on some occasions 
when anything exciting had occurred or was 
occurring to obtain information respecting it 
from any passengers with the coaches, though it 
is probable that ono ot the most interesting 
times for lads to meet the vehicles as they came 
into the town was after a heavy fall of snow, 
when eight hoP8«« would generally be attached 
to them and possil^^y two more occasionally (four 
to five pairs). 

I will now prive a transcript of an advertise- 
ment by John Simpson and Oo. respecting 
several of their coaches which appeared in the 
local papers lull sixty-five years since, namely, 



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Ill 

Sepbember 14, 1838. It oommenoeB: — "Lion 
Hotel Oockrh Office, Nottiiighaan. The Pvblio 
and Trade are reepeotfuUy informed ttuut the 
Express Coach now leaves the above Inn for 
London daily, at the old-established hour, 
Quarter-past Seven o'Cfiock in the Evening. l%e 
proprietors are soiry thp Trade should have been 
so much inconvenienced in the transmission of 
their goods, &c., by the interruption of other 
pp.rties, and trust they have attained a final 
arrangement. 

" In consequence of the LofDdon and Binning- 
liam Boilway opening throi^hout on Monday, 
the 17th instant, the following alteration will 
take place, viz.: — 'The Nottingham and Lon- 
don Times Day Ooach will leave the Lion Hotel 
at half-past seven every morning, Sundays ex- 
cepted, to the station at Roade, near Northamp- 
ton, and arrive at Euston-square Station, Lon- 
don, at forty-five minutes past six in the even- 
irg ; will leave Euston-square, London, at 
E'even o' Clock in the Morning, and arrive in 
Nottingham at forty minutes past nine in the 
evening. 

"'The Brilliant Day Ooaoh will leave the 
Lion Hotel and Maypole Inn alternately at a 
quarter-past Twelve o^Clock at Noon, Saturdays 
excepted, to the Station at Bugby, and arrive at 
Euston-square Station, Londooi^ at Ten o'CAock 
in the Evening; will leave London at Eight 
o^Olock in the Morning, and arrive in Notting- 
ham at five o'clock in the evening, and proceMl 
forward to Sheffield.* " 

The railwajp^ here spoken of is the London 
and Nortih-Weetem, which wps opened, it ap- 
pears, on Hie 17th September, 1838; but the 
first train on the Midland svfirtem from this 
locality, consisting of the Midland Bailway 
directors and their friends, ran from Notting- 
ham to Derby on May 30, 1839. As regards the 
two last coaches mentioned in the advertise- 
ment, they ran to stations on the London and 
North-Westem Bailway, and no doubt the pas- 
sengers were then taken by train to London, 
and returned to Nottingham in a similar manner 
to that by which they went. 

The Lion Hotel at this period was in character 
quite different to what is at present the case. 



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m 

But little yariation oocurred in the' site ' belong, 
ing to the old building, ae regards the 
present White Lion Hotel and its frontage to 
the street; but the former stood back pio- 
bablj eight or ten yards, the area on the front 
b^ng flagged and descending towards the hotel. 

Whilst engaged with this I have bj me a 
small and very old handbill directly connec^bed 
with the subject under consideration. It cer- 
tainly is probable that it was issued in London, 
but possibk that the coach may haye passed 
through or near to Nottingham on its journey. 
The following is a copy: — *' London and York 
Flying Maohines, in two days, from the Swan 
Inn, Holbom Bridge, London, and from the 
Black Swan Inn, Conev-street, York, every 
Sunday, Tuesday, and Thursday nights, at ten 
o'doclL 

Inside pay £1 15s. Od. 

Outside pay £1 Os. Od. 

(The oomparati^:^. yalue of moQey was probably 
three times greater at that date than it is now.) 

"The aboye machines have good conveniwicy 
for carrying luggage, small parcels, and game, 
which will be delivered the same night t^ey 
arrive in London and York if required. The 
proprietors will not be accountable for money, 
plate, jewels, watches, rings, writings, nor any 
parcel above the value of ten pounds, unless 
entered and paid for as such. * No glass 
insured. — By Haworth, Jackson, and Oo." From 
the style of printing, and where the old tall 
" S " is frequently used and other circumstances, 
I have little doubt that this announcement 
dates back at least one hundred years, but pro- 
bablv to the century before last. 

In 1834 Dearden tells us of various "Royal 
Patent Coaches." I am not fully certain re- 
specting the difference between those and others, 
though when quite young I have a decided 
recollection of springs being much spoken about, 
and consider tht "patent" to have been con- 
nected with their use, and that they were more 
in accordance with modem ideas. The intro- 
duction of the present sort of steel springs for 
vehicles oocurred in my time. 

I remember hearing of various oooasions when 
•oaohee were overturned, and renuyiks being 



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113 

made of tbere being sometJiing come into une 
which would cause such a misfortime to be far 
less probable in the future, and most certainly 
the expected remedy was the employment of 
springs. We shall not need much persuading 
that the '^jjaunts'' about the oounb^ by our 
forbears, with sprin^fless oonreyances, were not 
to be compared in comfort with those used in 
Ttcent times. They might truly be called 
** boneshakers." 

I should have mentioned that all coaches were 
named, and amongst those starting from or 
running through Nottingham in 1^4 were— 
The Eoyal Times, Royal Dart, Lord Nelson, 
The Wonder, The Imperial, The Pilot, The 
Eapid, The Express, The Hero, Royal 
Sovereign. The Defiance, The Royal Hope, The 
Courier, The Champion, The Water Witch, The 
Celerity, Hark Forward, The Age, The Union, 
The Perseverance, The Oommeircial, &c. 

In addition to this mode of conveyance there 
were others which would in a large degree be 
used for the cajrrying of goods by land and 
water. Piokford and Co. advertised — "Caravans 
on springs aaid guarded (for conveyance of 
goods only) leave Nottingham for London, Man. 
Chester, and Liverpool every morning at five 
o'clock, and for SheflSeld and Leeds every even- 
ing at seven. Goods for London must be de- 
livered the previous night." They had tben " fly 
waggons" to very numerous places, and possibly 
passengers might be accommodated in them. 
I have a recollection forty-five to fifty-five years 
since of frequently talking to a genUeman who 
at an earlier date had regularly made use of 
this mode of conveyance. 

In 1834 Pickford and Co.'s office was in 
Carl ton-street. Messrs. Deacon and Co.'s 
"Waggon Warehouse" was in Milton-street, 
and their business was similar to Pickford's, 
thoug-h it should be said that each had fly boats 
on the canal for conveying goods. Pettifor and 
Co.'s Waggon Warehouse was in Hounds-gate ; 
thev do not appear to have used boats for Tvater 
carriage. Messrs. Wheatcroft and Sons and 
James Sutton and Sons more or less carried 
goods by water. There were also several others 
w'ho carried on business in a smaller way, and 



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of these G:'re different persona made nee of the 
Leen Wharf, Oanal-stireet, beloDcing to Mm, 
Outts. Die above will give a good geoend idea 
how certain oocupatiotiB were condttded in Not- 
tingham and the country generally before the 
time of rariiways. 



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OLD NOXriNGHAM 

ITS STREETS. PEOPLE. &cv 

XVII. 

I propose in this article to refer to a 
number of persons, places, occupations or busi- 
nesses, &c., as mentioned in Willoughby's 
Directory of Nottingham, a.d. 1799, comment- 
ing upon them in various cases, and comparing 
them, or occasionally forming a connection 
with modem times, which by contrast may pos- 
sibly prove interesting to many readers. 

At that date there was an inn called "The 
Star and Garter," which night probably be the 
old name for " The Star formerly at the lower 
end of Wheeler-ffate and the bottom of Hoimds- 
gate. The landlord's name was Adams. 

Two Armitages tre mentioned who were gar- 
deners, one on Angel-row and the other m 
C^apel-bar. Th? latter, or his descendant, was, 
I have little doubt, occupying the same premises 
on the west side at tlie time or just before they 
were pulled down seventy years since to widen 
that thoroughfare. As a lad I can remember 
them. They occupied the corner shop to the 
west at the top. A Joseph Armitage is noticed 
cs being a fellmonger at the Trent Bridge. 
From my remembrance of the name in connec- 
tion with that locality, I think they or their de- 
scendants must have remained there until a 
food portion of last century had passed. Atkins, 
tichard, is described as being at that date the 
principal clerk to Messrs. Wright's Bank and 
dwelling in Mary-gate. 

The next is Attenborough, Johm, purgeon, 
Beastmarket-hill. Anior.gst those belonging 
to the medical profession in Nottingham he took 
an early and active part during the year 1800 
in persuading the people to be vaccinated, and 
to show his thorough conviction in its efficacy 
he inoculated his own son, and others shortly 
followed. As soon as parents were satisfied that 
the operation was not accompanied by any 
danger they quickly gathered with their children 
on Beastmarket-hill, wishing to have them 
vaccinated. The success oi Mr. Attenborough's 



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116 

endeavours being eyideot, many others of tbe 
profession followed his example. 

To an antiquarian having a knowledge of the 
past connected with Nottingham the little Direc- 
tory of Willouchby's is most interesting, for at 
that time (1799) the greater portion, and pro- 
bably nearly all, of me old and quaint ^aoe 
names were still in constamt use. There were Beck 
Bam (Beck-street), St James's-lane (now 
street), Bearward-lone (Mount-street), Bridge- 
end (Plumptre-square), Cow-lane (Olumber- 
stroet). Toll House-hill (Derbv-road), Blow- 
bladder-sireet (between the lower end of 
Fletoher-gate and the open part of We^da^- 
oross)— ^e Oown and Cushion Inn was also in 
it at that time ; Jew-lane (St-. Nicholas' s-street), 
Shoe Booths (south side of Exchange-alley), 
Boot-lane f Milton-street), Swine-green (Carl ton- 
street). Cnenr Orchard. — When this is men- 
tioned by Willoughby it hac reference to the 
Black Lion Inn, whioh is still in existence, 
though these remarks apply to the one in Coal- 
pit-lane, for going back 150 years or more, in- 
cluding the ground on which it stands, with 
much more near, the Sherwin family owned a 
cherry orchard, and probably Cheiry -place, 
Sherwin-court, &c., may still be found. Thur- 
land Hall, as a residenoe, or residences and 
offices, was occupied by various persons, one of 
the tenants being Dr. Manson and one an 
attorney. 

Then there was Butt-dike (now Park-row, 
Hen-cross (The Poultry), and Sandy-lane (Mill- 
stone-lane). Paravicini's-row : This was named 
after Count Paravicini, an Italian, but it is a 
name that would not always be pronounced cor- 
rectly by the ordinary Englishman, and I quite 
apree with the change of title in after years to 
Count-street. The south-eastern end of that 
street, I believe, adjoins the bottom end of 
Barker-gate. Then appears Gridlesmith-gate 
(Pelham-street), and York-road. 

In Deering's map of the town (about 1750), 
the thoroughfare now called Glasshouse-street 
was practically a cour.try lane between hedges. 
Close to one or both of the lower comers where 
it abutted upon Back-side (Parliament-street), 
there might be an odd building, but not much 



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more at that part, and it was entitled '* The 
Road to To A/ Fr->m all that can he gathered 
I have na douht that building operations were 
first carried on near to Mansfield-road, at the 
top end of that highway, for a considerable num- 
ber of years before other portions of it, for the 
lower end (now called Glasshouse-street) does 
not appear to have had a name given to it until 
after 1820, as no voter mentioned that as the 
place of his residence when in the poll booth 
until a later date. 

Regard inpr the north or upper end of York- 
road, it was a few years afterwards converted 
into York-street. Turncalf-alley (Sussex-street) : 
The change of name has no douot in this case 
taken a long time to become generally aoc^ted, 
and I am prepared to say that there are even 
yet a few left who adhere to the old name. 
This is a designation which would cause much 
less rejrret when chan^^ed than many others. 

Quaker-lane is mentioned at various times at 
this date (1799), and I believe it to hare been 
intended as an equivalent for the old thorot^h- 
fare. which, for a long period before, and many 
years afterwards, was, and has . been, known as 
Spaniel-row, but not at that date. I do not 
doubt that the change of title was caused by 
the "Friends" building their meeting-house in 
it about 130 years since. 

At this time (1799) Plumptre-place is men- 
tioned, but I consider it to be really applicable 
to Plumptre-street, of a little later date, in con- 
sequence of names being mentioned in it of 
some persons whom I know to have resided in 
PI umpire-street, then or immediately after- 
wards, and the probable reason for this I be- 
lieve is that th: street did not at first reach 
quite through from Stoney-street to Bellar-gate. 

The land forming it was connected with 
Plumptre House, ^niich, at the above date, 
stood on the opposite side of Stoney-street, and 
those living there 150 or 160 years since 
were, when looking in that direction (eastward), 
able to see the fields beyond the town, for there 
were few houses which could possibly (.bstruct 
the view. When " Plumptre-street was first 
used as a title I believe that the next opening 
■orthwairds on the same side in Stoney-street 



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118 

wM afterwards neaned Plumptre-place. 

In Deeiriiig^s map, Moot Hul-gate is the 
equivalent for what we now term Friajr-lane, 
wiuch at yarious times is mentioned in the old 
and little Bireotoiry. Deering oalls the upper 
portion of the roadway by that name, and when 
mtmtiooied by Willoughby it is possible tliat he 
also applied it to the same locality. Tlie ))eriud 
when the greatest number of old and iutorest- 
ing names of streets, <Skc., in Nottingham, were 
so thoi^htlessly and ridiculously superseded by 
others was in the early part of la&t century. 

Gillyflower-hill is mentioned, and this appea^rs 
to be the part going down the hill from the 
upper ends ox Hoimds-gate or Park-street 
towards the Boulevard, as now formed. Broad- 
lane was (dianged to Broad-street, and, ^ith 
this included, verv few of the old names men- 
tioned by Willoughby are left imnoticed. After 
this digression siid explanation respecting tlie 
ancient designations of streets, &c., I will now 
continue the referenice to persons, places, occu- 
pations, dbc. 

The first will be Barber, John, grocer and 
chandler, Bridge-end. He was grandfather of 
our aged and respected fellow -citizen of the 
same name, who nas been Alderman and twice 
Mayor of Nottingham. The next entry is 
Baroer, John, junr., grocer and chandler. 
Smithy-row. He was no doubt the father of 
the present Mr. Barber, but there is an omis- 
sion in his name — it should be John Houseman 
Barber, who also, though in the time of the 
unreformed municipalities, became Alderman 
and Mayor of the town. 

In the middle of December, 1820, an attempt 
was made to assassinate him (whilst talking 
with 1^. William Boworth, one of the Council 
and a com factor), when in his shop at the 
south-west comer of Hollow-stone. The would- 
be murderer was at the end of Fisher-gate, and 
fired at him through the window, but for- 
tunately without effect, and, notwithstanding 
the great reward of 500 guineas being offered for 
his apprehension and conviction, he escaped re- 
cognition and arrest. 

Bamsdal, Nathaniel, Leen-side. — ^I remember 
N'athaniel Bamsdal, who was a timber me^- 



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«! 



c3 rt 



c 

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o 



J3 : 









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119 

cbant, 60 to 65 yewrs since, on ihe Leen-side. 
Amon^ the variouB avocaitioius then oarried 
an, some, at least in nam«, are probably not 
Icnown in recent times. Many women were 
mantua makers, and some were quilters. Pro* 
portionately there are a large number of breeches 
makers, for, at that date, they were commonly 
worn by men. Some are still left who can re- 
member the time when pattens and clog^ were 
frequently used, and at that date, and earlier, 
plenty of makers could be found, for from the 
muddy state of many unpaved roads and streets 
they would be greatly needed. 

In 1799 there were thirteen attomies in the 
town, but I have not observed ihe name of one 
person who called himself a solicitor ; now the 
case is completely reversed, aU are solictors and 
we have probably no attcxmies. Bacon, John, 
was a pot manufacturer, in Sheep-lane ; 
but that business in Nottingham has 
died out. Beardmore, Mr., victualler, 
liear and Dragon, Long-row, is entered. I 
speciallv mention this, in consequence of some 
of our historians stating that the Derby Arms 
Insi, formerly at the upper end of Long-row, 
had in olden times been called ^The Gireen 
Dragon," and that it was tihe first brick house 
built in Nottingham. 

I asserted that both statements w>ere entirely 
incorrect, for I had seen an old deed relating 
to poroperty immediately adjoining the Derby 
Arms, of recent times, and it is described as 
being next to the Bear and Dragon (about one 
hundred and thirty to one hundred and fifty 
years since). Then I am glad to possess an 
excellent old drawing of the lower part of Ohapel 
Biur and first end of Long-row, including the 
opposite side of the roadway to a similar extent, 
also two engravings of the same part ; oud in 
thorn all (at that dat^— sixty years since — ^the 
old building of the George and l>ragon com- 
plies in almost every particular with the descrip- 
tion given by Deenng of the first brick house 
in Nottingham. 

Bonnington, Richard, was a drawing-niaster 
in Butt-dyke. Beepectiiig Booth, Abraham, 
boot and shoe maker, Hen Gross, and IkxHh, 
Bobert, hosier, Plumptre-place, I propose to 



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120 

say more on anothor oocasion. Boyne, Bev. 
Lawrenco, Catholic Chapel, King's-plaoe. This, 
in the remembrance of some, was on the west 
bide ol Stoney-street, and I think a little nearer 
Carl ton-street than the top of Barker gate, 
though on the opposite side of the street. In 
my time there was a terrace of middle-class 
houses, facing southwards, the ground being 
about twelve stepe above the oauseway. T 
believe that the back of the premises vrculd 
adjoin where the warehouse of Messrs. Thomas 
Adams and Co., Limited, reaches now. The 
ground was lowered to the street level many 
years since, preparatory to the erection of ware- 
houses upon it. 

Bumside, John, Esq., ooiton manufactuier, 
Beastmarket-hill, will be found on page 6. I 
imagine him to be connected with the Bum- 
sides of Gedling. The last name amongst the 
B's is a noted one, namely, Byron, Right Hon. 
Lord, at Mr. Gill's. St. James's-lane. The 
house he resided in was, and still is, at the 
western comer, at the top of St. James' s-street, 
and entitled Kewstoad House. To show the 
difference of degree in which the streets, &c., 
were estimated at that time as compared with 
the present. Captain Cartwright, barrack master, 
was then living in Broad-marsh. 

Cook, William, plumber and glazier, was 
carrying on business in Blowbladder-street, (be- 
tween the lower end of Fletcher-gate and Week- 
day-cross), and there is still someone named 
Cook carrying on the same business there. 
Culien, Thomas, senior and junior, Parliament- 
street. They occupied an old-fashioned, low, 
two-storeyed house, where the Burton Buildings 
are now erected, and someone of that name and 
trade was still living in that house [ believe 
within thirty yea-rs of the present time. l>ennis, 
Mr., victualler, Duke of York, New Buildings. 
This was in what was formerly termed "Tn6 
Iload to Toi^ " by Beering, the lower end being; 
now Glasshouse-street and the upper end was 
afterwards York- street, but was cleared away 
when making the ViotorTa Station about 1896. 
"New Buildings" are mentioned a number of 
limes about this date (1799). 

Derbyshire, James, pipe maker, Mary-gate 



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i2L 

Someone of that name in oomjHtffativelj lecent 
times was still em^ffed in the business. Dtnin and 
Bigffs, stationers, &., Market-pdace. Many will 
still remember Messrs. Dunn, senior and junior, 
on Timber-hill (now South-parade). Flamston, 
Thomas, joiner, Hounds-gate. Someone of the 
same name and trade, and doubtleas' descen- 
dants, carried on l/usiness on the east s de of 
St. Nicholas-street, close to Hounds-gate, until 
about thirty-five years since. 

Gear, William, fishmonger, Market-place. It 
was probably from him that the old thoroughfare 
jard took its name, which was afterwairds super- 
seded by the much larger, and more important 
Exchange-walk. Gk>oc[acre, Robert, Grammar 
School, Parliament-street Ten years after he 
removed to Standard-hill, where (with intervals) 
he and his son William carried it on until alout 
1855 to 1860. Hallam, John, watch maker, 
Bridlesmitli gatfc Many of my older fcUow- 
citizons will remember Messrs. Thomas H^Uam, 
senior and jrniot, in connection with tbose pre 
niises which were very little southward of the 
upper end of St. Peter's-gate. I suppose them 
to nave been the son and grandson of Mr. John 
Haliara. The family is still represented in 
the city. 

Hart, Francis, gentleman, Bridilesmith-gate. 
He probably was one of the originoftoars c^ the 
banking company of FeUows, MeUors, bj.d Hart, 
and the father of the Francis Hart still well 
remembered as being connected with the banking 
firm of Messrs. Hart and Fellows of a more 
recent date. He (the son) resided in the old 
family house, at the lower anffle of Pepper- 
street and St. Peter's Church-walk. 

In 1799, according to Willoughby, the White 
Lion Inn was on the Long-row, though the (com • 
paratively) important hotel of that name, which 
many still livin^r will remember as being much 
connected with coaches in formeir days, was, as 
before explained, in dumber-street. Hopkin- 
smi, George, attorney, Long-row. I have & 
full recollection of a Mr. Hopkinson in the legal 
m-ofession, who resided almost opposite to 
Bromley House. At this date Alderman Ben- 
jamin Hombuckle, hosier, was residing in 
Nanow-marsh ( a few of the town notables still 



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122 

lived in or near there). Need, Nathaniel, 
druggist, Long-row. M»nj of the older lesi- 
dents will no doubt remember Mr. iTathaniel 
Need, who was a draper in that part 

Langford, Mrs., Mary-gate. This lady I be- 
lieve to be a descendant of a family of that 
name which, durinfl the previous hundred and 
iwen^ years, haa more or lees, as Mayor, 
Sheriff, Ac., been connected with the gcyem- 
meut of the town. Probably the first prominent 
person of tluit name wae a surgeon in the army 
of the Commonwealth. They were intimately 
allied with the OolLin family and others, as 
we read of a Langford Oollin, £<sq., Ian«;ford 
Neville, Esq., I/ow -pavement, Ac. No doubt 
that he was a connection of the Langford familv, 
though by this tiijie the male branch had prob- 
ably died out. In 1799 I believe this to have 
also been the case with the Oollin family, for 
T have iK;t seen any reference to that name in 
Willuughby's Directory of Hpitingham. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM. 

ITS STBEITS, PEOPLE, &c. 



xvm. 

In Willougbby's Directory of 1799, on 
page 15, is the name of Hall, Thomas, hosier, 
Angel-row. Thirty-three years later (1832), 
White, in his Directory, says, "Hall, Thomas, 
Esq., Angel-ro^"; and in 1834 Dearden has a 
similar entry. I remember his old house well, 
with the large grounds, axtd the changes which 
occurred there a short time after his deoease. 
I have sometimes thought, from the great addi- 
tions to Nottingham since then, that if the 
property had been set out and arranged in re- 
cent times a very different class of buildings 
would probably have been erected upon his old 
garden to what has befn the case. 

He resided in the premises on Angel-row 
next below H. Barker and Cu., Limited, which, 
soon after his death, were altered into three 
if not four shops. His house stood back from 
the road several fe^t, having an iron fence as 
a boundary on the front, and about six stone 
steps to mount when going into it. If noticed, 
it may be observed that Uie ahops or lower 
storey in each case project a few feet beyond 
the upper portion of the building. Before 
alteration, from the qua<ntity of ground it 
covered and being, I believe, four storeys high, 
it certainly had much space and numerous 
rooms in it. 

His garden was of considerable extent back 
wards, and then turned westward to Mount- 
street- Tliis is the sito on which the whole of 
Bromley-place was afterwards built. The lajge, 
old official map of Nottingham (dated 1829) 
gives a good ide of the ground. 1 notice that 
since the erection of the new premises for 
Messrs. H. Barker and Co., Limited, the 
entrance to Bromley-place from Angel-row has 
been materially widened. 

Judging from memory, and being quite a 
youth at the time, I believe that Mr. Hall died 
)n 1836. I have a recollection of his funeral, 



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124 

at whicb there was muoii farm aad ceremony, 
with mutes, &o., Ac. Someone with a similar 
name, about .1841, built the Hall at Whatton- 
in-the-Vale (the late Mr. Wm. Patteirson erected 
it). If it is not the case now, there was, some 
years since, a Thomas Dickinson Hall, I be- 
lieve, residing there, and probably he caused it 
to be built. 

In 1799 Miss Kirkbv was livim? at Notting- 
ham Oastle. (I have also seen it *^irby.") In 
reference to Lanjrford Collin, Ac., I find, at 
the date just given, that a Mrs. Langford was 
residing in Mary-gate, and it is probable that 
she may have been the last representative of 
that well-known family living in the town. 

In the Records, Vol. 5, p. 137, A.D. 1629, 
there is a singular extract from the Minutes of 
the Common Council respecting Cornelius 
Lrunder, when they resolved tnat : — "This 
Companie are noti Willinge thatt Cornelius 
Laimder shall be made a Burgeese, in regard 
theire bee albeddy twoe pewterers in the towne 
who have children and apprentices thatt are 
reddy to sett upp trade themselves ; and there- 
fore noe necessitie as ye. to geve him admit- 
tance rs a Burgesse.'' 

In Article 22, pp. 1^-28, I noticed Lawrence 
Collin, the founder of that not^d family in the 
town, and the unbecoming treatment which he 
received from the Corporation. To a certain 
extent, in this respect, the cases of Comejius 
Launder, pewteier, and Ivawrence Collin, wool- 
comber, were similar, for the Council desired 
to prevent each of them from carrying on busi- 
ness in Nottinjjham, which most certainly would 
have resulted m a greater loss to the town 
than to themselves, for the families of each 
rose to high stations in the town and county. 

Fifty years aft^r the effort in opposition to 
Lawrence C/ollin's settlement here, his son 
Thomas Collin was Mayor and Alderman of 
Nottingham. In 1702 his grandson, John 
Collin, was one of the Sheriffs, and in 1713 he 
was Mayor and Alderman of the town. I have 
not observed any later date when one of that 
name held a public office in the town, but 
Langford Collin afterwards became the pos- 
seisor of Elton Hall, Nottinghamshire, and re- 



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125 

sided there. He wa« also a Coiuitj Magislraie. 
His sister. Mary ColUn, died in 1773, at the 
house of ner brother, John Collin, Esq., in 
Weekday-cross, aged 72 years, and he died at 
his house on the High pavement in 1775, aced 
66 years. All three were children of Abel 
Oolfin, to whom we are so much indebted as 
the founder of the fine sets of Hospitals m the 
town, and with them the name of Collin, in 
or near to Nottingham, probably died out. 

Bespecting Cornelius Launder, the pewterer 
above mentioned, to whom the Corporation ob- 
jected, there cannot be much douot that he 
shortly afterwards succeeded in his desires, and 
settled in Nottingham, though of this fact I 
have not observed any direct reference in the 
Kecords, but in 1635 his son Cornelius Laun- 
der was baptised at St. Peter's Church, and 
buried there in 1680. Another son went to 
Alfreton, and Bemrose, in his "Reliquary," 
mentions a Token which he issued there. 

His son Cornelius was luried at St. Peter's 
Church, Nottingham, in 1725, leavinc; a son, 
Cornelius Launder, who wae bom in r/20, and 
it is of him specially from his position, and 
as one of the last of that name, tnat I wish to 
write. In Willoughby's Directory, on p. 20, 
the names uf two Launders are enterea, and 
I have thought that the last was nephew of the 
first. They are, Cornelius Launder, JCsq., St. 
James-lane (now street), and Rev. — Ladder, 
Blowbladder-street (Old Market-street, ( r going 
out of Weekday-cross to Fletcher-gate). 

In 1766 Cornelius Launder married Mary, 
only daughter of Lancford Collin, Esq., of 
Elton. Nine years later — ^1775 — her uncle, 
John Collin, of Hich-pavement, died and left 
her most or all of nis large property. In tlie 
same year Cornelius Launder was High Sheriff 
of the county. In March, of that year, he gave 
a grand entertainment to a large party at his 
mansion in St. James-lane, and afterwards, ac- 
companied by javelin men, Ac, Ac, with 
trumpeters in advance, and displaying his 
armorial bearings, proceeded to meet the Judge 
when coming into tne town. I have here given 
a brief account of persons whose ancestors ob- 
tained admission into Nottingham most cer- 



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126 

thinly against tJie wish of the Corporation, hut 
who. hy carefulness, rose to an excellent posi- 
tion in society. 

As showing the difference in estimation hy 
the Oorporation as regards the Launders, be- 
tween the year 1629, when the Council would 
not make Cornelius I..aunder a Burgees as 
wished, and 1788, I will give j short extract 
from the Date Book:— "1788: July 17.— The 
Mayor and Corporation dined at Thurland 
Haii in a sumptuous manner with Lord 
Middleton, John Sherwin. Esq., Thomas 
Plumbe, Esq., Cornelius Launder Esq., 
Francis Gawthom, Esq., and many other gen- 
tlemen of influence and station. My pre- 
disposition is quite in favour of the Collin 
family ; for they were fortunately not only 
wealthy, but generously' disposed. The last 
Cornelius Launder was an opulent man, but I 
have seen no record of his having devoted any 
portion of his riches to benefit his native town 
or the poor. He was a Deputy-Lieutenant of 
Nottinghamshire. 

Continuing my extracts of names from the 
old Directory, the next is Mrs. Parky ns, 
Bridlesmith-gate. From the style of spelling, 
it is probable that she was connected with the 
Parkyns, of Bunny. Benjamin Ping, a "Cal- 
lender-man," Bose-yard. Tliis is another busi- 
ness of which little or nothing is heard in 
recent years. John Plaoe, Saddler, Hen-cross 
(now Poultry). I recollect someone of that 
name, who was a saddler, on Beastmarket-hill, 
just below the Bank. Numerous persons are 
still left who will remember his son, Mr. John 
Place, now deceased, who was formerly, and 
for many years, connected with the Nottingham 
and Nottinghamshire Banking Company, in 
Thurland-str.eet. Forty years since he had a 
brother who was an architect in the town. 

John Bisdale, Baker, Hounds-gate. I re- 
member someone of the name and trade in that 
part 65 years since, and there was, and perhaps 
IS now, a Risdale's-yard in Hounds-gate. Wm. 
Rowbotham, Victualler, Flying Horse, Hen- 
cross, "Travellers' Inn." This is interestingly 
quaint in the description of the house and its 
location, and proves tihat during last century 



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127 

but one, provision was made for viators to pafis 
the night at that old inn. I have not noticed 
an instance in the town, A.D. 1799, when such 
a place wae termed an "Hotel." They were 
all "Inns." 

In 1799 the Rt. Hon. Lady Santry was a 
resident in Mary-gate, though I am unaware of 
the exact spot. James Severn. Wine and 
•'Liquor" Merchant, Middle-pavement. When 
passing that part quite recently I foimd that 
someone of that name was still following tilie 
same business in Middle-pavement; therefore, 
it has been carried on there in or during " the 
eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth cen- 
turies," of which we have a public record. 
Edward Skipwith, Grocer, Lwig-row, and 
William Skipwith, Stationer, Long-row. This 
is an old name in the part, though not a oon- 
tiniiation of the same vocation. It was known 
in the locality until about five or six years 
since, from a liquor business being carried on 
at the south-west comer of Kinc-street, on 
Long-row, and upon the site of which a mas- 
sive block of buildings has recently been con- 
structed. 

John Sherwin, Pilcher-gate ; Mrs. Sherwin, 
Stoney-street. This is a noted old name in 
Nottingham. It is mentioned in the Becords, 
Vol. 4, p. 183, 1579, where there is a peculiar 
Item in the Chamberlain's account, which fully 
proves (as stated before) how decided the dis- 
position of the Corporation was in olden timea 
for a good and cheap feast or drinking bout. 
It ia afi follows : — "In wine gevjrn IHI. gallons 
by Maister Mere (Mayor : William Scott) at 
the maryadg of Nycholae Shyrwyn, 68. 8d." 
A.t that date the amount would b? equivalent 
to about £4 in these times. 

These drinkinjj; bouts were at that period not 
uncommon ; for the next item previous has re- 
ference to a case exactly similar, "At the 
maryadge of Robert Alvye," when the Cor- 
poration wastefully expended 9s. 4d. of the 
town's money on themselves and friends. From 
the Sherwin s, Nottingham has obtained five 
Mayors, and six or seven Sheriffs. I have pre- 
viously mentioned, I believe, that their Not- 
tingham house was at the nortih-east comer of 



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186 

Piloher-gate. It was formerly enclosed on the 
front with an iron fence, but it has been taken 
away to increase the width of the street, and 
other changes made to it in my reoollectioo. 

Amongst the oases reported at the town 
Sessions in July, 1573, is the following: — 
"Whe present Nyoolas Sherwin wyffe, toner 

i tanner), for byin a (of) butter, and makeis 
lyt new a gayne, and selles hyt a gayne." 
That is she made the butter up again, and re- 
sold it. I believe that the John Sherwin resid- 
ing at the old family house in Pilchor-gate, 
A.D. 1799, was one of the last of that name 
to live in it. 

Hardy, William, Victualler (May Pole), May- 
pole-yaxd. It is interesting to note that some- 
one with the old name was the proprietor of 
that house 105 years since. Smith, Samuel, 
Esq., M.P., Banker, Market-plaoe. From this 
he almost appears to have lived there. SoIIcot, 
John, Plumber, &c., Bridlesmith-gaite. We 
have still, I believe, someone of that name 
and trade carrying on business in Mount- 
street. 

Sutton, Charles, Printer, Ac., Bridlesmith- 
gate. He commenced the "Nottingham 
Review" in 1808. Seven or eight ^rears after 
(1815) the Attorney-Greneral, ex-offieio, filed a 
criminal information against him for what he 
was pleased to call a "libel," but, judged by 
our latter-day ideas, it was absoliitely free 
from and untainted with any libel whatever. 
It was a keen and deserved satire on the 
(Government of the time and nothing more. 
Legally speaking, if printed to-dav it would 
undoubtedly pass without notice except to 
raise a smile at the wit displayed. 

During the discussion on the fiscal question 
which commenced several months since, as 
well as on numerous other occasions, there 
must have been in the comic and other papers 
hundreds ot sneh "libels," which the people 
enjoy and laugh at, but in 1815 it was treading 
upon "holy ground" to presume either directly 
or indirectly to criticise the Government. Mr. 
Charles Sutton was an ill-used man, with 
ideas about half a century in advance of his 
time. 



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If it was possible for such a case as his to 
now reach one of our higher law courts it 
would oertainlj' be dismissed, but practically 
laughed out of Court, and those making the 
charge would probably be saddled with the 
costs. This, however, was not the case with 
Mr. Sutton, who was far more '* sinned against 
than sinning." He was tried, and the juiry 
brought in a verdict against him. He ap- 
pealed, but who in those days could struggle 
successfully with the Gk)vemment? The ca«e 
was brought forward again at the Oourt of 
King's Bench, London, and Mr. Justice Le 
Blanc, after a long harkiurue, ordered that he 
should be imprisoned in liorthampton Gaol far 
twelve months, and after that time give seouribr 
for "gcx>d behaviour*' for three years, himself 
in £500 and two satisfactoir securities for £250 
each. Mr. Sutton was confined in the debtor's 
ward. He was set at liberty on February 8, 
1817. 

Tatham, Thomas, jfrocer. Middle-pavement. 
Full sixty years since I remember a Ta;tham 
who was still a grocer there. The shop they 
occupied is now in possession of the Globe 
Parcel and Express Company. There was also 
a grocer's shop on the opposite side of the street 
occupied by Mr. BaJcer, but rather nearer to 
Weekday-cross. It is now a refreshment house. 
At that time, in Weekday-cross and Middle- 
pavement, there was a drugj^ist's, a pawn- 
broker's, and various other traces being oiirried 
on, with few or no warehouses, but many resi- 
dences. 

In the former series I have noticed a Mr. 
Tollington, whom I remember more than sixty 
years since as a jprocer on Long-row, almost 
opposite to Bromley House. There were, I be- 
lieve, two of that name, but it is the eldest to 
whom I now wish to refer, for in his way he 
was a very notable person. I retain in memory 
a few who wore pigtails, and it is probable fhat 
he was the last person in Nottingham having 
such an appendage. In Willoughby's Directory 
(1799), T find ToUinton, Thomas, grocer and 
flaxdresser, Ix>ng-row. Dearden, in his Direc- 
tory of 1834, mentions someone of the same 
name on Long-row, but at that date he is a 



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150 

(H^x^er only ; the flaxdreecnif porhftps being dis- 
continued. 

He was then adranced in years, and most 
assuredly the fsme person as the ToUinton 
mentioned ia 1799. Messrs. W. C5alvert and 
Co., grocers, now ooeuuy the site of the pre- 
mises once in the possession of Mr. TolJinton, 
but the buildings have been so greatly trans- 
formed and enlarged that their previoufi owner 
— ^was it possible h«» could see them — would 
not reoognise them. 

Sparrow, James Painter, Long-row. Until 
little more than nfty years since someone of 
that name and trade could have been found 
there. Many are still left who will remember 
them. It was one of the last houses westward 
on Long-row, and next to "The George aaid 
Dragon." When walking down Ohapel-bar, it 
was the first house on tJie left hand of which 
the upper part of the front rested on stone 
pillars. For about half a. century Messrs. 
Sparrow have carried on business in Park- 
row. 

Stoney, Benjamin, Weekday-oross. I re- 
member Stoney and 01ai4ce, Joiners, «&c., of 
Weekday-cross. Their premises were near to 
the casten) end of the old Town Hall. Turner, 
Thomas, Framesmith, Toll House-hill. Tlio 
gIu house, or rather two old houses, are stili 
there, but the workshops have long since dis- 
appeared. I have a full remembrance of three 
perstiiri!} who were of that name, one being the 
father of iJie late Mr. Thomas Turner, formerly 
proprictv>x of "The Black Boy" Hotel, Long- 
row, who would probably be a nephew of the 
other two. Since the erection, about 1820, of 
ilie bottom property on Toll House-hill, the 
old houses of the Turners have been considered 
to be in Toll-street. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM. 

ITS STREETS. PEOPLE, &c. 



XIX. 

In this article, with various other matters, 
I propose to g^ifve a short aoooiniib of 
several old inhabitants of Nottinghalta, and 
also oopies of handbills or announcements cir- 
culated the century before last, by them or 
others, and ^o commence with the one first 
issued. 

Judged by our modem notions, it is a curious 
and interesting document, and rendeored still 
more so by its wording and style. It is six inches 
long and barely three and three-quarter inches 
wide, with the lines running lengthwise. It 
was a business announcement by Mr. Joseph 
Heath, once of Timberhill (South-parade), in 
the Market-place, Nottingham. There is evi- 
dence, I believe, that he was in business there 
nearly one hundred and fifty years since. He 
was a bookseller, &c., and during a portion of 
his life a member of the Senior Council of the 
Town. This, of course, was in connection with 
the old and unreformed Oorxx)ration. He ob- 
tained an independency and parted with his 
business to Mr. Wilson. 

Some years after that took place, he attended 
a Watch-night service on the last evening of 
1788, and directly on returning to his house, 
complained to Mrs. Heatli (who was unwell and 
confined to her chamber) that he had much 
pain in his breast. He was sitting in a chair, 
and immediately fell down, when, notwith- 
standing the assistance given, he died within 
an hour. There cannot, I think, be much 
doubt that the old relic described must date 
back from 130 to 140 years, for it is 115 years 
jsince Mr. Heath died, and some years pre- 
viously he had retired from business. At the 
time of his death he was in his 61st year. 

The following is a copy of the rarity :— "To 
be sold by way of Auction, this present evening 
— ^to begin at six o'clock. A large collection of 
Bo(^s, in several faculties: as History, 



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132 




Divinity, Mathematics &c. — Likewise New and 
Se<x>nd-hand Bibles and Oommon Prayers, and 
all sorts of School-Books, Shop-Books, Pocket- 
Books, Ma|)8 lOid Piotarea, &c. ... to con- 
tinue . . . Nights. N.B. Attendance will 
bo gyren from Morning till Night. — The full 
value given for any Library or Parcel of Books. 
Gentlemen's Libraries valued, and proper at- 
tendance ffiven on very reasonable rates. Like- 
wise Gentlemen's Libraries Gilt, or lettered at 
their own houses on very reasonable rates, by 
Joseph Heath, Boc^eller, Binder, and 
Stationer, next door In the ' Boot and Shoe ' in 
the Market-place, Nottingham." 

With a year or two of Mr. Joseph Heath's 
death his affairs appear to have got into Ohan- 
oery, and by an orddr therefrom five lots of 
freehold property were offered for sale, re- 
specting which on announcement was made as 
follows : " In Chancery. — A particular of 
several Freehold Estates (lots) late (the pro- 
peity) of Joseph Hea^h, deceased, situate in 
Nottingham, which are to be sold by Public 
Auction, pursuant to an Order of the High 
Court of Chancery, at the house of IVir. Edin- 
borough (victualler. Punch Bowl) in the New 
Change, in the T6wn of Nottingham, by Mr. 
John Heath (the person appointed by the said 
Court to sell the same), on the 29 day of Ma^, 
1703, between the hours of eleven and twelve in 
the forenoon in five lots." 

There were first three lots of property in 
Hounds-gate for sale, each oonsisting of a house 
and garden. The fourth lot was the house 
in St. James's-lane (now street), in which Mr- 
Heath had formerly lived. The next lot, aiid 
last, is thus desoribed, "A Freehold Messuage 
or Tenement, with offices and other outhouses, 
situate on Timb«vhill, MaAetr-place, in Not- 
tingham, let tc William Wilson, bookseller, on 
a lease, whereof seven yea^^s are unexpired, at 
the yearly rent of £50, subject to a dower of a 
lady aged 54 years." 

Mr. Jonathan Dunn the elder, who pro- 
bably died about forty-five years since, was the 
successor of Mr. William Wilson as a book- 
seller and printer, uaving purchased the busi- 
ness from the executors. It is shown by 



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tss 

Tttrioiis oircanurtano^s tih«t tliis must have oo- 
eurred within a slioct time oi the sole, and pro- 
baUj Mr. Dunn became the owner of the pro- 
perly about the aaofie date. It is intereeting 
to read reepeotinc^ the amount of rent paid in 
that oentzM part of the Market one hundred 
and ten years since, being £30 per anoium, for, 
when compared with recent times, it is a m^e 
percentage of what would be demanded and 
gladJT paid. 

While considering the amount of rent in 
1793 a few important points must not be over- 
looked, for £S0 at that date would — as com- 
pared with money in these days — be equivalent 
to no less than three times that sum, but pro- 
bably to about £100. In Article XL. I 
make some observations respecting the waffes 
of working men a« a atsiidard of value, and I 
think proving as regards the compara- 
tive worth or purchasing power of 
money, that these statements are correct. 
It must also be remembered that in 
1793 the building was completely in the old 
style of James I., with low rooms, and where 
a tall man with a walking-stick woiild almost 
be< abl^ to tap at. the first, chamber windows 
from the street. 

Bonnington in his fine view ot the Market- 
place a« it appeared about a century since, gives 
an excellent notion of these old and interesting 
premises, with the gables and high-pitchea 
roofs. I am fortunate in possessing a very 
good old engraving of the house and shop, taken 
of them as they appeared in the year 1740. I 
have given an account of it in the Twelfth 
Article, but I may further say that the shop 
windows at the top are shown to be but a trifle 
higher than the shop door. The bottom of the 
windows, comparing them with the height of 
persons looking in them, were between three 
and four feet i^ve the ground. 

Tliese windows were but ihree^ small squares, 
or Bot more than four Teet in height, and simi- 
lar in the first chaml>er, but in the second 
chamber there were three smaller squares high. 
Altogether it is a quaint and interesting picture 
of the old place, but ^ neat contrast to what is 
now upon that site. Bonnington shows it tp 



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134 

have been the lowest oa Timber-hill fSouth- 
parade), or neaor it, except perhaps the old part 
of the Flying Horse Inn. 

After pulling the old building down, how- 
ever, in 1817, Mr. Dunn erected the highest pre- 
mises in the Ma»rket-place at that time, for, in 
place of three low storeys, it had five much 
higher ones ; and I have little hesitation in 
asserting that the new shops are more than 
double the height of the old structure. Of 
late vears a numb^ of other places of business 
have been built in the Market-place, which ex- 
ceed in height those erected by Mr. Dunn, 
though probably none oi these are more than 
five storeys, as regards the main building. 

I will also bring under notice what is for 
such a purpose a small bill — 12iin. by S^in. — 
respecting the sale of other property in 1808, 
an I on "The Soutli Side" (uf the Market, 
liniber-liili). In the largest type used, it is 
termed a dwelling-house, and shops are not 
mentioned except in sr^all type ; this is cer- 
tainly strange to us in. recent times, for prac- 
tically all in that part Are now connected with 
business. 

The bill begins : *' Market-place, Notting- 
ham, Freehold Dwelling-house (with possession 
in a month), situate in Nottingham Market- 
place, to be sold by auction l^ Mr. E. B. 
Bobinson, at the hous-3 of Mr. Crane, Ex- 
change, Nottingham, on Tuesday, the 8tii day 
of Mlrch, 1808, at three o'clock in the altemoon, 
subject to such conditions as will be then and 
there produced : A desirable Freehold Messuage 
or Dwelling-house, auvantageously situate for 
any business, on the South side, and in the 
most central part of Nottingham Market-place, 
comprising two shops, with a frontage of 30 
feet, a parlour behind the same, several good 
lodging-rooms, good warehouses under the 
shops ; rock cellars, lar^e cistern, and an entire 
yard, in which is a printing office, and other 
outhouses ; the whoie in the occupation of Mr. 
Dunn, bookseller, who is removing from the 
premises. Further particulars may be known 
on applying to Messs. Middlemore and Percy, 
solicitors, and to the auctioneer, in the Poultry. 
JPart of the purchase money may remain on 



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135 

8«3arity of the premiBes.'' 

Mr* Dunn appears probebly to have ju- 
pied that portion of the premises which .^ in 
the back yard in connection witii his printing 
business. WiUoughbv, in 1799, respecting Mr. 
Middlemore, enters the firm at that earlier date 
as "Evans and Middlemoie, attomies, Angel- 
row." 

I have still another handbill dating hstdk to 
the century before last. From the samples 
which have come down to us of more than a 
century since, we may rest assured that our 
ancestors were not ambitious, nor inclined to 
use or waste much paper on posters or hand- 
bills, for at that time it was almost sure to be 
taxed. The one I am proposing to introduce 
to the notice of my leaders is also of very 
humble proportions, being barely six inches 
long or wide and four inches deep. It was 
issued in 1796 by Abraham Booth. 

In my voung days I have frequently spoken 
with people who knew him well. He died in 
1801. The bill is as follows :— "Booth, shoe- 
maker, begs to inform his friends and the 
publio in general that he has opened his shoe 
warehouse, next door to the Ooss Keys in St. 
Marv-gate, Nottin^^iam, where he can sell 
men s good strong wax-leather idioes at 66. per 
pair ; women's leather slippers l-d., 5s. 9d. ; 
ditto Spanish, 4s. 9d., and all others at a price 
in proportion." 

In Willoughby's Directory (1799), p. 5, I 
find : " Booth, Abraham ; boot and shoemaker, 
Hen-cross (Poultry)." He had, therefore, after 
^ a short stay in St. Mary's-gate, removed to 
more central and businesslike premises. He 
was a nephew of the Hev. Abraham Booth 
(once of Annesley), who was author of "The 
Reipi of Grace,' which went through several 
editions, as well as various other works. 

There is still another matter relating to Mr. 
Booth which will doubtless be interesting to 
many in the city even in recent times, and haa 
influenced ne in ment:oning his name ; it is 
respeotii|B[ an assuratnce which I had from 
several of his old acquaintances that he was the 
first person in Nottingham to keep a stock of 
ready-made b<>ots and dioee for sale in his shop. 



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136 

I now wish to make a few remarks regardmg 
his elder brother, Boberi Booth. In Wil- 
loughby's Direotory, on page 5, there is an 
entry of " Booth, Bobert, (manufaoturinrg) hosier, 
Plumptre-place.'' As stated before, the dato 
of the directory is 1799, but I have obseryed no 
reference to Flumptre-street in it; therefore, 
as remarked in a recent article, I conclude that 
the thoroughfare of that name was not com- 
plete in that year from Stoney-sireet to Bellar- 
gate. Mr. Bobert Booth died there sixty 
^ears since (1844). I knew him well, and at 
intervals conversed with him as a youth. 

Becently when passing the top of Plumptre- 
street I looked at his old house, now muen al- 
tered, the front doorway being bricked up, and 
what was onoe a back or alternative road into 
the house is now the onlv one, and close to 
the lower end of the premises. These, when 
going down Plumptre-stxeet about 60 yards, 
are on the right hand side, ;nd three storeys 
high. In old times they looked proportionate, 
but the new and much larger buildings near 
have by comparison considerably altor^ that. 

On the opposite side of the street to the 
house, and rather nearer to Stoney-street, there 
is, as compared generally with others, a very 
old warehouse, which, as having been "built" 
for that purpose, and n*.. being another build- 
ing " altered '' for a warehouse, causes itj I have 
often thought, to be unique in Nottingham. 
If there is another a£ old as it, and woruiy of 
the name, which also war built ifor a warehouse, 
I certainly have no Knowledge of it- When 
first erected (before 1799) it would undoubtedly 
be considered a large building, but if com- 
pared with some of the .nodem structures, and 
even with th^ one adjoining, but nearer to 
Stoney-street, it is dwaifed by comparison. 

These were the business premises of ^ir. 
Bobert Booth. He retired from business about 
1808 or 1810, for at ai^ election in 1806 he is 
described as a hosier, but in 1812 as "gentle- 
man." There is no doubt that these state- 
ments are correct, for in 1809 he was one of the 
churchwardens of St. Mary's, and that fact I 
ronsider to a great extent proves that he had 
then withdrawn from tlie cares of business. 



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187 

in 1799 Mr. John "♦iTright, baoiker, resided 
on Low-payement, and Smith Wright is re- 
dorded as living on Swine Green (Oarlton- 
street). At the same time there w^e two other 
gentlemen haying similar names residing iii the 
town, namel J : —Thomas Wright, surgeon, 
Bridlesmith-gate, and John Wnght, surgeon, 
Fletoher-gate. I haye thought it probable thai 
the J were ancestors or other' relatives of the 
Wright^ William, surgeon, Pelham-street, or 
the Wnght, John, surgeon, Hi^h-pavement, of 
fifty years since or possibly rather more. 

There are some oases in which the little old 
directory of Wiiloughby's is eminently uaefui, 
for, although it may only be inferential, he oo- 
casionally gives information which is of much 
value aoid thoroughly reliable. Bospecting 
Coalpit-lane, Deering. in his map (1750), shnwti 
that in his day it w:ae continued up to the 
lower end of Broad-lane, now Broad-street ; and 
Willougihby, whon mentioning Bilby's Hospital, 
states that it is in Ooalpit-lane, whicli proves 
that in 1799 that roadway, as regards its name 
was the same until after the century eiuled as 
it was with Deering, and that what we now 
term St. John's-sireet was at both thoee dates 
the upper end of Ooalpit-lane. 

The inn we now know as the Flying Horse 
"Hotel" is by Willoughby termed "The 
Travellers' Inn. During his time the part 
where Collin's Hospital is situated was stall 
called Friar-lane; for the thoroujgrhly imneces- 
sary addition of Park-street and interchange of 
titles had not then been thought of. 

There is one person whose name, with his 
various vocations, should be mentioned, which 
are recorded by Willoughby in 1799 ; for, when 
judged by our modeim notions, there is some- 
thing peculiar. It is: — "John Gaskill, general 
appraiser and auctioneer. Middle-pavement. 
Also a Commissioner r.o take Special Bails, in 
the King's Bench, and Court of Common Pleas, 
for the Counties of Nottingham, York, Dei'by, 
Lincoln, and Leicester; by Warrants from the 
Lord Chief Justice bearing date the 12th May, 
1795.'* • 

In 1799 there were onljr two Banks in the 
town, namely, Samuel Smith and Co., Market- 



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136 

plaoe. and Messrs. John and lobabod Wrigiit 
and Oo., Swine-greefn. The Bank of Messrs. 
Fellows, Mellers, and Hart was established 
nine or ton jeatrs afterwards. At this period 
there were fpor silversmith, jcTdllers, ouUers, 
&c., in Nottingham, and all carried on business 
in or close to the Market-place. 

The mode of entry Is rather peculiar, judged 
by presentnday 'notions. They were "Homer, 
Mrs., Smithy-row ; Lingford, John, Market- 

5 lace ; Onne and Hulse^ Long-row ; Wright, 
ames, Maiket-plare." On an ocoasion or two 
previously in_past times I have noticed that 
matters connected with the sooth side of the 
Market (Timber-hir or Bea&tmarket-hill, or 
Angel-row) were notified frequently as being in 
the " Market-place.** 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM. 

ITS STEEETS, PEOPLE, &c. 



XX. 

I propose in this communication to 
Inng uniler notice various matters relating to 
St. Mary's Churchyard, together with 
differsnt thorough! ares in its immediate 
neighbourhood ; the changes in the level 
of a portion of the ground ; the making of 
new avenues or ways ; and including some allu- 
sion to a few notable residences, &c., near. 

In Article XLV. an extract from Vol. V. p 
152 of the Borough Becords is given rospecting 
*'Stoopes (posts) and Bayles, to The Hollow- 
ston," &c., where there is much vagueness in 
the entry, but, as then stated, I propose shortly 
to suggest a place or places where they could 
probably have been fixed. In relation to these 
subjects I shall make much use of the large and 
very fine engraving referred to previously and 
representing that part, dating back approxi- 
mately 220 years, which I am glad to own ; 
and speed ally from the fact that it throws light 
upon some doubtful points connects with his- 
tory and may possioly suggest or determine 
what previously many were unacquainted with. 

This rare representation of that locality was 
issued from sixty to sixty-five years previous 
to the publication in 1751 of Deering's " History 
of Nottingham," and in that time there is proof 
of a very considerable change having taken 

Slace near to the Church or churchyara of St. 
[ary. At the southern end of Stoney-street 
(as it is now) from Broadway to the top of 
Hollowstone and Short-hill, together with High- 
pavement, there is a considerable descent, 
which about one hundred and fifty or sixty 
years since was entitled St. Mary's-hill, but 
that name has for many years become obsolete. 
In connection with this part the lar^e old en- 
graving gives a thoroughly different idea. 

The street is there exhibited in what I think 
might be termed its natural level, and that is on a 
pe^eot equality with the ohurohyard for its 



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140 

whole width on the western side of the roadway, 
and the other groand adjoining, which at that 
period on the eastern side was entirely clear of 
buildings, from Hollowstone to Plumptre-plaoe, 
as now termed, and between Stoney-street and 
until Bellar-gate (on its western side) was 
reached- In mentioning Plumptre-place it is 
merely as a landmaork in present times, for it 
is probably little more than, if as 
much as, a century aflo since it 
was formed, which is only rlmut half the 
time of what is under consideration. I believ^e 
it to have received that title after Plumptre- 
street was taken quite through to Bellar-gate, 
for reasons previously given. 

The large open and unbuilt upon piece of 
land lust mentioned is shown to be under cultiva- 
tion, and there are a few trees on the side next 
Stoney-street. At that dat^ (about 1685-90) 
there was no building whatever on the northern 
side of Hollowstone, commencing from the top 
until the western side of Bellar-^ate was 
reached. When walkiug from the souOiem end 
of Stoney-street northwards full two hundred 
years since the first habitations to the right 
were what appear to be two cottages or two 
little blocks of buildings, which may perhaps 
have consisted of two cottages each, for tne 
trees shown on the engraving cause this point 
to be uncertain from their screening a large 
portion of them. Each appear to have a goed- 
sized garden at the back, on which some trees 
are growing. There is no cause for doubting 
that the rooms in the oottiu^ must have been 
low, as was the case in nearly all houses of that 
date. 

The next building is the town mansion of the 
Pierrepont family, with whom the Duke of 
Kin4?ston wqs onoe connected, and the head of 
which at the present time is Earl Man vers. It 
was an imposing structure, three ^oreys in 
height and oecupyinff the site on which Messrs. 
Heymann and Alex«ad^s warehouse now 
stands. It commenced where Plumptre-place 
now is, and on its northern side, I think it 
would reach to within about twenty yards of 
Barker-gate. The ground on the eastern side of 
the premises (or at the back from the street) 



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was laid out in an elaborate and attraoiiTe 
manner, extending to a very short distance of 
Bellar-gate. At this date (about 1690) a por- 
tion of the ground in Stoney-street facing this 
residence was entirely clear of buildings and 
formed an excellent ^ vista" to the house, on 
the side of which and next to the stneet there 
was a row of fine trees. 

I think it is most pirobable that at one 
period the ground in the part referred to as 
belonjpng to the PierreponU extended to Bar- 
ker-gate, and to a great degree I consider this 
is proved to be correct by what ooourred a.d. 
1677, May 25th, respecting the schoolhouee 
(afterwards next to tke house of the Pierre- 
ponts) when we are told in The Becords, 
Vol V. p. 320:— "It is this day ordered that 
Master Josenh OJay, Master Gervas Wyld and 
Samuel Bicnards, trx^t^her with the school- 
wardens, shall view Qie Free-sdhoole house in 
order to ye pulling down the west end." 

On the 3rd of the following July there is 
evidence that something had occurred respect- 
ing the schoolhouse (in Stoney-sixeet), for at a 
meeting on that day the following resolution 
was agreed to: — "It is this day ordered \yy 
the Oouncell yat the Major (Mayor) for the tyme 
beinge., Master Alderman Greaves, Master 
Alderman Edge, Master John Greaves, toid 
Master Samuel Bichards be em^oyed to treate 
with Boberte Pierrepont, Esquire, about the 
exchange of the Free-sohoole. 

The modem building (idl or in part) in 
Stoney-street, which was previously usea for the 
Free Granmiar Sohool, is still standing, thou^ 
it was no doubt erected subsequetntly to 16^. 
It is, I believe, the next edifice on the north 
side of Messrs. Heymaim and Alexander's ware- 
house, which as arranged a few years since was 
set back three or four yards to widen the road. 
The old schoolhouse and other premises reach- 
ing to Barker-gate now project- further into the 
street, but when this part is brought into line 
a j^reat improvement will be accomplished. 

The large old engraving was brought out or 
published before the noted old residence, 
I'lumptre House, was arranged for or built; 
and there is a moderate-si^ house on that 



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142 

sfot, with its e«st end abutting upon Rtoney- 
s-treet, and the souffch side close to ami form in jj 
part of the boundary of the churchward. It is 
a two-storey erection of the ordinary kind, 
and lower on the north than the south side. 
lb has a considerable quantity of land (for a 
town) attached to it, on the north, which ap- 
pears to hare been attended to with some care. 

Reflpectin^ the south end of Stoney-street it 
will probably be a s'irprise to mamy when told 
that it appears somewnat more than two cen- 
turies since to have terminated abniptly, and 
at the same elevation above High-pavement, or 
the top of Hollowstone, as St. Mary's church- 
yard in that part, for both are shown to be 
quite level. Thefre was r larjre flight of stone 
steps at that period into the churchyard at its 
south-east corner fmm the Pavement, though 
there was a way by which persons could ascend 
to Stoney-street, but certainly not available for 
vehicles. 

At the date referred lo, and possibly at this 
time, the width between the south-east comer 
of St. Mary's churchyard and the houses on the 
opposite side of High-pavement appears to be 
six or eight feet more than io is near the middle 
of the graveyard on that side, or when about 
sixty yards nearer to Weekday-cross. The 
cliflfy end of Stoney-street projected a number of 
feet beyond the southern wall of the church- 
yard (probably six or seven) on the side of the 
street nearest to the church, and from that 
patrt on inclined plane is shown close to ihe 
wall of the churchyard, by which anyone could 
ascend from, or descend to the Pavement. 

The north side of Hollowstone and the south 
end of Stoney-street are shown to be level with 
each other in heignt, Ac. Respecting the 
" Stoopes (posts) and Rayles " referred to above 
I think it will be '^oserved that such things 
would be very needful close to the top of 
Hollowstone either for protecMon from the 
sudden ending of Stoney-street or at the side of 
the inclined plane mentioned. During the 
last 160 years, according to old maps, Ac, a con- 
siderable change has been made in more ways 
than one as regards St Mary's churchyard. 

In 1743 and later the::^ was a row of houses, 



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143 

the backs of which abutted upon the church- 
yard on its southerir s'sie for nearly half its 
length, commencing av the bottom of Mary- 
gate, and at the end of the houses, and nearly 
opposite to what is the road to Long Stairs and 
Malin-hill, was a flighi of steps in a recess to 
get into the churchyard, when those ascending 
them went eastward, or towards Hollow stone. 
Bespecting the houses and steps, from all that 
can be gathered, it may, I think, be relied upon 
that when they were removed advantage was 
taken of the oocasion to widen the roadway. 
At that period there was a gateway to tlie 
ohoTch, a little distance ifp St. Majy*s-gate, as 
it could not then be at uhe oometr from its being 
occupied by a house. On the east and west 
side of the churchyard a row of good-sized trees 
are shown. 

I now wish to take into considerntion the 
passage which of late has been entitled '^Elaye's- 
walk." There is ample proof I consider that 
as contrasted with many other streets, &c.^ this 
is not only a comparatively new thoroughfare, 
but a much newer name, for I have not leen 
able to find it recorded in the various old 
directories coming down to 1834. We had 
formerly a St. Peter's Ohurch-side, and v.e have 
St. Peter's Ohurch-walk and St. Nicholas* 
OhuTch-walk still, as I believe, in usi'. I have 
no doubt whatever that this footroad in my 
time has bewi altered from St. Mary's Chmvh- 
side or walk to Kaye's-walk. 

At present, from what may be gathered, the 
probabilities certainly appear to favour the 
idea that the road through, or as separated from 
the churchyard, was not formed until some time 
in the first quarter of last century. An old 
lady aged 86 has assured me that she remem- 
bers a step or two at the Stoney-s^>eet end of 
the walk, which would in that part make it level 
with the churchy aord. Deering, in his map, 
shows that there was no such " valk" m his 
time, and in the large old oflficial Tr<«p of the 
town (1829) though a walk or pathway is shown 
it is not called "Kaye's-walk." 

I have carefully looked in White's Directory 
of 1832 and Dearden's of 1834, but I caarnot 
find any reference to Kaye's-walk in either 



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144 

work, ihougih in ''Blackn«r'8 Nottiiigluiin," 
1815, I har** found St. Mary's Ohuroh Side; 
recorded (p. 71) ftmongy^ the names of the prin- 
cipal streets, roads, lanes. Ac, of tiie town, 
and therefore it may be definitely cofiduded 
that the title " KayeVwalk " has been ai^ed 
witkin the time and memory of many of us who 
are still living, and continue to be inhabitants 
of the city. 

At internals in ike Borouffh Records, going 
back for the greater part of four centuries, re- 
marks are maae on various oooasions respecting 
the "stiles," of which in old times St. Mary's, 
St. Peter's, and St. Nicholas' had each one 
On a former occasion I mentioned an old en- 
graving on whick Pennyfoot Stile is shown, but 
I now wish to remark that on the large and fine 
old engraving referred to above, the St. 
Mary's Ohuroh Stile is brought very 
prominently under view at the north-east comer 
of the churohyaid, which is, of course, in 
Stoney-street ; but whoever climbed over the 
stile would then be in the churchyard and on 
a footpath crossing it to Mary-gate, for no 
portion whatever had at that date (about 1690) 
been taken from it to form a separate footway, 
or road, nor probably for about 130 years later. 

The stile is close to that side of the church- 
yard, and within about two yards southwaid 
of it some gates are ^own which could be 
used at service time There is an ordinary field 
hedge to the ground in Stoner-street opposite 
to the churchyard. In Vol. o, p. 473 of the 
Borough Becords, Kaye's-walk is introduced to 
our notice, and we are told to "compare" it 
with something on p. 259, and line 32 is men- 
tioned in connection with it. On turning to 
that part it will be found that it is regarding 
the year I486, and the item referred to savs 
" paid ye 25 day of Janyver for clensyng of tne 
lane be Seint Mary Kyrk yerd 8d." 

As a fact there if '^ally nothing satisfactory 
to which reference or comparison can be made 
on that page respecting Kaye's-walk. From 
circumstances d this sort occurring I am com- 
pelled to believe that I hl^ve far better oppor- 
tunities, generally speaking, of arriving at a 
correct canduBion tnaa iJiiose unfortunately 



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1« 

poBseased "by the editors of the Borough 
R^oords, though »n examination of Deerlng's 
map r would have shown them that there was 
BO separate footway wbarbever against the 
churohjard ip his tim& at the place alluded to, 
which is more than 260 years later than the 
date mentioned (1486). 

On continuing the reference to pages 259-60 
it will be found that the extract is in relation 
to much work oarried out about that time, and 
at the same place in repairs to the roadway, 
when SI **lod€s" of sand and 29 ''lodee of 
bulders*' (boulders) were used, though I 
think there may perhaps be another matter 
which possibly escaped observation by the 
editor, for c^ the eleven items in the account 
in reference to the rondway it is on four occa- 
sions called a 'gate' and on seven occasions 
a " lane." 

On page 488 in the same volume the editor 
tells us, and, as I believe, verv truly, that ** a 
gate" is "a street, way" That is regarding 
the frequent use of tliat word in olden times. 
These comparisons are, I think, conclusive, 
that the lane or gate referred to one (rf the 
thtee thoroui?hfares boundin^or the diurchyard on 
the south, the east oi tJie west, but it cer- 
tainly was not *' Kaye's-walk," as that name 
was not used imtil my time, according to the 
directories, &c. ; nor was it even the portion 
of the old churchyard now known by that n;»me, 
for we have full evidence that many people 
were afterwards buri*;d there from the fact that 
a number of memorials to the dead are yet 
remaining in the x>s^8'&&ge) now bavins the com- 
jiaratively recent name of Kaye's-waik. 

Many of those living In the city n:\i5t hJ-vn 
observed the gravestones in this avenue, which 
are placed against the outside of the wall en- 
closing the churchyard ; there are, I think, 
eight or ten of them. It is evidenl that scino 
have been subjected to a cx>nsiderable amount 
of violence from their very imperfect condition, 
which is much to be deprecat-ed. It would have 
been satisfactory if possible and without much 
trouble, to have been enabled to copy the in- 
scriptions thereon, though for present purposes 
I am chiefly interested in the dates. 



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146 

I have little doiibt that these headstones 
would be of the ordinary height, but at nre- 
sent I believe them to be only about 30 inches, 
or perhaps two-thirds of what \b usual, out of 
the ground, and that most or all of them have 
been sunk considerably deeper than ordinary, 
which has probably caused some of the latest 
inscriptions to be invisiUe, though this might 
be necessitated by their being fixed against a 
low wall- Of the dates peroeptible on the 
upper parts of the stones, I have found 1780, 
1786, 1787, and 1789, but if all the later inscrip- 
tions on the lower parts of the stones could be 
deciphered I have a decided conviction that 
other dates would be found recording deaths 
to the end of that century, and very probably 
after the year 1800. 

There cannot be any cause for doubting that 
these headstones when first fixed were in the 
churchyard, and that when the old stile was 
removeid against Stoney-street or the wall built 
and the thoroughfare formed, which in 1815 
and for a considerable time i^ter was entitled 
*' St. Mary*8 Churoh-side," they were placed in 
their present position. 

In mentioning stones to graves, it must not 
be forgotten tbat there are usually a great 
many more graves which would have no 
memorials to tne dead connected with them as 
compared with those which have, and the re- 
mains of these as well as of the others, are still 
IjirUi under Kaye*s-walk, and being continually 
passed over. In addition to the gravestones re- 
ferred to, there are two large mural tablets 
afiixed to the buildings on the opposite side of 
the pathway. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM 

ITS STREETS. PEOPLE. &c 



XXI. 

In this aitioLe I wish to bring under 
notice and give a brief acoount of 
an old family belonging to Notting- 
ham, respecting whom, according to the 
Boiough Records, there is evidence that 
someone of that name held the 'office of Sheriff 
at the earlj date of 1527-28; though it will 
probably be found that my remarks will apply 
fully as much to their residences as to the 
persons concerned. 

I shall now refer to the Gregoiys. The 
earliest cf them to be entered in uie Borough 
Records is Thomas Gregory. We are told that 
they came from Lancashire about four hundred 
years since. In the early part of their career 
in this locality they are stated to have been 
butchers, but tliere is evidence that they must 
have been keen business-men during several 
generations or their advancement could not have 
been so pronounced. 

In old times, and until 1835, whetn meet mimi- 
pcdities were reformed, according to the Cliarter 
of Henry VI., the Mayor of I^)ttingham must 
be chosen from amongst the seven Aldermen 
who also were magistrates. I have seen it 
stated that Thomas Gregory was an Alderman, 
but there does not appear to be any record of his 
having held office as Mayor. In 1548-49 John 
Gregory wa6 one of the Ohamberlains, and in 
1561-62 he was chosen as Mayor, but Richard 
Walch and James Rawlynson, the two Sheriffs, 
were each butchers. At varying intervals he 
ojcumed the post of Mavor three times after- 
wards, the last occasion beinc in 1586-87. Ac- 
cording to the Records for 1596-97 he died the 
preceding year, being one of the Aldermen. 

In 1597-98 William Gregory is entered as 
Mayor's Clerk — that is. Town OleA — in place 
of Nicholas Plumptre, and he appears 
to have held that office for twenty years. It is 
probable that he was the son of John Gregory. 
In 1601-1602, Marmaduke Gregory, a tanner. 



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was one of the Sheriffs. In February, 1617, he 
was elected Alderman in place of William Free- 
man, deceased. I should nave said that in 1613- 
14 William Gregory, butcher, was elect<ed one 
of the Ohamberlains, but refused to serve, 
though in 1616-17 he accepted the office. In 
1617-18 Marmaduke Gregoiy was one of the 
Bridge Wardens, and the fc^owing year Wil- 
liam Gregory was one of the Sheriffs. In 1620- 
21 Marmaduke Gregory was Mayor. 

I have lust. previously refeired to William 
Gregory, butcher, who in 1613 refused the 
Ohamljerlainship, but by whom it was acoeiited 
in 1616, and it is probable that of all those 
bearing the name as previously mentioned and 
also before 1622, that he alcme belongs directly 
to the family which I specially desire to notice. 
After' examining the excellent pedigree of the 
Gregorys, which is to be found in J. T. God- 
frey's " History of Lenton," I am still more 
oonvinoed that the others were a collateral 
branch, or bore no relationship, though, as may 
be seen, several held hiffh offices in the town ; 
one of them being John Gregory, ^rho was 
Mayor on four occasions, and another 
was Marmaduke Gregofry, who was Mayor 
in 1620-21; Deering says that he was 
also elected Mayor in 1614, thoueh, aooofding 
to the Becords, Richard Parkeir then cccitpied 
that post, and as the editor's opportunities of 
arriving at the truth were no doubt much 
superior to Deering' s I prefer his version to the 
latter's. 

In 1622-23, William Gregory was one uf the 
School Wardens. In 1627-28 he was selected 
as an Alderman, and in 1632-33 he was elected 
Mayor, and also in 1639-40. I find his name as 
Alderman in 1645-46, but not afterwards, and 
it is questionable whether any of that faniily 
again occupied so prominent an official |)08ition 
in Nottingnam. 

In lookincr through the Records it is sur- 
prising to find how indifferent many of those 
in prominent positions were, a few centuries 
since, to plundering the town to satisfy their 
own ends. Besides the Giegorys refwred to 
there were afterwards others who did not occupy 
any official post in the town, and one (possiwy 



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14G. 

th» ohief ol them) was Georae Greoory. This 
is hd to whom tae Lai^ old family jr.aD&ion 
belooQged wMoh was ftituated on Swme-green 
(Oarlton-street), dose to the top of Gridleemith- 
g^ate (Pelham-street) on its noraieam side. 

It probably oame to him through his maieimal 
grandfather, and in a modeirate period after- 
wards he resolved to erect there what he con- 
sidered a more suitable reeidenoe. In the 
Borougli Records, Vol. V., p. 318, August 11th 
(Tuesday), 1674, there is an entry from the 
minutes of the Town Oouncil as follows: — 
"Put to the question, whetheo: the Mayor and 
Burgesses shall suffer Master George Gregory, 
Esquire, to build and encroach upon the Slreete 
and Towne's Wast in Swyne Green, in Not- 
tingham, without paying an annuall rent or 
ackowledgment to the Mayor and Burgesses : 
It is this day ordered tliat George Gregory, 
Esquire, shall not build upon the Streete and 
Towne's Wast, on Swrne Green, without an 
annuall rent ^r acknowledgment to the Mayor 
and Burgesses." 

This was no doubt a decided answer to him, 
though I believe there is nothing efterwards 
mentioned respecting any arrangement that 
might be made, and the house was certainly 
built, but by what may be observed at the 
present time respecting as I consider the onlv 
portion of that old town abode, which, though 
doubtless modernised in some respects, may 
still be seen, it appears almost beyond ques- 
tioning that he succeeded when building, in 
appropriating a portion of the roadway, other- 
wise of ** Swyne Green." 

I have often looked at the spot which I have 
considered to be an encroachment, and especi- 
ally about fifty years since, when the top of 
Pelham-street was the same as in the time of 
Gridlesmith-gate (1810), and the whole of the 
avwlable space was needed for one vehicle to 
pass through it at the upper end, and an addi- 
tion of a yard would have materially improved 
the constncted passage. 

I am always p^lad to look at building opera- 
tions, but especially suoh as are of historic in- 
terest, and sometime about the end of last sum- 
mer I noticed that oonsiderable changes were 



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150 

bein^r made to the old pajrt of what was onoe 
belonging to Messrs. Wrights' Bank in Oarlton- 
street, and full two centuries since and later 
the town mansion of the Gregorys. It has 
Leen stuccoed over, and I believe in compara- 
tively recent times, rewindowed and corniced. 

At various periods as the work progressed of 
lowering the ground floor and taking out the 
whole of the front to the first floor I had occa- 
sionally opportunities to examine for a few 
minutes diiiorent matters brought to view be- 
longing to the old place. It was decidedly per- 
ceptible from the thin bricks, &c., that the 
structure was an old one, though modernised in 
outward appearance. A large plate-glass shop 
front has since been fixed in the opening whicn 
was matie, and the onoe square, projecting 
an<;le next to Pelham-street is now rounded off 
by a circular piece of plate-glass being placed 
there. 

In its earlier days I believe it is probable that^ 
Thurland Hall onoe had quite as much, and 
perhaps, mote ground connected with it than 
any other mansion within the walls of Notting- 
ham, but afterwards, and very likely at the 
date mentioned (1674) the land attached to the 
town house of the Gregoir family exceeded anpr 
other in Nottingham, and it was lo this which 
I referred when considering Butchers Close. In 
extent it must have numbered some acres, 
though in a large city or town in these days 
land is usually measured and sold by square 
yards or less. 

If a line was taken through to Parliament- 
street from the top of Pelham-street, and 
running parallel with Broad-street, then ac- 
cording to Deering's and other maps, and also 
in respect to the land afterwards sold, prac- 
tically the whole of the ground between that 
line and Broad-street, and Parliament-street, 
and Carlton-street appears to hare once be- 
longed to that old town residence. Yet the 
greater the quantity of land attached to the 
house the less the necessity for encroaching on 
the street. A yard was a ^eat piece at the 
very narrow top of old Gridlesmith-gate (now 
r^Uiam-street) to add to or diminish it, but a 



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151 

mere drop in a bucket whan compared wiih 
the space between Oarlton-street and Parlia- 
ment-street. - Under such circumstances the 
desire to take in a portion of the street appears 
to be inoompreheneible and ooctemptible. 

Going back for more than fifty years, but ex- 
cepting the last three or four, or since volume 5 
of the Borough Beoords was published, I had 
frequently looked at the projecting comer be- 
longing to the bank, and wondered why it 
should be so, where the street waa much too 
contracted already, but all wae explained in 
the last volume by the extract given. 

It must be 100 vears or more since a com- 
mencement was made to sell the land once at- 
tached to that old house, judging by the appear- 
ance of some of the old buildings upon it. 
About that period Broad-lane Paddock was con- 
stantly mentioned. The site of the old IU>maj| 
Oatholic Ohapel in George-street was, I believe, 
(me of the last pieces of land to be sold, and 
thai probably occurred about 1826. The com- 
rayratively modem building occupied by Messrs. 
Bell and Son, Stationers, of Oarlton-street, 
must, according to Deering's map, after some 
alterations, have been erected in the front of 
at leaat a portion of the old mansion. Greorge- 
street waa probably so niuned after George I)e 
ligne Gregory— 1738-1822. There is also 
Lemtoin-Btreet, joining Geofge-street with 
Broad-street, and it most likely received that 
title in consequence of the Gr^orys owning an 
estate these. A portion of the boulevard is 
also named after therm, as it passes through or 
near to their possessions in that part. 

In olden times the burgesses of Nottingham, 
even for considerable distances outside of the 
town boundaries, possessed by Oharter valuable 
privileges, being in numerous instances freed 
from toll and other charges themselves, but in 
various oases having the power to impose pay- 
men ta upon otheirs. The first Oharter is dated 
1155, the second 1165, and the third, by King 
John, 1189. One of the items in the latter re- 
specting the burgesses freea them of toll, &c., 
" from Tlunmipton to Newark, and of all things 
passing the l^nt, aa fully ae in the borough of 
Nottingham, and on the otheor side from th^ 



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tsi 

brook berond Rempston to the water of Bet^ 
ford in uie north; . . . and from Byoar- 
dyke." 

Also *^the men of Kottinriiamshire and 
Derbyshire ought to oome to Uie borou^ of 
Nottingham on Friday and Saturday with their 
wains (wagons) and pack-horses/' "No one was 
to work dyed cloths within ten leucae of Not- 
tingham (1,500 paces each)- l^e passage of 
the Trent was to be free for one percn on each. 
side of the mid-stream. Another item in re- 
ference to the burgesses says : — "And that they 
shal be quit of (free from^ Thelosiia (toll) 
throughout the whole of our lamd, within and 
without fairs." There was afterwards a most 
useful clause : that none of the rights of the 
burgesses shall be lost through not being used. 

By the Cttiarter of Edward II., 1314, they were 
freed from " Murage,'' tha is an assessment for 
fortifications, also from lastage, or a charge for 
permission to cany goods from place to place. 
This is much like permitting them to harwk 
goods, without payment for a lioence. In 
conclusion, it says that this is to be '* throo^hoot 
our whole Kinjjjdom and our whole dominion 
fox ever." In 1330 the right of having a gaol 
was confirmed to the town, and also of a Satur- 
day mao^et, by Edward ITT. 

In 1448 the Borough was erected iiEto a 
County, and the Burgesses first elected two 
Sheriffs in place of two Bailiffs. (OQiarter Hesury 
VI.) They held Oounly Onffts monthly. These 
are some of the privileges conferred on the 
town, and for the times mentioned they wore 
most important ones. The Qharters gave the 
Mayor and Burgesses extensive powers over 
some other places, and two weire Newark and 
Betford. On various occasions thece was 
trouble respecting the toll which was exacted 
by Nottingham from each town, and I am quite 
willing to believe that, had it been Notting- 
ham which was called upon for payments of that 
sort, it would have been most unwillingly com- 
plied with. 

In the Records we have pavtiottlarB respecting 
the lettinj of the Tolls on the Trent to Ret- 
ford by Nottingham in 1228, from the bridge 
gf Kelum (Eellum) as far as Doverbeci, where 



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30 

it falls into ihe Trent. Th^ men of Petfoird 
were to pay ten marks, an two oocasions men- 
tioned, during the year, "amd one dinner each 
year to us, and to our suooessors. according to 
custom." These dinners from this must have 
oomm^iced early, whilst th« Nottingham men 
were aocustomed to baying them in the year 
1228. 

In 1480 th« men of Betford refused tx) pay, 
and Nottingham brought an action at law 
aigainst them, but there was no appearance in 
Court on the part of Betford; therefore, they 
were called upon to defray damages, amounting 
to £40 — whicn would represent about £600 in 
these days — this with arrears, &c. ; the jury 
found against them foi total £91 13s. 4d., which 
at that period for ic small a town wa« a great 
sum. 

In Volume 3, p. 67, of the Records, it appears 
that during A.D. 1500 Newark paid to Not- 
tingham £5 and £2 6s. 8d. for to-lls taken at 
Newark Bridge. In the Ohamberlain's accounts 
fcr 1462 there is an entiy of " £16 13s. 4d. for 
tlie rent of Betford from tolls there." In A.D. 
1601 Nottingham agreed with Newark that they 
should be (conditioinally) allowed to collect toll 
at Newark Bridge. In 1609 it was agreed that 
Nottingham should let Newark tolls (at the 
bridge) for 21 years on payment of £30 at the 
time, and £8 per year afterwards. These ex- 
tracts are sufficient to give an idea of Notting- 
ham's position as regards its charters and rela- 
tions with other places, on or near to the 
Trent, which was free for traffic to our old town, 
if not for others. 

As somewhat oonneoted with these matters 
I will now notice the old Priory, and Lenton 
with its Fair, in relation to Nottingham. 
For a fidl, reliable^ and interesting "History of 
the Parish and Pnory of Lenton" that of our 
fellow-oitizen, Mr. John T. Godfrey, is strongly 
recommended, and in various oases it will pro- 
bably be referred to. The Priory was founded 
by William Peverel, who, we are told, died in 
1113. Thersfoie it was about forty years after 
the Conquest. 

The history informs us that Henry II., who 
reigned 1154-1189, granted a fair of eight days 



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154 

to tlie monks of Lenton at the Feast of St. 
Mf^rtin. There was also a seoond fair grant-ed 
by Charles 11. on the Feast ot All Saints. 
Disputes occurred respecting the fairs and their 
rights between the Major and Burgesses of 
Nottingham and the Prior and Convent of 
Lfonton, but on two oooaeions or more they 
managed to come to an arrangement, though in 
one case Mr. Godfrey in his history says he 
conriders that the Prior obtained an advantage 
over the Corporatioti 

In the Charter of King John there is one 
sentence referring to the Mayor and Burgesses 
of Nottingham which must have greatly 
stren^hened their case. It is " And that they 
shall be quit (free) of Tholonea (toll) through- 
out the whole of our land within and without 
fairs." Tliis loll may probably be explained 
by what I can remember in Nottingham, and 
peihnps others also, in respect to the Market- 
place ; the Burgesses, if not quite free from 
charges (for formerly some had j^oods on the 
ground but no stalk), paid less than others, 
ami they were, I believe, sometimes free ; 
therefore the Burgesses of Nottingham would, 
according to Cliartor, in a great degree be as 
free in other towns as anyone living in them. 
In the next article I prmiose to make a few 
more remarks respecting Lenton, its Fair, Ac., 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM. 

ITS STREETS, PEOPLE, &c. 



xxn. 

I wi&h to make further refere-nce to 
Lentou, its fairs (2), to the tSregorys, who for 
the most part of three centuries have been 
closely connected with that district, Ac. As 
a parish, close to the town, much more im- 
portance from various circumstances, and of 
necessity, attached in cast time^ to Lenton 
than any other as r^ards Nottingham. 

The Prio<r of Lenton was Rector of St. Mary's, 
Nottingham, taking I believe what are termed 
the great tithes, and in that position is repre- 
sented by Earl Manvers as lay rector in more 
recent times. Respecting the Prior, this was 
in accordance with the endowment of William 
Peverel. Godfrey further tells us that in it 
was also included the Church of St. Peter and 
the Church of St. Nicholas in Nottingham ; 
therefore, the town was under his ecclesiastical 
jurisdiction, for at that date there were onlj 
three churches, and in the Middle Ages this 
would undoubtedly include a great amount of 
influence. As regards the two fairs mentioned, 
it is chiefly respecting the first, which dates 
from the twelfth century (Henry II.), that re- 
ference will be made, for the second did not 
commence until about five hundred years later. 

The Borough Records, vol. 4, p. 426, in a 
note tells us : " Greaves notes, that William 
GregoiT, butcher, was sworn a burcess this 
year— 1600-1. In the Records, vol. 4, p. 320, 
there is an interesting paragraph respecting 
him in the minutes of a Council meeting, Sep- 
tember 9, 1614, as follows ; " William Grgzory, 
butcher, for his fyne for refusine to be CJham- 
berlayne. — ^Ttt is agreed that William Gregorie, 
butcher, being fyn^ on Michelmas Day *neirt' 
(mistake for *last') at £5, for refusing to be 
Chamberlayne, thait the same fine shaJbe re- 
duced to two angelLs, videlicet, 226., and so to 
be dischardged of ytt, in respect that others; 
videlicet, Mai«ter Si»ele, and Maiateir Hare, wae 



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so dealt with all ; which 226. he hath here poyd 
accordingly. Oameraoi'us (Chamberlain). Boc- 
ket had ytt by Maister Hills deliverie." 

Alderman Gregory in 1630 (see Godfrey*s 
History of Lenton) "purchased the Manor of 
Lenton, with its fair, and other privileges." 
I have more than once seen a statement to the 
effect that he gave about two thousand six or 
seven hundred pounds for the manor, &c., 
though as compaj^ with our present value of 
money its equivalent would I believe be twenty- 
five to thirty thousand pounds. Still, I am 
convinced that his purohafie was and has con- 
tinued to be a remimeratire one. 

I certainly dislike the idea oi any private in- 
dividual " owning a fair." It should be for the 
benefit of the whole town or parish, afi in Not- 
tingham and other places. According to the 
Charts for Lenton fair, no goods were to be 
exposed for sale in Kottingham Market, nor 
strictly speaking could any goods be exposed 
for sale in the shops of the town, as it was com- 
manded that during Lenton fair (see Godfrey's 
Lenton, p. 515) "No man should buy or sell 
in Nottingham." 

From information given in the Beoords, vol. 
4, p. 267, it is certain that the Oorporation had 
for many years before Alderman Gregoiy's pur- 
chase, been endeavouring to release uiemselves 
and the town, from the very offensive conditions 
imposed in the Charter for Lenton Fair. 
Though since the suppression of the monas- 
teries there had been no Prior or other person 
to actively interfere with the town on its 
behalf. 

Bespecting tliis matter a most interesting 
meeting of the Town Oouncil was held, Novem- 
ber 2, 1603, and in the minutes we are told : 
'* Touching Lenton Fayre. — ^Ytt ys agreed that 
no inhabitant within this towne, neyther by 
himselfe nor by any other, shall go, or carry 
any wares downe to this Lenton Faire, unlesse 
yt be to ye horse or best (beast) faire, to buy or 
sell cattle, on payne to everie onie offendinge 
herein, to be shutt upp, and disfranchised, 9fad 
to have his offence oertefyed to the Counoell ; 
neyther any to go thither to buy any London 
wares, nor deale with any Ix>ndon wares, 



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157 

directly, or indireotlj, obt BJt^ tyme these 2 
m<Mithee/' 

To prevent intercourse by persons goin^ to 
the fair, men were stationed at many oiit'leUi 
of the town, and we are further told, "Item, 
a sufficyent watohe to be sett a*t all oonvenyent 
places betwixt this towne and Lenton, namely, 
att ye Bridge End 4, aifct ye Castle Gates 2, 
att Posteme Bridge 1, att Chappell Barr 2, att 
Sheepe Lane End 1, att Oowlane Barr 1, att ye 
Malt Milne 2, att Saint Johnes (St. John's) 1, 
att ye Tyle Howse 2. Fower or two honest 
men to be assigned to go to Lenton to observe 
and see yf any inhabitant here offend this 
coder." 

The monasteries weare dissolved abouit 1538, 
and for one hundred and eight years after it is 
probable that little was done anywhere, by way 
of carrying out the terms of that Charter of 
Henry II. respecting Lenton Fair and Notting- 
ham. In 1646, however. Alderman William 
Gregory, of Nottingham, filed a bill in equity 
to compel the Corporation to enforce the ob- 
servance of its conditions, and he threatened 
various burgesses with legal proceedings if his 
chartered rights were interfered with. 

The burgesses in their turn petitioned the 
Mayor and Council to protect them, and in 
vol. 5, p. 244, 1646, November 10, in the 
minutes of the Common Council we are told, 
"The burgesses preferred a peticion this day to 
this companye to have libertye to keepe open 
theire shopps here in town, and markett, this 
Lenton faire, and to bee protected by the 
towne, Maister Alderman Gregory, lord of the 
faire. being present, which peticion beeing read, 
and also the composicion, after the said aJder- 
man's departure, hee refuseing to stay to hear 
the same. 

''(1) This company conceiveing the said com- 
posicion to be against lawe, in hind eringe the 
burgesses of useing theire trades, and openinge 
theire shoppes, and useinge the markett in this 
towne, accordinge to the Charter duringe the 
faire : (2) It beeing apparant that the lords and 
farmers of the said Lenton faire have continu- 
ally from tyme to tyme broken the said com- 
posicion on theire parto, and oppressed the 



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158 

bmgeMes contrarf to the same. 

"(3) And becauee the same matter is iA 
generall coTLcemment to all the burgeseee/ &nd 
cominaltie of this towne, and soe wilbee, either 
to theire good or to theire hurt: Therefor? 
this company doe order, and thindc fitt, that if 
nny of tne \mrge8ses bee sued, oir trobled for 
keepeinge the market, or keepein^^e theire 
shopps, or useinjr theire trades in this towne 
dureing the said faire, that the same suite 
shalbee tried at the generall charge of this 
towne ; and the said burgesse or burgesses for 
soe doeing, to be protected, and defended, at 
the comon charge of this oorporacion." 

We have, I believe, no evidence of any action 
beins tcken by Alderman Gregory subsequent 
to this decision; but probably for the purpose 
of further showing the burgesses that the town 
would protect them, if interfered with, at a 
meeting of the Council three years later, 
namely, 1649, November 7, it was "Agreed if 
Alderman Gregory trouble an"v burgesses for 
not goeing downe to Lenton feare or for keepe- 
ing open shoppes here in towne ; that the 
towne at yr (their) chardg, will defend them, 
fx*cordinge to former order, and for the reasons 
theirein, 10 November, 1646." 

This appears to have effectually settled the 
matter, from no further attempt being made to 
interfere with the burgesses. On p. 315 of 
Godfrey*s Lenton. he tells us that "George 
Gregory, Esquire, grandson of Alderman 
William Gregory, obtained from King Charles 
TI. his royall letters patent, dated November 
9th, 1663, granting permission for anoither fair 
to be held at Lenton, every year, on the Wed- 
nesday next after the feast of Pentecost; and 
on the six several days following." 

And, further, "Lenton Fairs retained much of 
their p.ncient repute down to the la«t (18th) 
century, and were resorted to by all classes of 
society. The neighbouring squires were not 
above participating in the annual business and 
merry-making, as appears from the household 
book (The Beliqnarv) of the Hon. Anchitell 
Gray, of Ri^lev Hall, in Derbyshire :—* 1681, 
November 11. iSp?nt at lenton faire 00.01.00.'" 
As resorts for general business purposes the 



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159 

fairs at Leoton, and numerous other places have 
practicalljr been discontinued for many years, 
but especially during the time oi railways, as 
far greater facilities are now available for ac- 
quiring and disposing of goods, and general 
mierohandise than in former timea. 

Most oeirtainly the Gregorys are, or have 
been a wealthy family, owning much property 
not only in Nottinghamshire but abo in Lin- 
colnshire, Leicestershire, &c. Their chief re- 
sidence is Harlaxton Hall, about three miles 
from Grantham, on the Melton Boad, and it is 
one of the finest in the country oooupied by a 
commoner. There is also another brandi of 
the Gregorys at Denton Hall, a mile further 
than Harlaxton from Granthaon and on tho 
same road. 

I now propose to take into consideration a 
very old thoroughfare which for centuries under 
different names hae been well known in the 
town, and also refer to some of those residing 
in or close to it. I should roiher demur to 
the idea of entitling it a road, for it would not 
be wise to take vehicles through it. In 1330, 
see Records, vol. 1, p. 119, it is called Voutlane 
and subsequently Vawte Lane, Vallte Lane, 
but Speed, Thoroton, and Deering entitle ' it 
Yault Lane. It has in modem times b^en 
known as Drurv Hill. 

The first name originated from the house 
once at the north-west corner and fronting to 
Low-pavement, and for many years, or another 
on the site thereof, has been occupied by Dr. 
Ransom, but now I am told by his son in the 
same profession. This house and the previous 
one on its site have for centuries been known 
and referred to in the town and its history. 
Here was the original mansion of the Plimip- 
tres, whose connection with the town conitiniied 
for four hundred years or more, and during 
their time it was kno^^n as Voute. Vawte. 
Vallte, or Vaulte Hall. 

It afterwards became the property of the Drury 
familv, and in that way the passage acquired 
it» present name. The old title for the lane 
appears to go back rather furthor than the first 
mention to be found in the Boroiwrh Records, 
neverthelMs it seems probable that the name 



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160 

WBfB taken from the old house j or what bo- 
loo^red to it. When the Plumptre Hospital was 
first built in the oqaare now known by that 
title, there is good came for su^^posing that 
its founder, about 510 jears since, was resid- 
ing on this spot, from whait was said respecting 
the cellars. 

Deerbi^: tells ns that the house ''had its 
name from the very large vaults which were 
under it, where, in the time of the staple of 
Oilais, great quantities of wool used to be 
lodged. The merchamts of the staple were one 
of the most aneient Companies of MerohMtts 
in England, incorporated by King Edward in. 
The wool staple bein^^ then in C&lais. 

They were granted a coot of arms, for an 
account of which see Guilim*s Heraldry, Edit. 
6, which tells us that ''This manufacture took 
its Progress from Time to Time, till the re- 
moval of the staple of wool, to Oalab, after 
whioh time it obtained its greatest lustre, and 
gave rise to many oonsiderable families in the 
town, and county, as the Bu^es, the Bing- 
hams, the Willoughbies, Tannesley, Mappurley, 
Thurland, Amyas, Allestree, Samons, Plump- 
tres, the Hunts, and others, all merchants of 
the staple of OMais ; in this prosperous state 
the Woollen Manufacture continued until the 
reign of Queen Mary I., when Oalais was lost 
(January 8. 1558). and then it flrradually went 
off, imtil at last it entirely left this place.'' 

The Plumptre family found various persons 
as Mayors of the town, or other offices in its 
government, and on several occasions one of 
them filled the post of Parliamentary repre- 
sentative of the town. Bespecting the vaults or 
excavations under their old house, Deerini? tells 
us that in one of them, "in the reign of 
Ohafl-les II-, the Dissenters privately met for 
the exercise of their religion, as they did after 
the Act of Toleration, i ublickly, in a house at 
the upper end of Pilcher-gate, whioh is since 
pulled down, and a new one built in its room ; 
the property, and present Mansion House of 
John Sherwin Esq. 

" This place, on account of Mr. Whitlook's and 
Beinolds (displaced minister of St. Mary's) 
officiating in it, obtained the byname of 'Little 



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161 

St. Maijr's/ " The Plmnptre family alterwaids 
had their chief residence in Stoney-street, Not- 
tingham, until about the end of the eighteenth 
century, whem, or shortly afterwards, they 
acquired through marriage a seat at Fredville, 
in Kent, about eight miles south-east of Oon- 
terbury, which they made their home. In 
1791 John Plumpfcre, of Plumptre House, Not- 
tingham, died at his London house m Jermyn- 
street, on February 23, in his 80th year, and 
was probably the last to stay in the town. He 
is buried in St. Mary's Ohurch. 

The old mansion m Stoney-street ^*f£s let 
afterwaa:ds for a number of yeors to different 
persons. I can find the name of William 
Wilson as occupyin;^ "Plumbfcree" House in 
1806, though he probably commenced earlier. 
It was still his residence in 1832, but not in 
1834. Possibly his life had ended. He waa an 
Alderman of the town. In 1853, February 21, 
Plumptre House, with the ground attached, 
was offered for sale by auction and purchased 
by Alderman Richard Bii^in, for £8,410, after 
which the new thoroughfare termed Broadway, 
for vehicles, was formed between Stoney- 
street and St. Mary's-gate, and a number of 
new warehouses erected, within a brief period. 

I shall now further refer to the old mansion 
of the Plumptree on Low-pavement. In re 
spect to it, one of our town historians gives us 
a little information of a sort, which woUd be 
gladly accepted if it was more frequently fol- 
lowed It is in relation to what occuired 
respeotinff sales of property, from about 170 
years to 260 years since, and is i-iontioned by 
Deering, when referring to the old residence 
of the Pliraiptres. 

He says: — '*Land within Towns is greatly 
improvecl since the reign of King Charles tho 
1st. afi roay appear by Indenture bearing date 
1645, the 21st, CJharles I., of Vault Hall, men- 
tioned in Section I., being sold to William 
Drury. the elder, Alderman of Nottingham, by 
Kichard and John Martin, for tlie sum of £103. 
Vault Hall, in this Indenture, is said to stand 
South of the Low-pavement, and betT/een 
Parkyn's-lane (Drury-hill) on the oa>t, and a 
Tenemeaib, then William Jiurrow's, on the 



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162 

west, affid an Orchard in possesgion of William 
Baylej on the south, and a Tenter Groimd iii 
the tenirre of Anthony Wild, sheerman, be- 
longed to it. 

"This, in the year 1733, was by William 
Drury, gentleman prandson of the above-men 
tioned Alderman Dmry, sold to Mr. Gawthom 
for £500." Of course, that sum is nearly five 
times what it cost 88 years previously, tnoogh 
we cannot decide whether any impixyvementa 
had been carried out during those yean in 
connection with the property. For a town 
house it must have had, according to Deering, 
a considerable qiHuiUtj of land at the back, 
and no doubt has still, for the laroe old official 
map of Nottingham, dated 1827-1&9, shows it 
as not having been lessened in sise. 

Kespectinff the narrow roadway being en- 
titled '' Paricyn's-lane,'' Deering, in a note, 
says :-^" This lane was anciently called Yoult- 
lane. then Parkjrn's-lane, nrobably from some 
of tnat family living in tnat house for some 
time, as it is now aJled Drury-hiU, from tb*^ 
subsequent purchaser.'' The first mention - 
have observed of the name of Druiy is in 1596, 
when two of the family were summoned bef<H« 
the magistrates, of which the record is as 
follows: — "Thomae Dmry, of Nottingham, 
oordwainer, and Fabian Drury of the same, 
cordwainer, to be bound to our Lady the Queen 
in £20, that the said Fabian shall not shoot 
with any piece at anything living." 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM 

irS STREETS, PEOPLE. &c 

xxra. 

OontinuiLn<5 my remarks respecting! the 
Drurys, I will sfive an extract from the Council 
Minutes, p. 28A, vol. 4, of The Borough 
Records of March 9, 1606-7:— ** It ys agreed 
. . . . that William Dniry shall be Bur- 
gease, payinge fyve marks att midsomer next, 
and in respect tnat he hath lyred longe in the 
towne in very honest sort, and hath maryed a 
Burges Widow of the same trade, and ys a 
frehoulder in her right, therefore the fyne of 
£10 vs reduced to V. marks." At ISs. 4d. per 
mark, this total was £3 6s. 8d., or one-third of 
the amount ordinarily paid for that purpose. 

In 1633-34 William Drury was elected one of 
the Chamberlains. In 16o5-36 he was one of 
the Sheriffs. In 1639-40 he was elected one of 
the Aldermen, and the succeeding year 1640-41 
he was chosen for Mayor. He appears to have 
been in disposition similar to many others of 
the leading men in the town, whom I have 
mentioned ; he was careful to take at least all 
that belonged to him, for even whilst he was 
Mayor (May 13, 1641), one of the presentments 
by the Middetom Jury is respecting " Maister 
William Drury, maior, for anoyine the stret 
in the Low paument with timbare, and carts." 

The "Maior" was fined two shillings, which 
would be equal to fifteen or eighteen shillings 
in these times. 

The first notice of the Drurys' occurs in the 
last thirty years of the Records, in vol. 4, to 
1625, and they are mentioned on numerous oc- 
casions, but always spelt as just above 
written ; whilst in vol 5 it is found in several 
different ways, namely, Drewjie, Druery, 
Drewry, Drewery, Drewrey, Drurye, and 
Drury, which latter is, I believe, the name as 
now used to the old thoroughfare. On July 
19, 1686, Master William Drury, who was 
probably a son of the previous William Drury, 
IS "presented" "for laying wood on ye Loe 
Pauement, and setting waggons, and carts 



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164 

there; and also for anoying ye highway by .ye 
Leeoe side with a duii.g hill. 

On October 5, 1688, he is again presented 
" for leading aoid sporeading muiure in the 
Meadows, b^ore Saint Luke's Day." In 
October, 1688, he is again reported "for anoy- 
ing Low Pavement, with wood and stone." 
Alderman William Drury was not only Mayor 
in 1640-41, but also on three other occasions, 
nameN^, 1647-48, 1652-53, and 1659-60. In 
1603 William Drury the younger is mentioned 
as a school warden. 

In 1694 William Drury was elected an Alder- 
man and Justice of the Peace, and was, I be- 
lieve, the father of the one just mentioned and 
son of the Mayor. He died September ^, 
1697. William Drury the younger was elected 
on the Junior Council in October, 1701; made 
Sheriff in 1705, and Mayor in 1707. After that 
date it is probable that no one of his name has 
occupied that position in Nottingham. It 
would no doubt be himself, or a descendant, 
who sold Vault Hall, as previously described, 
to Mr. Gawthom, of whom there is evidence 
that he resided in the house, or on its site, for 
many years. 

I nonv wish to make further reference to the- 
footroad termed St. Mary's Church-side, and 
in mv time altered to Kaye's-walk ; also to an 

• • ' ' : ' J i.'tM". [he Dale 

. <• - !j- • lat ilu' fiunr divor was facing the 
i-. .nivhyard, wli'ch is quite incorrect, as will 
shortly be shown. Mr. William Trentham, 
senior, an extensive hosier, lived in the large 
old house, once on the site of what is now 
covered by the warehouse of Messrs. Kirk- 
bride and others. 

On April 27, 1812, an attempt was made to 
murder him. He had spent the evening at 
Mr. Timms', in Market-street (then against 
Weekday Cross), with other friends, and re- 
turned home just beiui'e ten o'clock. He had 
knocked at his door for admission, when two 
men, who had been in the graveyard, came to- 
wards him, and without parley one of them 
discharged a large pistol at him. He was 
severely wounded in the breast, and for some 



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165 

time there were grave doubte whether he 
would survive ; but fortunatelv, hy excellent at- 
tention and medical skill, he ultimately ro- 
ooveired and lived for a number of years. 

Including the arrest, and for the oonvictlon 
of the a&sassinS) a reward of 600 guineas was 
offered by the town, but never paid to or 
claimed by anyone. In the poll book connected 
with the town election of 1806, Messrs. William 
Trentham, sen., and William Trentham, jun., 
recorded their votes as living in St. Mary's- 
gate, and no doubt this was before (except by 
stile and footpath) there was any part severed 
from the graveyard, and proves the assertion 1 
make above to be correct, that the entriance, 
and doubtless what might be termed the front 
of the house, was then in St. Mary's-gate. 

There was an election in 1812, but on this 
occasion there cannot be any surprise that the 
elder Mr. Trentham did not vote, after the 
despicable attack made, and its effect upon 
him, earlier in the year ; though at this tune 
his son resided in Stoney-street. In 1818, 
when recording his vote, Mr. Trentham, sen., 
said that his house was in St. Mary's-gate, and 
there is no cause whatever for doubting that 
the chief entrance to it then, if not afterwards, 
was from that old thoroughfare. 

Though this is not all, for I have often con- 
versed with a gentleman, who many years 
since was a constant visitor at that ancient 
residence when the successor to Mr. Trentham, 
sen., lived in it, and he asserts, positively, 
that the front door was in St. Mary's-gate, 
which, of course, agrees with the statements 
of Mr. Trentham, until 1818, when recording 
his vote, that he lived in St. Mary's-gate. In 
the large official map of the town, to which I 
have frequently referred, dating full 75 years 
since, this ancient dwelling and the ground 
attached are nicely shown. Of St. Mary's 
CHiurcih-side, otherwise Kaye's-walk, Plumptre 
House and grounds are shown to occupy almost 
exactly three-fifths of it« length, and the old 
house the remaining two-fifths. The back 
land appears to have been pleasantly arranged 
with paths, flower beds, &c. 

Two years later, however, there was a 



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166 

change, and it is mentaaned when Yoting at a 
general election in 1820. The eotary 10 as 
follows:— "Trentham, Williain, gent., St 
Mary's Ohurch-yaid." From this we have fall 
and reliable eyidenoe that about 1815-1820 the 
footroad, as a separate pathway, was made, 
which is on the northern side of "St. Mary's 
Church-yard," as entitled by Mr. William 
Trentham, who lived there when the change 
occurred ; or " St Mary's Church-side," as 
termed in 1815 by Blackner. By most they 
will be considered as practically alike. 

This, I think, proves that frOm the present 
time it cannot be more than ninety years since 
that useful passage or footway was formed, 
and I have not any doubt that its first name 
was used about thirty years before being 
changed to ** Kaye's-walk," which title I con- 
sider has not been applied much longer than, 
or even so long as, sixty years ; but, anyway, 
there are many now living in Nottingham 
whose remembrance extends further back than 
its adoption. From the difference made by 
Mr. Trentham in his address when voting on 
the last occasion (in 1820). it is possible that 
after the thoroughfare had been completed 
through the Ohuroh-yard he may have made 
another entrance to his house on that side. 

In a previous letter I have referred to Daft 
Smith Churchill, hosier and merchant of Not- 
tingham, who was lost in the wreck of the 
Fo^arshire steam vessel in 1837, when the 
name of Grace Darling was in everyone's month 
because of her noble endeavours to rescue those 
on board. Mr. Churchill resided in that old 
house on "St. Mary's Church-side," alter it 
was vacated by Mr. William Trentham the 
elder. He had previously occvrpied a house 
in King's-place, Stoney-street, which, as I have 
explained before, was near to the southern 
side of Messrs. Thomas Adams • and Co.'s 
warehouse. 

I have no information respecting those, if 
any, who lived in that ancient residence after 
Daft Smith Churchill and his family left it; 
nor whether he owned it or not ; but it was 
afterwards sold, and a gentleman whom I knew 
purchased it, with the Isnd attached. I Have 



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167 

heaxd of a ohimney-pieoe or two, &c., in this 
i]iter68tiii|{ old-time mansion which excited 
much curiosity, but they, with the house, were 
fmlled down, and a modem structure is on the 
site. 

It was also decided to build upon the ground 
I have referred to as being at uie back of the 
old house. While engaged in getting out the rock 
necessary to form the substructure, they came, 
at a good depth, upon a large and timnelled 
passage running from the Ohurch-yard, to and 
under the ba^ j^und mentioned. There 
could be no dispute that it had been there for 
hundreds of j^ears, thot^h during a very con 
siderable period all knowledge respecting it 
had been lost. It undoubtedly dated back to 
pre-Reformation times, for besides the remaii^s 
of mouldering wood and bones, there wers 
crosses, charms, &c., &c. 

A few persons were allowed to see this long 
forgotten cavern ; and the part under the 
private ground having been cleared of the 
remains, all of whicih were placed under the 
Church-yard, including the width of what is 
now termed Kaye*s-wa3k, the tunnel was then 
bricked up at the boundary between the 
Ghurch-vard, or the Walk, and the ground upooi 
which tney were proposinjg to build. This is 
probably the first occasion on which these 
pjarticidars have been published, for at the 
time, from some cause, it was considered 
preferable that no announcement should be 
made of this discovery. 

I now desire to make reference to a famous 
and well-known individual in Nottingham 
history, together with his noted old mansion, 
and various other matters with which he was 
connected, by name or otherwise. I am here 
alluding to Thomas Thurland. In his time he 
wae undoubtedly a most prominent man, as 
regards business, wealth, and social rank. I 
read with interest what I think might be called 
" An Appreciation *' respecting him, written in 
two or three articles by Mr. William Stevenson, 
of Hull, about two jetaxs since, and agreed with 
most of his conclusions. 

As something to guide us in our opinion of 
Thomas Thurland, I may say that he was 



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168 

elected Major of Nottingliam n< ewer than ten 
times, namely:— 1442-43, 1447-48, 1448-49, 
1450-51, 1452-53, 1453-54, 1468-9, 1459-60, 
1462-63, and 1463-64. This is probably double 
the occasions of any other person, or as often 
as any two others. Though this is not all, 
for he represented the town at three periods 
in Parliament, during the reign of Henry VI., 
according to Deering. 

He was a merchant of the staple, and his 
business operations for that time must have 
been great, and his profits also. I imagine 
him, as regards wealtn, to have been equal to 
anyone then living in Nottingham, but probably 
superior, for he purchased larce estates in 
various places. It was he who built the 
original Thurland Hall which in olden times 
was well known, and where afterwards some of 
the Kings stopped when passing through the 
town, &c. James I. and Charles L, >^oLween 
them, lodged at Thurland Hall on about six 
visits. I can just remember the old Hall, or 
part of it, being pulled down, more than seventy 
years since. 

The Editor of vol. 4 of the Borough Beoords, 
p. 443, tells us that ''Thurland House (Hall), 
demolished in 1831, was in Thurland-street." 
This it is impossible to accept as being correct, 
for in width the street would not hold it by 
a large proportion ; but besides that, the Hall 
had been pulled down for some time before the 
ground was cleared for a street. Until a 
street is formed, it certainly is not a street, 
and as Thurland Hall was entirely demolished 
before the street was commenced, and probably 
for more than a year, therefore most will say 
that it never was in Thurland-street, but that 
the street includes a portion of the site of the 
Hall. 

For some years, as it appears to me, but 
little was done in filling up the ground with 
buildings, for times were diflferent then, and when 
young, with other lads, I have frequently played 
upon it, a large portion being termed "The 
Paddock." For many years after demolition 
the ground where unbuilt ujion was more or 
less covered with debris of the building— old 
bricks, mortar, pieces of stone, &c. Generally 



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16G 

it was unfeooed until buUding operatioiut com- 
meDiced, and 1 ccmsider that full twenty y«aa:s 
had elapsed after the HaU was cleared away 
liefore tne whole of the ground was purchased 
or built upon. 

In the Kocords it in termed ''Thurland 
Bouse,*' and if that is the title |^iven in the 
Kiid manuscripts, it wag certainly right that the 
Editor should use the wor(l *' House." Yet 
practically, as regaids all other instances in 
history, as well as conversation generally, with 
the people of Nottingham who know anything 
about it, the name ' Thurland Hall," was and 
is used. 

I now desire to introduce a subject of a 
character quite different to the preceding, and 
it is in relation to pillars used for carrying the 
fronts of buildings, for even in my time many 
of them were of wood (oak). The old style 
shops once occupying the site on the Long-row. 
of one now in course of erection, and possibly 
of another next to it, was, in my remembrance, 
supported on the front by wooden pillars. 
These (probably thirty years since) were re- 
moved, and cast-iron pillars fixed in their place. 

In my early days, 70 years since, one of the 
shops was occupied by Messrs. Greorge and 
John Mills hosiers, &c., and with Uiem I 
remember tnat then, or soon afterwards, in the 
shop was our very aged and respected fellow- 
citizen, Mr. John Comyn, who died a few years 
since. I am glad to have this opportunity of 
introducing his name, for the very active and 
useful part he took in the arrangement and 
satisfactory settlement of matters relating to 
the Freemen or Burgesses of Nottingham. 
The use of the land, with other sources of 
income from which (in their turn) many bur- 
gesses derived a amail annuity, had become in 
these days antiquated and unjust, the times 
demanding that such an incongruity should be 
brought to a conclusion, and the property 
become the town's for the eaual benefit of tlie 
whole community. Going back several hun- 
dreds of years, there cannot be much doubt 
that the old system had its benefits, but modem 
times are totally different, and the old cus- 
toms had in many instances become obsolete 



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170 

•nd kii^iplioftble. 

On tne Long-row, and olofl€ to the western 
ocraer of King-street, until the last four or 
five years were some old premises which had 
oyerhaji^n^ upper rooms and roofs. These were 
occupied by Messrs. Skipwith, wine and spirit 
merchants, and, I believe, owned by them. 
Wood framing was largely used in their con- 
struction. The front of the shops to the 
Market rested upon wooden pillars, which 
would have been better for their position, at 
least in appearance, if they had been from two 
to three inches more in diameter. 

The next place to be mentioned is the Old 
Town Hall in Weekday Cross. In this case 
the diameter of the pillars was ample, being 
similar to some stone ones in the Market-place, 
and in general appearance, unless carefully 
examined, they also would be taken for stone, 
though of oak, for they were worked and 
moulded in a similar way to stone pillars. 

I remember many years since unthinkingly 
tapping one of them with my stick, and was 
much surprised with the "kind" of noise it 
caused, and which for the first time convinced 
me that they were made of wood. I then 
carefully inspected the pillars, and in more 
than one case I found small parts wheice the 
wood was clear of paint, and sujfficient to show 
that they were of oak. These bare places 
were usually near to the bottom of the pillars, 
where they rested on stone, and would often 
be damp. 

There have, in mv remembrance, been many 
other cases in whicn wood was used in places 
where nothing but stone or iron would be 
thought of in recent days, but it must not be 
forgotten how much more easily we can now 
get very heavy material carried, l^ 
the aid of steam and railways, which 
as a fact in former times it would have 
been practically impossible to move from one 
town to another. The roods 150 to 200 jears 
since were generally in a terrible c<Hidition, 
and under such circumstances all must be done 
by wagons and carts at a certain season of the 
year, and if good stone was required for piUars, 
in distance it must oome at least fromManafteld 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM. 

ITS STREETS, PEOPLE, &c. 



XXIV. 

In this Article I propose to brin^ imder 
coQsideratioin, some of the changes made in 
connection with the thoroughfares of Netting 
ham during the last century, and perhaps a 
case or two late in the previous one, when I 
believe it will be found that full nine-tenths 
have been carried out in the lifetime of many 
who are still living in tbe city. This will in- 
clude the making of new streets and other 
roadways, the widening:, lowering, or raising 
of siieets and aveniies «lso rearranging, re- 
in alking, &c. 

I shall commence with an old roadway which 
Deering shows to have been ver^ narrow for 
two-thdids of its length. Its old name was 
*' Butt-dyke," now Park-row. It it first 
meotioned in vol. 1. of the Becords, p. 429 — 
A.D. 1351. In his ''Nottingham Castle," Mr. 
Hine, in reference to 1797, says : — " The Towp 
ditch in Park-row was fiiied up. Mr. Stretton 
says this ditch wa& cuir i& the rock, and to add 
to its security, as a dry moat, the outer edge 
was made to slope two or three feet inwards. 

''In this ditch archery was formerly practised 
going back 700 vears ; hence the name o^ 
IJutt-dyie. A portion of the ditch mav now 
been seen in the grounds of the General Hos- 
|Kta!. (Questionable at this date.) He also 
observes that in some excavations made at this 
penod, near the west end of Hounds-gate, an 
anoiont-paved carriage-road was discovered 1^ 
feet below the present surface." 
^ The widest part of Butt-dyke (the street) ^as 
then at the lower end, but afterwards for nuny 
years in the upper portion. The road at that 
date called Postern-bridge, but now Postern- 
street, was at its western end almost level, or 
in a line, wiih, wihat we now call Ropewalk- 
street; but it was afterwards rearranged, aoid 
brought thirty yards, or a little more, nearer 
to Ohapel-bar. This was an enlargement and 



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178 

aiteration of roads when fev?, if afny, btuldings 
would be disturbed, and fortunately- carried 
.idt when it could be doin« at the least possible 
cast. 

m 1801 Mr. Hine tells iw that HoUow-stcne 
v*a8 lower<»d This, T imagine, is the last con- 
siderable cnange in the road, which left it 
much as we now find it. I think there can be 
little doitbt that the Level at the upper pai*t 
Bcainst Stoney-street and High-pavement would 
l>e practically unaltered. At the same date 
'changes were made to a portion of the Flood- 
••oad (London-road), the seven arches being 
birilt by Mr. Stretton. 

T amjftlso convinced that it was near tb*»s 
Ume, or but few years later, when Plumptre- 
street, as a thoroughfare, was completed ^rom 
Stoney-stjeet to Bellar-gate. In 1809, the road 
by tho Castle was cut direct int" the Park. It 
passed through or over the old ditch or moat 
of the CSastle, which we are told by Mr. Stretton 
^»s filled up to the depth i,f twenty feet ; also 
tliat tlic eas-tcrn waU near the Cr.s tic-green Vv^ss 
t«Iken down a.d. 1795, and the stone used in 
building a fence wall. 

In 1810 the papers of the day inform us that 
a public subscription having been raised 
to assist in defraying the cost, the south- 
easterc corner of Bridlesmith-gate was taken 
down, and the roadway sufficieutiy widened to 
allow of two conveyances passing each other. 
From this we have evidence of tlie cramped 
Vendition at tl'e south end of that very im- 
portant thoroughfare early last century, though 
dS will probably be soon shown the opposite* 
end was in a similar contracted state untU a 
considerably later date. 

In 1812 Cow -lane was widened sixteen feet 
with ground given by the Duke of Newcastle, 
nnd it was then called Clumber-street. Further 
particulars are given respecting this work in 
the First Heries, Article XVIII., p. 102. About 
1827-28 Carrington-street was formed tJirough 
ground chiefly belonging to the hospitals 
founded by Abel Collin. Orange tells us tbat 
•*with the accumulated funds in the hands o! 
the trustees of this charity the new hospitals in 
Carrington-street have bcien erected. The first 



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173 

twelve were comoleted in 1831, and the other 
eight in 1834. 

•'Tliey are now occupied l>y twenty alms- 
people, who have the same allowance as those 

in the old hospital in Park-street 

The new street in front (which, with all the 
land and houses in its vicinity, belongs to this 
extensive charity) has its name from Lord 
Carrington, a descendant of the founder, and 
the head of the family of Smith." 

At the time the street was formed, it would 
undoubtedly be looked upon by all as of full 
widths and considerably wider tha.i most, but 
if it had to be arranged for at this date, with 
electric trams to run along it, and as the chief 
southern outlet of the city, it is probable that 
it would be still further enlarged by several 
yards. 

I have above noticed what is said by Mr. 
Hine (1809) respecting the road out into the 
Park. The Date Book mentions a similar 
occurrence, but fixes the time nineteen years 
later — ^namely, in 1828 — and tells tts that 
"workmen were engaged in lowering the hill 
leading into the Park from the Castle Lodge. 
One of them struck his spade into a hole, and 
thus led to the discovery of an extensive sub- 
terranean passage out out of the rock ; one 
extremity of it was found to communicate with 
an ancient but finely-formed doorway, arched 
over with solid masonry, and the other led to 
a spiral staircase, and passed under the wall 
encompassing the Oastle yard." Both appear 
to report upon what was done on the same spot. 
Even if the work really was at different dates, 
the description of what was found or seen in 
each case is very different. 

During the last three years the angle on the 
opposite side of the road to the Castle Lodge, 
and nearest to St. James's Church, has l>cen 
considerably rounded off, whioh has resulted in 
a great improvement to that part. In 1829, the 
Leen was arched over in Canal-street and Leen- 
side ; and Boot -lane, which wa-s very narrow, 
was considerably widened on its western side, 
and afterwards called Milton-street. Respect- 
ing those two roads further particulars will be 
found in the first series. 



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In 1902, Boot-lane, or Milton-stveet^ wi^ 
again added to on the same side, and almost 
doubled in width. This was necessitated \rf 
the great increase of traffic and use of electric 
trams. 1831-32: About this time I believe 
Bath-street to have been formed, which con- 
nects the bottom of Beck-street with Sneinton 
Market. This change had been needed many 
years, for one part of the town was to a great 
extent severed from another. It was effected 
with little or no pulling down of houses or 
other propea:^, and theit^oie at comparaUvelj 
trifling cost. 

Wliilst giving additional particulars, I wish 
to ma^e a few more remarks respecting Thur- 
laod Hall, and speciallv as regards the state- 
ment by the editor of tne first four volumes of 
the Borough Records to be found on page 443, 
vol. 4, wnen mentioning Thurland House. 
He says, "The town house of the Thur- 
land family, demolished in 1831. It was in 
Thurland-street." The last sentence includes 
an astonishing assertion. Many will have to 
leam how it is possible for a lai^ge building 
which was in Qridlesmith-gate, or as now en-* 
titled Pelham-street, after it had been 
thoroughly pulled down, and as will shortly be 
shown for three yesfrs and more previously, 
can, with the least tinge of accuracy, be said 
to be in the new street, which was subsequently 
made through part of the ground where it had 
onoe stood. 

1 do not know of anything whatever in other 
works relatinfij to the history of Nottingham, 
that countenances or in the least favours, so 
strange an assertion. With many others yet 
residing in the city, 1 can remember Thurland- 
street from its formation, but the old house or 
hall, it is really unnecessary to repeat, was 
never in it, for as I shall show it had been 
demolished a considerable time before the 
street was formed, and that is proved by there 
l^injT no name attached to it, or street men- 
tioned in the Direotooy brought out three years 
after the hall was levelled with the ground. 

It is muoh like answering a joke to argue on 
such a matter. Our best Directories and most 
reliable hiatoiians all say that it was in the 



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175 

thoroughfare which is now represented liy, or 
in Pelnam-street ; and some still alive can of 
their own knowledge assert that such is the 
fact. I am quite awa-o that, being compara- 
tively young men, it is impossible for eithef 
of the editors of the Records to remember so 
far back, by many years, though they should 
not forget that some are still left who can. 

White, in his Directory dated 1832, says: — 
Thurland Hall, the largest and most ancient 
mansion in Nottingham, was taScen down in 
1831 for the improvement of Pelham-street, 
on the north side of which it stood nearly op- 
posite the Black's Head Inn, which was fMilled 
down in 1830. Dearden, in his Directory, p. 
78, dated 1834. when referring to this old 
structure, says :—" Thurland Hall, Pelham- 
street, the largest and most ancient mansioii 
in the town, was taken dk>wn fn 1831, and it is 
intended shortly to erect a number of splendid 
houses upon its site, so as to form a spaicdous 
street into Lincoln-street.'' 

Both agree, and they affirm that Thurland 
Hall was "in Pelham-street," though it is 
chiefly to what is said by Dearden that I wiah 
to now refer, as he wrote three years after the 
hall had been pulled down. Yet, notwith^ 
standing that interval, there does not appeal 
to have been any steps taken to form a street 
at that date, nor does he make any reference 
to " Thurland-street " when writing about thf, 
hall, nor is it included in his list of streets, 
squares, gates, &c.y pp. 52 to 60 inclusive, which 
proves that there was not one of thai name :n 
1834, and probably even for a year or tv/o 
Uter. 

The last piece of trround in the street was 
not taken up until 22 yenis after the old hall 
had been cleared away, and that was for the 
Artisans' Library in 1853. I have endeavoured 
to think of some reason how or why the editor 
of vol. 4 of the Records could possibly imagine, 
or Ftate, that Thurland House, or Hall, was in 
Thurland-street, and unless it was because he 
supnosed it to have been an old street, and not 
a comparatiyely new one — ^which it is — I do not 
consider that I can account for iti and I must 
leave it to him for explanation. 



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176 

I am thoroughly avefne to sajing aajthmg 
that would show the least desire to criticiae, for 
I give place to no one as regards the great 
amount of pleasure I have found when very 
frequently perusing the Borough Records, but 
that work differs with most as it is official, and 
belongs to the city ; therefore, as a citizen, and 
haviuig an interest in it aa such, a sense of 
duty compels me to point out, but without any 
desire to carp or cavil, all parts or assertions 
which I believe to be inaccurate, though it is 
solely for the benefit of those coming ^er us, 
and the furtherance of truth. 

Mr. William Dearden, the editor of the Not- 
tingiham Directory dated 1834, was a printer, 
Ac, who carried on business many years in 
Carlton-street, about fifteen yards from the top 
of Pelham street at thf time Thuiland Hall was 
pulled down, and for a lonsj term after the 
street was formed ; therefore his knowledge re- 
specting those circumstances was undoubtedly 
very complete, and his assertions reliable. 

There is one matter which I think should be 
noticed, and that is respecting some of the 
ground at the back of the old house or hall. 
When going nut of the northern end of Thur- 
land-street, and turning to the right towards 
George-street, at the distance of about forty 
yards, several steps lead into a passage to 
Lincoln-yard or court in which are some small 
houses. The back of those to the right of the 
yard when entering was in that part the boun- 
dary line not only of Thurland Hall but also of 
Mr. Gregory's old mansion, with its land as 
previously described. I distinctly remember 
the backs of the houses when the ground was 
open. 

On several occasions about 60 years since, 
more or less, some streets, roads, Ac, were 
formed, which according to the standard of 
those days were of ample width, and considered 
likelv to remain so, and one of these was the 
extension of Oarrinj^ton-street southward with 
the bridge over the canal in 1844. A con- 
siderable widening has since taken place when 
building, but particiJarly on the western side ; 
and about 1902 the bridge also was strengthened 
and enlarged. 



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177 

1846. — Albert-street was formed. This also 
18 a case in which no oppoxtunity has since 
been omitted of widening the roadway when- 
ever possible, which wae on an occasion or two 
successfully carried out. Some reference is 
made in the first series to the last two oases. 

1852. — About this year Bridlesmitii-gate wa« 
widened at its northern end. It had previously 
been so very narrow that there was not more 
room between the curbstones of the causeways 
close to the Poultry than was convenient to 
allow of one vehicle Daesing through. The 
thoroughfares meetinf^ in that i>art nave since 
been completely changed in character, and the 
available spaoe immensely increased. 

1855. — About this time the excellent thorough- 
fare to the top of Mapperley Hill by Wood- 
borough-road was formed, of which many par- 
ticulars may be found in the fourth article, first 
series. Bespecting some of the dates I cannot 
speak with certainty, and with others I am 
guided by memory alone, though I hope they 
will be found approximately correct. 

1850. — ^Near this period a change was made 
by which Warser-gate and the upper ends of 
Fletcher-^ate and Bottle-lone were fully con- 
nected with Oarlton-street. 

Some of my older fellow-citizens will remem- 
ber full half a century since the little old foot- 
way in that part which was in importance much 
dignified by being termed *' Queen-street." It 
wa« a very narrow passage whicih — writing from 
memory — I consider was little, if any, more than 
two yards wide, and usable for foot-passengers 
only. The early name was, I believe, retained 
for a number of years after the enlargement, 
biit since the erection of the large new Post 
Ofiioe buildings, it has been appropriated for 
that street, and the former place is now entitled 
"Old Queem-street." 

As compared with previous times that part 
has undergone a complete transformation, and 
nearly every old landmark near has been re- 
moved, though the facilities for getting from 
one part to another in that locality are now 
entirely complete, and where there were for- 
merly many small and old buildings there are 
now a number of lame and costly structures. 



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178 

Bespectin^ thie part, we are toM in the 
Records, vol. 3, p. 433, in reference to Bottle- 
lane that in olden tiniee Hugh de Linby dwelt 
there, and that it "bore the name of Tinbir- 
lane in Thoroton's time 0675)." In vol. 2, 

S, 473, we sre also told that Linby-lane is 
otUe-lane, but moat singularly in voL 4, p. 
430, the editor says "Linby-lane, now known 
as Queen-street,*' and he directo us to p. 174, 
line 11, which has reference only to the boun 
dary of the ward represented by the "'Maior." 
Linby-lane, even aocording to Ilioroton, was 
what is now termed Bottie-lane, and most 
ti88uredly the Becords themselves quite favour 
that idea from what I can find or has so far 
been mentioned in them, but it certainly was 
not Queen-street, and especially the thorough- 
faro as now ased, though no remarks are made 
by the editor, when mentioning it, whether it 
was the old or new passage which he desired 
to be understood. I beJievc liim to be correct 
in the first two extracts, but that he is quite 
mistaken in Uie last 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM. 

ITS STREETS, PEOPLE, &c. 



XXV. 

I propose to oontinue my remarks res- 
pecting the ohanges (widening, &c) whioh have 
been made in the streets, rokds, &c.; of Not- 
tingham. Of those noticed there are, I be- 
lieve, six which occurred before my time, Uit 
no doubt about seventy alterationA to ihorough- 
faxes have been carried out in my rem/^ui- 
brance, of which, I believe, nearly nine-tenths 
have taken place from 1850 to the end of 1902 
inclusive. 

About sixty years since, or near 1844, and 
some time before Thurland-street tias fully 
built upon, advantage was taken of the r.ppor- 
tunitv to put back the property on each side 
of ite southern end and in the middle of Pel- 
ham-street, by which much additional space to 
allow of vehicels passing there was obtained ; 
and about ten years later, or near 1854, it was 
(proportionately) much widened on the southern 
side of the street at the top. Many of my old 
fellow-citizens will remember that rhere was 
but little room to spare when an o^'dinary 
vehicle passed through there, but after the 
change took place the roadway was sufficient 
in width to allow of conveyances passing eacn 
other. 

This, of course, was a very beneficial altera- 
tion, thoi^ even now it is too narrow, and 
its usefcdness would be greatly increased if it 
was poesible to add five more yards to its 
width. In a previous article (No. 52) I have 
referred to what I* consider an encroachment 
by the Gregorys when building there, and 
mentioned three feet as being ta^en from th<f 
street* but on a cloeer examination of the si)ot 
I am quite convinced that about four het was 
appropriated in 1674, though I may peihapet 
prove that there is still full three feet more m 
the same part which was taken from the street, 
at or about that date, to its serious detriment. 

Until about 1852 the road at the top cf the 



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180 

Fore»t was called " Forest-side," but rlont that 
time, and especially tow aids the Manstiold-road 
end, its course wafi made much more direct. It 
was re-formed, widened, levelled, &o., arid com- 
pleted in a very much better and different mode 
to what had previously been the case. At that 
date there Ttere not many houses in or iiear it, 
excepting at each end. Shortly after these 
changes it was reoiamed " Foreet-road." 

About the year 1852, as near as I can esti- 
mate, considerable changes were n^ade to 
f;everal thoroug'hfares ; the old name of the 
first to be meintio<ned was Lin^-dale. \ihich full 
two hundred and fifty years since was changed 
to " The Bowling-alley — this title laany of my 
older fellow-citizens who have resided r.ear will 
easily remember, though about fifty years since, 
or a little more, it was acain changed to 
Waverley-street. Going back many years I 
have frequently wonder^ how it acquired the 
name of Bowling-alley, together with Bowling- 
alley Fields, Ac. 

I desire now to state that a considerable time 
back I was fortunately suoceseful in obtaining 
an exceedingly rare and interesting map of the 
old borough ^in addition to the large old official 
map), on which, too, all the fields aro fully set 
out, and im a considerable numiber of cases their 
old names are given, various localities being 
also designated with their ancient titles. The old 
Racecourse, as probably firgrt formed about 230 
years since, is also shown. This in shape and 
size is entirely different to what anyone will 
remember. It completely filled up the whole 
length of the "Forest" (as now termed), which 
at that time extended from Mansfield-road to 
Alfreton-road, and whose old name was "Not- 
tii'ghaiii Lings ' (1699). 

There was l>iit one track for a considerable 
portion of tlie course, in the middle, and this 
pnrt it was necessary when racing, should be 
Iraversod twice (going and returning), but at 
each end there was a large loop to run round. 
It is, without doubt, more than one hundred 
years since that very old course was run upon, 
or about the beginning of last century. It 
was probably not less than double the lensth 
of the course since made on the Forest, but 



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now disived. 

The map shows tha^ at one time there really 
was a Bowling-alley at the top of what we now 
know as Waverley-street, at its north-east 
comer next to the old Forest-side (now road). 
Until the present time I h^ve neither seen nor 
heard of a similar map. It is extremely rich 
in old-place names, and on numerous occasions 
localises them, some of which places appear 
not to have been known to the editors of the 
Borough Becords, a<nd no doubt most others, 
thougn I hope to cast some light on several 
of tl^ various parts shortly. 

The first to be mentioned is connected 
directly with the locality under observation. 
On a former occasion, and in the third article 
of the first series, I have briefly referred to the 
neighbourhood. I now wish to notice p. 402 
in Vol. II. of the Records respecting a lease 
** of five acres of arable land called * Sunny 1- 
wong' lying in Lyngdalefelde." This takes 
us back to 1404, or five hundred years, but 
there is most certainly little or no room for 
doubting tha»t *' Lyngdalefelde " is merely the 
old name for the large Bowling-alley Field, 
which was open to the road of that name (now 
called Waverley-street) that ran through and 
divided it into two uneaual parts, by far the 
lacger being eastward, ana including much of the 
Arboretum, &c. ; the smaller portion being 
westward of the road, into one comer of which 
(north-west) ran little Larkdale. 

Many other old inhabitants of the city T?ill 
also easily remember these circumstances, but 
especially those who, like myself, resided near. 
In the Borough Records, Vol. I., p. 435, the 
editor mentions " Lingdalefeld," and says that 
it was "No doubt a portion of Lingdale." 
Strictly speaking, this is probably correct, 
though, going back fifty-five years or more, the 
term " Bowling-alley," which superseded " Ling- 
dale," would, I have little doubt, in the 
thoughts of those well knowing it, be repre- 
sent^ quite as much by the old uneven sandy 
road as by the groimd or fields near. 

This would also be the case with little Lark- 
dale, which was a very narrow pathway be- 
tween hedges, and probably less than one-fifth 



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182 

of a mile in length. I am glad to thimk iiiat, 
with the aid of the old map mentioned and ite 
many names, I have been enabled to describe 
the exact spot where " Lyngdalef eld " was 
situated, though it must be thoroughly under- 
stood that this is an additional map to the 
large old official one to which I have before and 
so frequently alluded. 

In further reference to Lingdale amd Lark- 
dale, the editor of the Records, Vol. I., p. 435, 
says it was "so called from the ling, or heath, 
growing there." This is undoubtedly incor- 
rect, for that side of the hill from the top of 
Lingdale, or the Bowling-alley (Foreat-side), 
and Larkdale also, was excellent grass or pas- 
ture land, from which in various parts both 
myself and others at intervals have seen good 
crops of hay gathered, between what is now 
called Forest-road and WoUaton-street, or Par- 
liament-street. 

It was by Lingdale and Larkdale that people 
from different portions of the town in former 
times would walk to "Nottinfipham Lings," 
which is the old name for what has in recent 
times been termed "The Forest," and, if ling or 
heath did grow anywhere, it was in that part 
called The Lings, which was probably suitable 
for their growth from being land of poor quality 
at tliat date, though it has been greatly im- 
proved during the last fifty-five years. 

1851. — ^About this date Fox-lane, Goosewong- 
lane. and the narrow uneven track (in various 
places) was widened, regulated, paved, &c., and 
the present Woodborough-road made, which is 
now an excellent route io Mapperley Plains, 
&c. For particulars see Article 4, First Series. 

1852. — Near this date I believe Bhaw's-lane 
to have been considerably widened, and formed 
into a very excellent thoroughfare. That was 
the old name from Parliament-street to Bab- 
bington-street, but after completion it was 
called Sherwood-street in its whoie length imtil 
Forest-road was reached. 

1852 — or near the same date — ^Badk-lane was 
altered to its present form, and much rock was 
cut away on the eastern side at its upper 
end and then called WoUaton-street. 

1852 — about the same time — Oross-lane wa« 



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183 

mnoh widened and formed in ita present 
excellent mode, bein^ afterwards entitled 
Shakespeare-street. This was formerly a filthy, 
rutty road, deep in mud. At a similar dat^ 
also I consider that Mapperley-road was 
formed. It connects the top of Mansfield-road 
with Woodborough-road. In each of the four 
last-mentioned changes, further particulars may 
be obtained in previous articles. 

In a number of instances I am necessitated 
to give approximate dates respecting the 
alterations, though generally speaJdng it will 
be possible to select those respecting which 
there is any uncertainty. 

1853. — About this year the bridle road to 
Wilford Ferry was transformed into a good 
road, as all now know, and in a short time 
afterwards a commencement was made to erect 
new houses. Near that date Bluecoat-street 
was formed between Mansfield-road and Sher- 
wood-street. This may perhaps be considered 
the more probable from the fact that the new 
Bluecoat School at the north-eastern comer of 
the street was built in 1853. 

In that year. May 6th, there is an interest- 
ing reminiscence of old Nottingham recorded 
in the Date Book, which I remember and will 
notice, namely: — "In the construction of a 
sewer on Smithy -row, at about the depth of 
two feet, the excavators found a thick layer 
of concrete, composed of particles of iron in 
firm cohesion witn sand and gravel, the whole 
forming a solid mass d great hardness and 
weight. It is conjectured Uiat this deposit 
wae the result of the sweepings from the * row * 
of 'smithies' which formerly extended from 
High-street to within a few yards of the Ex- 
change.*' 

1853. — In this year Stanford-street was 
formed^ which has most undoubtedly proved a 
convenient mode of access to the railway 
stations, Ac., and had long been needed. For 
conveyances especially, very m\ich additional 
ground was passed over previously in going to 
or from the railways, Ac., to what fortunately 
is now necesisairy. 

In 1853 the north-west corner of Parliament- 
street was widened to allow of two vehicles 



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passing each other, though it will be found 
to have been briefly referred to in a prervious 
article. The chief alteration to this part, how- 
ever, was in 1902, when the still narrow road- 
way was formed into one of the first dass, to 
allow of electric trams nuining in it, aaid as an 
alternative route for them from the Market- 
place by Market-streei, or. if necessary, into 
the Market-place. A fuller account of this 
change will be found in Article 19, First Series. 

1853 — Broadway was formed, connecting 
Stoney-street with St. Mary*s-gate, and briefly 
referred to before. 

1853. — About this date a great change and 
improvement was made, whidi I wi^ to fur- 
ther mention as regards the connecting of the 
north end of Fletcher-gate, the west end of 
Warser-gate, and the east end of Bottle-lano 
with the west end of Carlton-street, the east 
end of Pelham-street, and also of Chander^s- 
lane, as it was then, but which in 1862 was, as 
respects the buildings, entirely cleared away, 
and the present Victoria-street formed. 

Previously Queen -street was only a narrow 
pathway, wnich was for foot-passengers alone. 
It was at this time flagged. When speaking 
of its width with a gentleman, he expressed his 
confidence that with his outstretched arms he 
could almost have touched both sides. I feel 
assured that his idea, if not correct, was not 
far from being so, for I believe it to have been 
not more than two and a half yards wide, but 
rather less, though possibly as increasing its 
dignity, if not its size, it was entitled '* street," 
and certainly there are very few * streets" of a 
similar kind. It was known by that name in 
Deering's time, who died in FebmaaT, 1749. 

Since the formation some years back of Eling 
and Queen streets, which form at their top 
ends a double connection with Parliament- 
street from the Market-place, in the latter of 
which an enormous building for the Post Office, 
Ac, has been erected, the wide and excellent 
roadway, which nearly fifty years since was 
made as a substitute to the old contracted foot- 
road, or pathway, has been for probably about 
ten years designated Old Queen-street. 

In connection with this ancient narrow 



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185 

thoroqglifare, which I believe to have been 
named after Queen Anne, and also with Bottle- 
lane, the editors of the Boroug^h Becords appear 
to have been rather confused, and jriye different 
explanations in various volumes. 

According to Vol. II., p. 426, Hu jh de Lyndeby 
was Mayor of Nottingham in 1400-1401, and 
commencing in 1384-5 he had previously been 
a bailiff on two occasions, and was therefore 
well known in the town. On page 442, "Linby- 
lane" is described as "the lane leading to- 
wards Hugh de Lindeby's house. He appears 
to have dwelt in Bottle-lane, which bore the 
name of Linby-lane in Thoroton's time. Hence 
the lane mentioned as going out ci Walsed (or 
Warser) Gate is the present Queen-street." 

I quite agree with the editor in that extract 
so far as the locality is concerned, and an old 
but small footpath, which many of us in the 
city still remember ; but when he asserts it to 
l>e "the present (now Old) Queen-sti^eet," whi<^i 
has been formed as it now is for barely half a 
century, we need some further explanations 
from him, for what he was then writing about 
has reference to the year 1435. It will be 
noticed that Thoroton (1675) calls it Linby-lane, 
and the editor admits that to be, or to mean, 
Bottle-lane M a later date). 

In Vol. III., p. 473, when referring to the 
same lane the editor, as I believe tn^, gives 
Bottle-lane as its equivalent. Nevertheless, in 
Vol. rV., p. 439, ne says, "Linby-lane, . . 
now known as Queen-street" ; and refers us to 
Vol rrr., where we are informed on p. 473 that 
it is " Bottle-lane." The editor of Vol V. and 
the last, unfortunately, which is at present 
publiahed, also repeats these verv singul/ir 
statements, and sayg on p. 449, "Linby-lane, 
. . . now Queen-street." This not only 
contravenes what we are told in Volumes II. 
and III., but is also in op))08ition to our two 
most trusted and reliable historians, Thoroton 
and Deering (1676 and 1749), which as regards 
Thoroton the editor of Vol. II. acknowledges. 

It is almost a certainty that in Thoroton's 
time "Bottle-lane" as a title was not known, 
but 76 years later, with Peering, we have evi- 
dence on p. 12 that it was in use even if it did 



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186 

not thoroughly prevail, for when giying the 
number ol houses and people living in the 
various streets, lanes, roads, &c., of Notting- 
ham, he says, *' Bottle-lane, see Linby-lane " 
and on referring to it we are told that there 
were 13 houeee and 59 persons living in 
Linby-lane. I cannot interpret these peculiar 
statements in the Beoords, but muet leave 
them for the two editors to explain. 

1855. — Park-drive was opened this year to 
form an approach from Canal-street to the 
Park. This, as most will know, was many 
years before the Boulevard was formed. In 
1856 a commencement was made with the 
tunnel undeo* the hill, leading from Derby-road 
to the Park Valley. Near this time the end 
of Warser-gate next to Stoney-street was 
widened. 

Probably about the same year (1855) Red 
lane, now Pedcli£fe-road, for vehicles was, I 
believe, in living memory the chief road 
leading to the top of Mapperley Hidl, but 
in character and quality it wa^i most undesir- 
able from bein^ on clay land for the most iKirt 
and practically unmade. It was afterwards at 
a very considerable outlay formed into a most 
excellent route. 

In rainy and winter seasons I cannot think 
of any road to compare with that in the de- 
nunciations uttered by those compelled to use 
it. For its almost impassable condition, deep 
in the clay, was made much worse by steepness 
of the hill. I am sure I shall be within bounds 
in saying that I have seen the greater part of 
one hundredweight of clay adhering to each 
wheel of a heavy cart after passing through that 
lane in the worst time of tne year. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM 

ITS STREETS, PEOPLE. &c 



XXVI. 

In MttTciiy 1862, a oommenoemeiiit i^Bfi 
made to pull down tnc tionses, &c, on eik^ side 
of that antiquated and well-knoim but narrow 
roadway oallied Chandler's-lane, for the purpose 
of forming a much ^ider and more useful com- 
munication between the east and west of the 
town; and also to aid in "^e shaping" of 
wh^vt since the new Post Office was erected, a 
few years ago^ has been called Old Queen- 
street, respecting which particulars will be 
found in a previous article. 

This contracted roadway was well known in 
olden times, and is noticed at intervals in the 
Borough Records. The first occasion I have 
observed is in Vol. I., p. 430, a.d. 1366 and 
1389. It is there called Gandeler-lane, and in 
Vol. II., p. 359, Oandelar-lane. About two 
hundred years later it had become Ohandeler- 
lane, and from that no greai effort was needed 
to make it Chandler's lane. 

Bespecting it and Lynbe-lane (now Bottle- 
lane) there was formv?rly at their upper ends a 
narrow way ti commimicatio(n between them 
and other thoroughfares near, which I have be- 
fore referred to as being dignified when ranked 
with a street (Queen -street). Whilst alluding 
to Chandler' s-lano, the editor of Vol. V. of the 
Beoords, p. 448, without any explanation, 
savs : " Now Victoria-street," which I con- 
sider will probably at some future time com- 
pletely mislead those who see it. 

An ordinary reader from such a statement 
has a right to suppose that a change had oc- 
curred in the name only of the lame, whereas 
it was as a thoroughfare practically obUterated, 
of which in a few words some intimation should 
certainly have been given by the editor, such 
as is introduced in Vol. L, p. 430, by those re- 
sponsible for the first volume. This street 
was the earliest in the provinces to have a 
subway constructed under it. In 1875 it was 
illuminated, says Mr. Hine, on the oooaeion of 



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VB 

a visit from the DerbyBhire Engineers and their 
president, Lord Edward Cavendish. 

1864. Kear this tune, I believe, Willoughby- 
row — the old name for which was Pennyfoot- 
row — ^and also Pemnyfoot Stile were each con- 
siderably widened. In quite recent times the 
eastern end of Fisher-gate has been advanced, 
snd old Pennyfoot-row or Willoughby-row 
(which was a street similar in some degree to 
Spaniel-row) has been absorbed by it, and now 
that portion of Fishei gate ends where the part 
once called Pennyfcot Stile, or as in recent 
times entitled Pennyfoot-street, begins. Un- 
doubtedly during the last forty years or there- 
abouts an immense improvement has been 
made in this locality, not only from the widen- 
ing of roads, &c., but also by the provision of 
recreation grounds near, which for that section 
of the city must prove to be a great boon. 

There is still another passage in that part I 
must mention, which on I>eering's map is called 
"Back-lane." To many old inhabitants this 
may appear strange and especially if when 
young they were much connected with the wes- 
tern outlets of the town. Their idea of Back- 
lane will probably be as formerly, from the 
upper part of Parliament-street and reaching to 
the open space on the top of Derby-road in 
front of the General Cemetery ; and therefore 
it was considerably longer than the other old 
lane just noticed, of which there is little room 
for doubting that about the time its name of 
Back-lane (with which title it was attempted 
to displace Pennyfoot-lane) ceased to be used, 
or shortly after, it was applied to the v^estern 
outlet and probably about 120 or 130 years 
since. 

In Deering's (1745) map the thoroughfare we 
now term Wollaton-street has no separate 
name, and with but little doubt it 'vas included 
with the part designated " Back-side," and when 
"one Bouse," as mentioned in Article 13, p. 
74, succeeded in changing the name to Parlia- 
ment-street the title " B^^-lane " was then, or 
soon after, transferred from the tfistem part 
of the town to this western outlet. 

Aa regards Pennyfoot-lane, I first find it in 
YoL I., p. 339, of the Beoords and a.d. 1397, 



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when there wa« a riolent assault committed in 
it; and also on p. 437 same Vol., where the 
editor says, " Penyfotlane, Penyfutlane . . . 
Pennyfoot Stile ; called Pennyfoot-lane by 
Thoroton." Why then should he ignore Thoro- 
ton, who wrote with a full knowledge of it; 
also when he and Beedng together with all the 
most reliable old maps, £c.y entirely differ with 
himt There was, until 1780, not only Penny- 
foot-lane, but also Pennyfoot-row and Penny- 
foot Stile as roadways or passages, thouf^fh vary- 
ing in character, loid all are shown or referred 
to in some way by Deerin^. 

When mentioning the streets, Ac., with 
the houses and souls, on p. 13 he says : — 
Pennyfoot-lane, see Back-lane. On turning 
to p. 12 we are told t^at Back-lane 
had nine houses and 57 people living in 
it, and that Pennyfoot-row nad seven houses 
and 32 persons living in them. In Deering's 
time, md on -his engraving of the eastern part 
of the town, as before referred to, Pennyfoot 
Stile itself is clearly shown, but there was at 
that date only a narrow footpath leading to it. 
In 1780, as previousljr mentioned, Wil- 
loughby's Hospital was built in Pennyfoot-row, 
and from then the name was changed to Wil- 
loughby-row. 

As regards the attempt to substitute Back- 
lane for Pennyfoot-lane, I am glad to say that 
it did not then succeed, and that the old name 
was used even in my time ; but then an at- 
tempt was made to change it to Water-lane or 
street, which ultimately succeeded, and that is 
its present title. Pennyfoot-lane and Penny- 
foot Stile it is true at one end were close to or 
adjoined each other, but at right angles, the 
first going mainly northwards and the latter 
eastwards, and therefore Pennyfoot-lane could 
not possibly be Pennyfoot Stile. 

White in his Directory of 1832 and Dearden 
in 1834 allude to both places, and even up to 
the middle of last century (1852) at an election 
different voters notified their residences as 
being in Pennyfoot Stile, Pennyfoot-lane, and 
Willoughby-Tow (formerly Pennyfoot-row). 
Respecting the first, it had by this time become 
much enlarged and with a number of houses 



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190 

erected in it. The editor also says in Vol. 2, 
p. 446 : " Penyfotelane . . . Pennyfoot stile " ; 
which has been fully shown to be quite in- 
correct. 

Of the yairious particulars just mentioned 
some have been obtained from the larse old 
official map of Nottingham to which re^ience 
has so frequently been made. I should before 
have stated that the editor of Vol. V. of 
the Eecords, and the last issued, says on p. 
450, " Pennyfoot-lane .... Pennyfoot Stile"; 
which also is entirely erroneous and appears 
to be copied from Vol II. It would have given 
me much pleasure if the two editors had been 
fully provided with, and so enabled to refer 
to, more reliable maps and documents relating 
to streets, Ac», of the old town than unfortu- 
nately seems to have been the case, judging 
by the discrepancies which have at different 
times been pointed out. 

I desire next to mention an ancient Notting- 
ham thoroughfare, respecting which, in Vol. 
I.., p. 430, reference is made to a.d. 1315, or 
nearly 600 years since. Its modern name is 
Castle-gate, though there were of old several 
vaffiations — such as Caetelgat, Castilgate, Oas- 
telgate, &c. The street was in the French 
part of the old town, and appears to have been 
specially noted from its oonnection with that 
nationality, for in former times it was fre- 
quently designated " French-gate," which in the 
language of that period was Franchegate, 
Freyndigate, Fraunkissihgate, &c., though oc- 
casionally the Latin term "Vicus Franciscus" 
was also used« 

Some of my older fellow-citizens will no 
doubt remember " The Old Angel " public-house 
on High -pavement at the comer of St. Mary- 
gate. It wae a very old style of wooden- 
framed house, and to many it was known as 
"Bugge Hall," after an ancient family of that 
name who once lived in it Here originated 
the Bugges, the Binghsms, the Willoughbys, 
&c. ^ough we also have frequent reference 
in the Records to Bugge Hall, or House in 
Oastle-gate, I have not yet been able to fix the 
exact spot it occupied in that part 

In farmer times Oheapside wafl entitled Raton 



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191 

or Botten-row, and there was also a Rotten- 
'•ow in or near to Castle-gate, of which the 
exact place is at present, I believe, uncertain. 
In Vol IV. of the Reoords, p. 136—1569, is the 
following: — "Item for a borde and neyles 
for the common welle in Castylgate, 8d." This 
proves that there was a public well in that 
street. On p. 144 there is another entary aa 
follows: — "Item payd to tow women for 
carydg of sand and stone to Castyll-gate ende 
and Peper-stret ende, lOd." Fortunately, 
women have oeased doing work of this sort for 
a long period. 

1864. — ^In this year Lister-gate was consider- 
ably widened, the premises on both sides being 
to a large extent rebuilt, and were of a much 
more imposing oharaoter. In olden times we 
read of the very undesirable condition of this 
ancient avenue, with its stepping-stones to get 
across the almost impassable road, also an 
open sewer running down it, and a part raised 
considerably with posts, &c., to keep clear 
of the mud. 

The bottom part is described a-s being little 
better than a marsh Oi- bog, though no doubt 
this very objectionable condition of things had 
been greatly improved before the wideninjg oc- 
curred, but the lower paxt was again raised ; 
and probably in one portion by nearly a yard. 
At that time, and for about forty or fifty yards 
lower than the bottom of Low-pavement the 
road was comparatively steep, but after the 
bottom x>art near Broad Marsh had been raised, 
a line was drawn or worked to from there to 
the top end, which resulted in the present easy 
gradient. 

A considerable addition was no doubt made 
at that period to the width of Lister-gate, but 
with our present day experience of Nottingham, 
and its largely increased ix>pulation, electric 
trams, the great extension of the city and 
suburbs in that direction, the opening of the 
Boulevard to Lenton, Radford, Ac, we may 
rely upon it as a fact that if the change to that 
thoroughfare had to be made now, it would 
without doubt result in its being five or six 
yards wider. 

This is a very old roadway, and the first 



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192 

mention I observe of it in the "Borough 
RfX'ords" is in 1303. Its present title of 
Lister-gate is d corruption oi the old word 
" Litater," a dyer ; or " Lytstergate,** as named 
in the middle aces. In the ** Borouji^h Records/' 
Vol. n., p. 4&, A.D. 1402, we are told that 
" Robert German left by his will, dated 1402, a 
tenement in the street leading to the Friars 
Minor, formerly belonging to Robert de Spon- 
don, littester.' 

1863. — In Januaory this year the new bridge 
over the Midland Railway on Wilford-road was 
sufficiently advanced to allow of its being used. 
This was undoubtedly a great public conveni- 
ence, and after that time there was a large 
amount of building opeirations carried on, in and 
near to th«t road. 

1855. — Probably about this date Queen* s-walk 
was formed, but unfortunately the ground was 
not raised sufficiently, and thereforo when the 
Trent overflowed its banks the walk was gener- 
ally flooded. This had been the case on a 
number of occasions, and the Town Council 
decided that the walk should be raised above 
ordinary flood level, which was done, and it was 
reopened July 29tii, 1862. I remember in 
several instances seeing it more or less under 
water. 

1865. — October 2^ Goose Fair day. During 
the Mayor's (William Page, Esq.) procession 
when proclaiming the fair, he stopped in the 
middle of the new roadway whicn had been 
formed to a small extent on the site of old 
Sheep-lane, and declared "that it is, and shall 
be called. Theatre-street." The choice of such 
a name caused great dissatisfaction in the town, 
with much correspondence in the newspapers, 
many calling upon the Council to cancel it for a 
more appropriate one, and in a short time it 
was altered to its present designation, which 
is no doubt an impr«^vement. 

Though even that change was not wisely 
thought out, for it involved another street and 
title with it. Before that period the part of 
the hij^hway between the lower end of Flet- 
cher-gate and Weekday-cross was called Mar- 
ket-street; this term was transferred as men- 
tioned to the new street. I do not positively 



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id3 

remember the fresh name to the old street, 
though I considei it was "Old Market-street," 
bnt since that time there has been another 
change there, and the whole of the space from 
Fletcher-gate to High-pavement and to Middle- 
pavement is now designated Weekday-cross. 

There is absolutely no necessity whatever for 
all this "chopping and changing/* which causes 
Nottingham to appear a^s if it was poverty 
stricken, as re^aras its choice of place names, 
whereas it is rich beyond most places. With 
great ease a considerablo number cf titles c<uld 
have been selected, and of a most suitable kind 
had it been required, from our old t^wn 
worthies, Ac. 

I have more than once previously referred to 
this subieot; and, rather singularly, in Feb- 
ruary, 1904, I received a newspaper cutting 
from a large town in the north with an ac- 
count of a meeting of the Council, vhen a 
change in the names of various streets \Tas re- 
commended and discussed, and at whieh a c<>m- 
mittee was appointed to consider the matter 
and to report. 

In this case there must necessarily i e some 
attention given to the proposed alterations of 
name, but with us it appeairs to be a mere 
lottery or game of chance, or no better than a 
"toss up" whether we shall retain the ex- 
tremely old name (1400 years) of Out-gang-road 
or adopt the immeaning "Hartley-road." and 
also to decide whether we shall retain old Mill- 
street, where the first cotton mill in the world 
was erected, (though of humble proportions) or 
accept the title of "Bow-street," which is re- 
diculous and grossly inconsistent a-s comjiared 
with the first title. 

I wa« very glad to observe also that in this 
northern town, the mover of the resolution in 
his introductory remarks was careful to men- 
tion that " there were many names of old land- 
marks which he would not like to touch." This 
is almost the opposite to what most unfor- 
tunately is the case with ourselves in Notting- 
ham, for the "old land-marks" are all gradu- 
ally disappearing, and in that sense the pre- 
sent times are severed from the past. Tr it 
too good or too late to hope, or expect, that 



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194 

OUT City Ooimcil will take stejps to ensure tliat 
the same attention and consideration shall in 
the future be ^iven to changes in the names 
of streets, roads, Ac., and to uie preeervation of 
the ''old land-marks," as wae the case in that 
lar^e northern town ? 

hi 1865 the Walter memorial fountain was 
built between the lower end of Lister-gate, and 
the ends of Carrington-street and Greyfriars- 
gate. It was inaugurated in 1866, Mr. B. 0. 
Sutton being the aix^iteot. At the time of 
its erection the open space was enlarged by 
ground taken from the end of OoUin's Hospital 
adjoining, which greatly improved the facilities 
for traffic in that now most important and ex- 
ceedingly busy centre. Having no name, it is 
necessary to describe it, and "Hargreaves- 
square" would undoubtedly be a proper and 
suitable title, as mentioned in an earlier 
article. 

1866. — During this year Park-row was con- 
siderably widened at the bottom end on its 
western side. Before that date it would not 
be more, even if so much, as five yards wide. 
This was for a length of about eighty yards, 
when 5t became mu(3i wider. There was room 
for one narrow causeway, which was on its 
eaatem side, the other having a number of 
pieces of stone fixed against the walls every 
few yards to prevent vehicles catching against 
them. The buildings removed were generally 
of the commonest, and most undesirable char- 
acter. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM. 

ITS STREETS, PEOPLE, &c. 



xxvn. 

In 1866 the viaduct was erected over the 
Midland Railway, close to the Oarrington- 
btreet Canal Bridge, and formed a continiuition 
of it. Before this work was carried out, as a 
consequence of the level crossing, there were 
constuit interruptions to the str^ traffic, ard 
the inconvenience from that cause to those fre- 
quently using this outlet of the town was very 
great. For a time there was a wooden bridge 
by which foot-passengers could cross the line, 
but except in cases of necessity, while it was 
allowed to remain, it was not generally used, 
for there were many steps to take in going up 
and descending. 

During last year (1903), to suit the conveni- 
ence of all, the large new station of 
the Midland Bailway was in process of 
construction ; great alterations were carried 
out at the junction with Queen's-road, and also 
with the approach from Arkwright-street, which 
was raised considerably, the company being 
obliged to purchase the property in fliat part on 
each side, for in some cases the new level of the 
road reached up to the middle of the windows of 
various shops oi houses. 

The entrance to QueenVwidk was also con- 
siderably altered, and more closely connected 
with the bridge or road than fonnerly. Alto- 
gether, this part is now generally speaking not 
only much more convenient and decidedly im- 
proved in the pubh'c portion, but also as regards 
the passenger and ticket arrangements of the 
new station, which is on the level of the bridge, 
whereas previously, and in the old station, it 
was level with the platform. 

1868. — ^Near this date I believe a new 
thoroughfare to have been made connecting 
Mount-street with Park-row. Cumberland- 
place had extended from Ifark-row for probably 
two-thirds of the distance ton^ards Mount- 
street, when it was blodced by buildings, and it 



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196 

i8 this part which waa removed. The title to 
it is still Cumberland-plaoe. 

1868, or as 1 believe about that time, Ex- 
change-walk was formed. Some of us remem- 
ber the old and little passage through there, 
which was termed " Gtear's-yard," and after- 
wards " Farmer's-yard," this no doubt was 
from Mr. James Farmer, who probably still 
owns the extensive drapery establishment near. 
When the narrow footway was transformed into 
its present size ana s'^le, I have heard it 
asserted, and as I believe truly, that the woik 
was mainly if not completely carried out by 
Messrs. Smith, of the Bank, and Mr. Farmer, 
draper. It was also said thait at the time, 
under certain conditions, the town had the op- 
portunity of making a street through from St. 
Peter's-square to the Market-place, thouj^h 
most particulars are now forgotten. 

Wh«n mentioning King's-place, Stoney-sfcrect, 
in a previous article, I should have referred to 
a proposal, after the houses were pulled down, 
for a new road being made through that part 
to St. Mary-gate. ^fliere is at present an inlet 
or " cul de sac " which probably goes more than 
half the distance, and I have seen it stated 
that the Corporation offered to subscribe £300 
towards the cost of cutting throaich, which 
would specially be in connection with the part 
next St. Marv*s-gate, but unfortunately from 
some cause those interested were imable to 
carrv out the work they had hoped. 

1871.— On July 25th of this year the present 
bridge over the Trent, on the tondon-road, was 
opened. Tt is an immense improvement upon 
the old and very narrow one preceding it, 
which was mostly built of stone ; burt> unfor- 
tunately at that period they had no knowledge 
of, or did not use causeways, and that is oer- 
tainlv one reason why in olden times both 
streets and bridges were much less in width 
than they would have been had they provided 
such conveniences. I have before remarked 
upon the danger to foot passengers on the 
bridge, had there been no recesses over the 
piers into which they could step when convey- 
ances were meeting or passing, there being no 
room to spaire. 



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107 

The new bridge is in a lar^^ degree oomposed 
of iron, and the arches are far less numerous 
than in the old one, three of them being nearly 
one hundred feet wide, whereas they were 
generally, I believe, not much, if any, more than 
fifteen feet. The number of piers carrying the 
seventeen arches composing the old bridge were 
most certainly from their thickness a great 
impediment to the free flowing of the stream, 
and without doubt to a considerable extent 
must in times of flood have h^d the water 
back, and caused the river to overflow its banks 
earlier than otherwise would have been the 
case. 

The full width of the new bridge is about 
fcrtv feet, and the causeways seven, therefore 
there are twenty-six feet clear for the passage 
of conveyances, which would allow of three 
abreast without difliculty, but if it had to be 
built in these days there is little doubt that it 
would be nearly, if not quite, sixty feet wide. 
At certain seasons oi the year I frequently pass 
over it, and the throng is occasionally so con- 
siderable with passengers and vehicles, that it is 
almost impossible for cyclists to ride over, and 
if in the future electric trams be also taken to 
Bridgford, as it is often asserted will be the 
case, undoubtedly a width of sixty feet would 
not in the least exceed what is requisite. 

The bridge is about twenty-seven feet above 
the summer level of the waiter. From its 
northern end to the commenoement of the ap- 
proach at its southern extremity, the length is 
about 760 feet. It was completed and opened 
during the Mayoralty of Jolm Manning, Esq., 
from plans by M. O. Tarbotton, C.E. Mr. 
John George Woodward was then Sheriff of 
Nottingham. 

1878. — It was, I believe, near this period 
when an addition was first made in width to 
some portion of Byard-lane. It ie oertainiy 
much altered in appearance within living 
memory, though business premises have con- 
siderably increased in it, and houses or dwell- 
ings are proportionately much fewer. It is a 
very old passage, thou^gn in former times known 
by another name, and as some wUl remember 
in recent times also. 



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106 

Its old title was Walleoiil«aie, or WaUeooen- 
lane or Walnenlaae, see BeooidB YoL L, p. 
440. It is firftt moitioDed in 1315 as WaiUeon- 
lane. In Vol. II., p. 448, a.d. 1406, It is 
called Walnenlane, and sereral oases are re- 
ferred to respecting property, which is described 
as next to or near it. Reading the one in 
1406, it^ajs, *'A messuage m tlie Ileschamles 
(Shambles), Weekday Maiket. . . next the 
lane called 'Walnenlane' on the north." The 
editor says, ** Probably Bayard-lane," and I 
think all will agree with him. The Weekday 
Market was Weekday Gross. 

The first occasion on which I hare seen its 
modem name mentioned is in the Beoords, Vo). 
v., page 158. a.d. 1633, when amongst the 
presentments at the sessions is ''John Farsons 
for Annoyeinge Byard Lane with Bammell and 
fillth." For this he was fined 3s. 4d.^ which 
would be equivalent to about 25s. at this time. 
We may, therefore, con<dude that the present 
name dates back about 300 years. 

I cannot be sorry, as regards this roadway, 
that the Council weore to a certain extent com- 
pelled to revert to the old title of Byard-lane 
once more, after unwisely allowing it to be 
superseded by " Dininghall-street," and it is 
much to be hoped that, unless fully ooaasidered 
and advisable, the^ will not aooede in the future 
to requests by private persons or firms which 
involve a change in the names of old thorough- 
fares. As in various other instances, this lane 
most likely acquired its present title from 
someone having the same name, who at one 
time lived in it or owned property there. 

It was probably about the year 1876 
when old Wood-lane, which in former times was 
the part where St. Ann's well was situated, 
underwent considerable change, having been 
made into a first-class way in width, Ac., 
thouffh after completion its title was changed 
to Thomey wood-road. This to a certain extent 
assisted in keeping Sherwood Forest in memory, 
as it was the name of the smaller section of it, 
but Wood-lane reminded us that it was the road 
to what they frequently called "Nottingham 
Wood," though usually entitled the Ooppioe, of 
which there were two parts, the far coppice and 



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190 

the near ooppioe ; names almost equiyalent for 
wood. It was afterwards styled "The Well's- 
road." 

As a reminder of tibe locality where the wood 
onoe was, we have the Ooppice Asylum. In 
the Borough Reoords reference is constantly 
being made by the Town Ooimoil, Ac., to the 
two coppices, and to orders giy^n respecting the 
trees, though I ima^ne that all have been 
cleared away for one hundred and fifty years or 
rather more. 

1874. — Bedk-lane wa« widened during that 
ydar in it« whole extent, but chiefly on its 
eastern side. For a pairt of its length and at 
the upper end in paet times, it was for foot 
passengers only ; and when completed its name 
was changed to Heathoote-street. This is one 
of the old thoroughfares of the town. I first 
find it mentioned in the Records, Vol. I., p. 
428, A.D. 1387. We have it is true a roadway 
called Beck-street even now ; though that title 
hafl been given to it in my time, for in the large 
old official map of Nottingham (1829) it is called 
"Beck Bam." 

Five years later (1834), Dearden in his direc- 
tory says, ''Beck Bam, now Beck-street," and 
for full forty years ; that is, from a year or two 
previoiis to 1834 until 1874, or when the change 
was made to Heathoote-«treet, there were the 
two thoroughfares, namely, Beck-lane and 
Beok-siareet, yet the editor of Vol. IV of the 
Records, p. 433, says, "Beck-lane ... see 
preceding volumes. Beck-street." It is al- 
most needless to say that no change from Beck- 
lane to Beck-street ever took place. 

Practically it might be said that it was im- 
possible for another important reason, that 
Beck-lane could be Beck-street, even for the 
forty-three years daring which they had some- 
what similar names, for Beck-lane was on the 
opposite side of a main thoroughfare and was a 
footpath for about half its length, commencing 
at the Goose-gate end, and at the entrance from 
that part, it certainly could not be much more 
tham two yards wide. There were facilities for 
the passage of a vehicle from the lower end of 
the lane against St. John's-street until near to 
Hi^ Oroes-street, when it wae flagged with 



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900 

Yorkshire stone and a footpath only. Tbcsfie 
oircumstanoes are still in the remembianoe of a 
large number of people in the city. 

As far as I have observed, both ia the 
reoords and all other sources of information, 
except perhaps as regards variations in spelling, 
tho lane appears during the course of centuories 
to have retained its old title until 1874, when 
the narrow passage was transformed imbo Heaith- 
cote-street. 

We may see from what is referrd to above 
tiiat as a name Beck-lane had doubtless been in 
use 500 years or 'more until 1874, when it was 
discontinued ; whereas at that date Beck-street 
went back less than one-tenth of that time — 
approximately 43 years, to 1831. There is yet 
another and most important reason why Beok- 
lane should not, or, to a certain extent oould 
not, be changed to Beck-street, for the first 
was within the walls of the old town, and the 
latter wthout. 

When examining vol. 3 of the Beoords ^ few 
years since I was rather astonished to see on 
p. 476 that when the old roadway, " Sandelane," 
IS referred to in A.D. 1528, p. 442, the 
editor says: — 'Sandy-lane, reoemtly renamed 
Beck-street" This was an enigma to myself 
and others, not only because the term " Saiidy- 
lane" had been superseded by Millstone-lane, 
dating back, from the present time, hj no less 
than a century ; but also that, ofiicially speak- 
ing, there was no Sandy-lane for at least 30 
/ears previously to there being a road called 
Beck-street, which was unknown as a street 
when Millstone-lane was first need as a title. 

I am glad to say, however, that recently, and 
whilst engaged with these notes, I observed on 
p. 442, vol. 4, that the editor gives a difEer^it, 
but this time correct, account- of it, for he says : 
*' Sandy-lane, now known as Millstone-lane." 
Though from that name having been adopted, 
most certainly by or before the commencement 
of last century, it would have been in UFe 
oflScially for not less than 85 years when vol. 3 
of the Kecords was published (1885). 

It is (juite true that when a youth I fre- 
quently heard Sandy-lane mentioned, but that 
would be from about 56 to 68 years sitDce. I 



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m 

think thai Sandy-Une was <|uite as good a name 
a« Millstone-lane, for I believe iJie former was 
probably so entitled from bein^ a part, or near 
to, where the real division occurs of the sand 
and the day land. 

Bfespecting the exact period when the name 
of Millstone-lane wa^ first used, I cannot new 
give it; but I may say that I have carefully 
looked through the list of those belonging to 
the town who voted at the clectioai in 1806, and 
find that ten or twelve are entered as Uving in 
Millstone-lane, but I did not notice one case 
where the voter said that he resided in Sandy- 
lane, and no doubt that name had not been 
used much for years. The lower end of this 
lane commenced from the western side of 
Beck Barn (now Beck-street), and it was prac- 
tically impossible to include it in Beck-street at 
such an angle. 

In my younger days the name was completely 
associated with a low quarter of the ^Dwn, 
which was looked upon by many as being 
morally objectionable. 1874. — About this date 
I consider that the first widening ol Beok-street 
occiirred. Commencing at 5ie upper end 
against St. John's-street, and opposite to the 
lower end of Heathcote-sireet I believe that 
this roadway extends to Batn-street, or the 
cholera burying ground, on its eastern side. 
As opportunities nave since allowed, the town 
has taten advantage of them at different times 
to increase the width of this now important 
thoroughfare, and in various instances tlie road 
has much benefited. 

1880. — This I believe to have been near the 
date when a commencement was made to form 
a road of first-class width from the end of 
Greyfriars-gate, or Wilford-road, by Canal- 
street and Leenside, to London-road. In most 
ways which were possible this highway has been 
added to and improved. Where the Lenton- 
boulevard ends against Wilford-road this im- 
portant avenue begins, and, as a fact, is a ocn- 
tinuation of the boulevard to London-road. 

The last ohange made in it was towards the 
latter part of last year, when the end next 
London-road was considerably increased in 
width by pulling down the poiice statioin, &o*f 



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at the south-eafit oomer, aaid otherwise impror- 
ing the roadway by raising it in some pants, re- 
paying it in the best form, &c 

1883. — I believe it was about this time when 
the boulevards to the north, the west, and the 
south of Nottingham were commenced. In 
this way a most urgent requirement was carried 
out. Those coming from Lenton and the dis- 
trict can now get into the city without the 
labour of mounting a long and steep hill 
(Lenton Sands), which is of much consideration 
with heavily loaded vehicles. Parts of the 
town which were to a large extent separated 
from each other, and by this road fully aikl con- 
veniently connected. Twenty -five years since 
aoiyone going with a conveyance from Mans- 
field-road, Oarrington, must, necessarily have 
taken a rather sinuous course to get to Old 
Radford or Lenton to what is now neoessajy. 

The need for these communications is proved 
not only W the immense amount of business 
conducted u]>on them, but also by the constant 
necessity of repairs. The Lenton-boulevard, 
otherwise the low road from Nottingham to 
Lenton, was opened on September 18th, 1884, 
and was, I Wieve. the first portion to be 
utilised. The boulevards are now used by 
electric trams for about three-fifths of their 
wliole lengtn, commencing at Wilford-road, or 
near tihe Oastlo Rook. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM 

ITS STREETS. PEOPLE. &c 



xxYin. 

When oammencing tliis article, I wish 
to introduce a name which in olden times was 
well known in Nottingham, and is still applied 
to a "place" in the town. I am refernng to 
William Halifax, whose official career, accord- 
ing to the Becords, Vol. 2, commenced in a.d. 
1423-1424, when he was chosen as one of the 
Bailiffs. This was before the Appointment of 
Sheriffs, the first of whom, according to the 
Records, held the post in 1448-49 during one of 
the numerous occasions when Thomas Thurland 
was Mayor. tjnfortunately, while going so 
far back, we appear to be unable to obtain 
nearlv so many partioulaxs respecting the public 
men <rf the town generally, as is the case a 
century or two later. 

At the early dates it is seldom that 
the town Chamberlains are mentioned, and 
still rarer to see any reference to the 
aldermen, who were the town magistrates, 
and from amongst whom it was imperative that 
the Mayor shoiUd be selected. At a later date 
when, as was frequently the case, the name of 
a person wae given who had been chosen for 
that position, there would generally be some 
idea of the period when he would be appointed 
Mayor, but this was not the case in the time 
of William Halifax. I have seen no remark 
respecting the date when he became an alder- 
man, but he was first elected Mayor for the 
year 1431-32, and afterwards for 1440-4L The 
last date is two years previous to the time 
when Thomas Thurland first filled the post of 
Chief Magistrate, and respecting whom I wrote 
in a recent artide. 

William Halifax lived on the northern 
side of High-pavement, and I believe it 
is possible to closely fix the spot where 
his house stood, thoug^ it is now more 
than four hundred and sixty vears since he last 
became Mayor. In the Aeoards, Vol. II., 
p. 358, and in the quaint language of the time, 



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ao4 

there is m interefltiiiff reference to him when 
giving a list of small pathways or passages, 
namely: — **A oomon lane vat ^ fro ye Hey 
Pament tharo a place of William Halifax to 
Pylchard Gate." 

This gives an excellent idea of the 
mode by which the part we now term 
Halifax-place acquired its name, though as a 
fact in the course of centuries it has been 
known by other titles also. From what is 
mentioned in vol. 3, p. 368, a.d. 1531, it 
would appear as though something was paid by 
a " guyld annually as an acknowledgement for 
the use of a *'lane," for we are told "Item of 
the Wardens of the Trinyte Guyld for a oomen 
lane in Halifax-place on the Highpament, 8d." 
It certainly appe«ars to be undoubted that the 

f round attached to the old house of William 
lalifax extended at least to what is now, and 
for many yee^rs has been, known as Halifax- 
place. 

This title is, however, different, as I 
liave mentioned, to that of former times, and in 
two ways, even in or after Deering's time, as it 
is designated " Jack Nuttal's lane on his map. 
I think it most probable that there really was 
a lane at one time from High-pavement to 
Pilcher-gate, but under the control of William 
Halifax and some of his successors to the 
property. I am very glad that the name of 
*' Jack Nuttall's lane " did not long prevail, and 
hope that Halifax-place as a title is per- 
raanontly attached to that spot We know who 
William Halifax was, but as regards "Jack 
Nuttall," his was certainly a mere passing 
notodjetty, and all trace or Imowledge of nim is, 
I believe, now lost. 

From what I can gather after examin- 
ing various old maps I have no doubt 
whatever that in William Halifax's time, 
as regarded the boundaries of his residence, 
there was a considerable amount of land at the 
hadk attached to it, and more than any of his 
neighbours passessed. At the same time, it is 
probable that he also had some on the opposite 
side of High -pavement, in front of his house, 
to form a vista ; of which at one time there 
were many in the town. To these I propose to 



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206 

make further reference, though ae regards this 
one, I have often thought that it must have 
had the most interesting and extensive view of 
any in Kottinghan^ on a clear day. 

There are exoellent reasons for suppos- 
ing that William Halifax's house was not 
only on the north side of High-pave- 
ment, but also opposite to where the 
Countv Police Station is, and to the western 
end of the County Hall, as it was 65 years since 
or more, when there waa no police station, nor 
had an enlargement of the hall taken pla^e on 
its western side. But there was a quantity of 
open land, some or all of which many years 
afterwards, I am quite aware, belonged to a 
residence opposite, which, from its connection 
with Halifax-plaoc and other associations near 
High-pavement, I have a decided conviction has 
since occupied the ground of the old house in 
which William Halifax lived nearly 500 years 
since. 

I am now referring to the old residence 
(No. 17) with the ground attached at the back, 
and also at one time to a moderate extent on 
its eastern limits, together with the " vista " on 
the opposite side (as explained) of the Pave- 
ment, which was the town dwelling of the 
Fellows family, who have been so well known 
in Nottingham for nearly 200 years. The first 
of them (3 whom wo have any record as living 
in this part was Samuel Fellows, or Ffellow, 
son of Benjamin Fellows, of the City of Tx>n- 
don. bom 16th August, 1687 (O.S.). His 
mother died at Derb^^ when on her way from 
London to Selston, where she had some pro- 
perty, and was buried at St. Werburgh's in that 
town, November 30th, 1696. By her death 
Samuel was left an orphan when only nine 
years of age. 

Rumour said that his next-of-kin (? an 
uncle) squandered the property of which 
he ought to have become possessed. He 
appears to have been a person of considerable 
energy and resource, therefore he apprenticed 
himslf to John Howitt, a framework knitter, of 
Nottingham, on 5th November, **in the fifth 
year of the reign of our Sovereign Ann, Queen 
of England, a.d. 1706." He m«Tied Mary 



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ao6 

(bom 1696), daaghter of John Jalknd, of Sc«r- 
rington, in 1717, st Sneinton Oimrch. She vm 
a granddaughter of Thomas JalUnd, who 
married Mary Thoroton (see Oar OolMon Regia- 
ters), a sister of Dr. Bobert Thoroton, the 
historian (A Nottinghamshire, and died Decem- 
ber 2l8t, 1730. Thej had three sons and 
three daughters. In 17i29 Samuel Fellows waa 
chosen a« one of the town Sheriffs, some time 
afterwards as an Alderman, and in 1755 he 
occupied the post of Mayor. From the fact of 
his being an illderman he was ex-officio, and by 
charter a magistrate of the town. He occupied 
the old family mansion (No. 17) on the High- 
pavement. 

It is, I think, probable that it was 
built by him. On the leaden head of a down- 
right spout in the front of the house may still 
be seen the initials F.S.M. (Fellows, &imuel 
and Mary), and this proves that it muet be at 
least about 175 years since its erection, or the 
fixing of the spout, as her life ended in 1730. 
I have seen it stated that Samuel Fellows was 
one of the coroners 1746-1756, but this is IjO 
doubt incorrect, as it was contrary to law or 
charter for anyone to hold the office while he 
was an alderman or the Mavor (in 1755), there- 
fore we may say that it did not occur. I Lave 
stated before that it waa obligatory that the 
Mayor should be ohoeen from amongst the 
aldermen, and when, ae sometimes happened, 
one of the coroners was appointed an alderman, 
his former position was ipso facto vacated. 

Here there is evidence of the need that a 
sixth volume of the Borough Becords should 
be issued, as by the fifth voLime we have manv 
of such interesting particulars explained, 
though it is to the year 1702 only ; but even 
one additional book would have fully civen us 
in this case all the information desired, and it 
is much to be hoped that steps may be im- 
mediately taken by the City Council to complete 
this most interesting and useful work, of which 
none will, I think, be awaited with much 
greater solicitude than the sixth volume, com- 
mencing with the vear 1703.. Samuel Fellows 
was a Protestant Dissenter, and a friend of 
Dr. Doddridge, of Market Harborough. He 



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207 

'became a freeman of the town in 1718. By 
careful attention to business he acquired pro- 
perty and position. When made Sheriff he was 
carrying on trade as a manufacturing hosier. 

John Fellows, son of Samuel Fellows, 
was born A.D. 1728. In 175d he was one of 
the Sheriffs of the town. . I have not seen any 
mention of the date when he became am, Alder- 
man, but he was Mayor in 1775^1782 and 
1790. His son John Fellows was bom A.D. 
1756, and enrolled a freeman in 1777. By 
1781 he was one of the Sheriffs. 

I will give the names of sereral others of the 
family, who also occupied the same post, 
though I believe that John Fellows, sen., who 
was Mayor of Nottingham in 1790, was the last 
of the name to hold that position. Timothy 
Fellows was a Sheriff of the town in 1788; 
Elihu Fellows in 1790 ; John Michael Fellows 
in 1813; Alfred Fellows in 1817; and James 
Fellows in 1824. 

This is about eighty years since, and I have 
not observed any later case of a member of 
that familv and name being directly connected 
with the Corporation, except as Treasurer of 
the town, which, after being held by two pre- 
vious members of the family, is now vested in 
George Fellows. Esq.. J. P., of Beeston Fields, 
Nottinghamshire In my remembrance, there 
have been two or three gentlemen living in or 
near the town of the name of Fellows, though 
at the present time I doubt that they have 
been reduced to one only. 

Mr. John Fellows the younger, bom A.D. 
1766, was, with Mr. F. Hart, one 
of the originators in 1808 of tie 
firm of Messrs. Fellows, Mellor, and 
Hart, Bankers, of Nottingham, which I 
mav say was. by mutual arrangement (as Hart, 
Fellows, and Co.), taken over a few years since 
by the great firm of Lloyd and Oompanv, 
Limited. Bankers. He resided «t the old 
habitation upon High-pavoment, and had a 
large family. His death occurred in 1823, and 
he was buried in St. Mary's Churchyard, being 
succeeded in the banking business by his son, 
Alfred Thomas Fellows, who was born in 1790. 

He ailso had another soaa^ Oharles FetUows, 



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206 

who became famous from his travels and dis- 
coveries in Asia Minor and Lycia, during two 
excursions in 1838 amd 1840. Respecting 
which he published an excellent account on 
each occasion. These are profusely illustrated, 
and to all antiquarians valuable and interest- 
ing works. I am glad to possess both, ai?d 
have frequently read or referred to them. The 
first volume is entitled, "A Journal written 
during an Excursion in Asia Minor, by Charles 
Fellows, 1838." 

The second volume is entitled *'Aji Aooouoit 
of Discoveries in Lycia, being a Journal kept 
during a second Excursion in Asia Minor, by 
Charles Fellows, 1840." They were published 
by John Murray, Albemarle-street — the first 
in 1830 and the latter in 1841. In the greater 
part of what he saw and describes he was, as 
regards modern nations, probably the first to 
visit the localities. As an acknowledgment for 
his eminent public services he received the 
honour of knighthood from the Queen. 

Alfred Thoma« Fellows, who died in Octo- 
ber, 1862, had three 8on« and two daughters. 
The first son, John, died unmarried ; the 
second, Henry, is a barrister-at-law ; and the 
third son, Mr. George Fellows, waa a member 
of the banking company when it amalgamated 
with Lloyd and Company, Limited, and 
is still, as mentioned. Treasurer to the Cor- 
poration of Nottingham. 

I imagine that the emolument arising from 

the office is not large, and as an illustration 

will give an extract from the Becords, Tol. 

v.. Tx 285, respecting the "Treasorer" in 1654-5. 

ry 18th, at a meeting of the Town 

il, the minutes say : — ** Treasorer for the 

. — Maister Sully is desired, and nomi- 

to be the Treasorer for the towne's 

, and to have the oversight of the Towne's 

, and bonds, by and with the consent, 

illowance of Maister Maior, Aldermen, 

buncell, and to have fortye shillings by 

for his painee." The equivalent in out 

it money would probably be about fifteen 

B. 

ow ^ii^h \c make a few remarks respec«t- 
be old family lesidfiiiice oi the Fellows 



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m Bigii-ptTeineiit. it wa« oannM^ at the 
bade, the Bame a« tlutt of William Halifar, ivith 
Haiifax-plaoe at land, and I have seen it 
stated, that Mr. John Fellows sold the land to 
the Wealeyan Methodista on which Halifax- 
place Chapel is built, and it is most probable 
that they had a right of way to or from their 
house ofn High-pavement through Halifax-place. 

It appears from an od manuscript book ci 
account, before referred to, that in 1772-73, 
" Mr. John Fellows fsenr.) for a piece of waste 
ground near HaHfaz-l&ne, above William 
Taylor'p (paid) 6d." This, no doubt, waa an 
acknowledgment for r right of passage or an 
accommodation bit of l^d. Orange in his 
history also mentions a sum of 6d. being paid 
as an acknowledgment in 1838. I may saiy 
that the old house of the Fellows family Tias 
sold many years since. 

It has been stated that a portion of this 
residence was taken for enlarging the ground 
on which the Judges' Lodgings was built pro- 
bably sixty years since, 'but after looking at 
the structure I was certain that the assertion 
was not strictly accurate, and from inquiries 
I am warranted in saying that, though a part 
of the frontage on its eastern side, with some 
buildings upon it, was sold for the purpose 
mentioned, the body of the house itself wa« 
not interfered with. 

Biespecting the vistas mentioned on the oppo- 
site side of the Pavement, they must from 
the house on a clear day, at such a consider- 
able height above the Meadows, have had an 
extensive view, probably reaching to Oham- 
wood Forest. On this ground, whilst the 
family lived in the house, a very valuable jewel 
was lost, which remained undiscovered for 
many years, but afterwards considerable changes 
took T^ace. new buildings upon the land bc-nc: 
erected, when, very fortunately, it waa found 
and restored. 

In past times these vistas on the opposite sides 
of the various streets, were not uncommon with 
many of the best class of houses in the town. 
As regards extent of prospect, the preference 
would be given to those on the upper portion 
of Short-lull and High-pavement, the views 



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210 

from the66j of course, being gefoenHj on tiieir 
southern Bidee. I belieiv« tiuvt the old reei> 
dence of the Fellows family wafl the oaily one 
on the north side of that roadway haying a 
rista. 

The next to it, or to the residencee cm High- 
pavement, in desirability of i>ro6peat, would I 
think be Phimpti^ House, m Stoney-street, 
from which, previous to the formation of 
Plimiptre-street, there would be a good view 
of the Sneinton Hills, and probably of Ck>lwick 
Hill also. A number of vietas, as regarded 
proepeote, were quite confined to the locality. 
There was, for a town, one of good size which 
belonged to the old house of the Sherwins at 
the north-east comer of Piloher-gate. It em- 
braced the whole of the ground at one time 
between Halifax place and St. Mary's-gate, 
and is by Deering &hown to hare extended 
backward further than its width. There wae 
a row of good-sized trees upon it (1745) close 
to St. Mary's-gate. 

Many will still remember several vistas at the 
upper end of St. James's-street, on its southern 
side, and most likely from some of the house* 
there would be at that elevation a view extend- 
ing towards the Vale of Belvoir and the Gastle. 
During the last twenty or thirty years I have 
noticed that these open spaces have been gradu- 
ally built upon. There is one house in Paik- 
street having a vista, whioh is still intact. 
The residence is on the south-eastern sMe, 
and about twenty years since it was occupied 
by Mr. Charles James, but is now used as a 
boardinor house. 

In 1*^7 Charles Morl^ was one of the 
Sheriffs of Nottingham. He was noted for 1 is 
manufacture of excellent brown earthenware, 
of which our late fellow-citizen, Mr. K. M. 
Kidd, had a number of fine specimens. His 
works no doubt occupied the site of the present 
Beck Works of Messrs. G. R. Cowen and Son. 
He was successful in business, and his resi- 
dence, which he built, is now used as the 
People's Hall. The site of Wesley Chapel vas 
once its vista. 



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Zbc upper part of St. petcr'a (3ate, 1870, 

looking eastward, with the fine old oak framed house, at the north-east 
comer of St. Peter's Churchyard. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM. 

ITS STREETS, PEOPLE, &c. 



XXEX. 

On the 17th of September, 1878, the 
lirst section of the Nottingham tramways was 
Oldened. This at the tint) was reckoned a 
considerable adranoe and, no doubt, a great 
conyenience to many; but what were wey, 
with the power derived from horses, when 
compared with the electric trams we now have 
in use? Tliere are no horses now to pity, on 
many occasions, when riding up the hiUs in 
and near the city ; but we ascend them with 
minds at ease, even when heavily loaded and 
in the middle of a hot summer day. 

1884. — Probably about this date the street 
on the southern side of St. Peter's Church- 
yard was widened. Before the formation of 
Albert-street the whole of that side of St. 
Peter's-smiare was entitled " St. Peter's Church- 
side." Wow. Hounds-gate no doubt extends 
to Albert-street, or near to it, and from the 
east side of Albert-street to Church-gate the 
old name is still retained. 

By an accident I hare in an earlier article 
omitted to notice the changes which have oc- 
curred in an old Nottingham roadway, which 
as regards ancient houses, would in living 
memory probably taike the first place. It is 
St. Peters-gate, as it was barely fortv years 
since. Mr. Bine, when mentioning the year 
1870, says : " Peter-gate widened. Some in- 
teresting specimens of ancient timber construiv 
tion, and enriched plaster panel work in the 
same were unfortunately aemolished." 

In and near this part, I have always <5on- 
sidered, was to be found the chief and most 
interesting portion of the ancient wood framed 
and overhanging houses in Nottingham. W'.th 
them we might include a few which some of tm 
remember as once being a short distance away 
and in Bridlesmith-gate. At the south-e«st 
comer was a ttructure which appeared to a 



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tl2 

certain degree an antique one, partially 
modernised. Respecting it, the idea of some 
persons is, I believe, that it had at a more 
modern period been what might be called 
" levelled down " ; that is, when renovating it, 
tlie line or outer face of the brickwork was 
made to be perpendicular with an overhanging 
part of the house or rooms above. 

This system, if really carried out, would, of 
course, in all cases when close to a street rob 
it of a portion of its width. We may easily 
understajid, therefore, why avenues in former 
times were narrow if there was any poasibility 
of effecting changes of such an objectionable 
character. Peter-gate was narrow in all parts 
forty years since, or before any enlargement 
If ok place, but esjxecially at the upper or 
eastern end, where it was decidedly too con- 
stricted to ailow of vehicles passing each other. 
When enlarging it, the singular old house or 
shop was pulled down, and the whole of its 
site given to the street. 

About the same time that St. Peter' s-gate 
was widened, the property in Bridlesmith-gate 
between it and the Poultry was also set back 
considerably, to allow of more room for the 
greatly increased traffic from the stations, 
Albert-street, &c., by Peter-gate to the Poultry, 
and other portions of Ijhe town in that direc- 
tion. When enlarging the roadway, and 
especially near the upper end, by far the 
greater part was taken from the southern side, 
and in carrying out these changes a verv line 
specimen of the old style of framed and oak 
timbered houses, which then formed the corner 
of St. Peter's Ohuroh-walk, was necessarily 
pulled down. 

This was certainly very undesirable, for I 
believe there was not another of the kind and 
equal to it either in or near to the town. Neces- 
sity, however, knows no law, and it stood on 
ground needful for the street, and therefore, 
though much regretted by many, it was de- 
molished. There is some satisfaction, however, 
in knowing that a short time since an excel- 
lent engraving of it, and also oi that part of 
Peter-gate, could be obtained from Messrs. 
Murray and Co., Victoria-street. 



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213 

Almoet ezftctly on tihe opposite side ol St. 
Peter's-s^ite weire two other ancient and very 
interesting houses, or, rather, as some of us can 
remember as being shops. The style in which 
these were built varied considerably with the 
one first alluded to, for in it the main timbers 
of the framing were generally and fully in 
sight, but in the two, this was miU3h less the 
case. One of them was occupied by Mr. John 
Knight, a furniture broker, and the other by 
Robert Townsend, a cutler, and as a dealer in 
pocket-knives I have a vivid recollection that 
he was therefore well known at that period to 
a large number of boys in the town. 

There was also Mr. Septimus Townsend in 
the same wa^ of business in Bridlesmith-gate, 
whom, I believe, was a relative, and both he 
and Mr. John Townsend will still be romeni 
bered by a number of my old fellow-citizeus. 
While these changes were being carried out 
tiie wide open place on the north side of Peter- 
gate was formed, at the upper comer of which 
are the County Court c^oes, and at the lower 
comer the Midland District Bank, with its 
•ntrance in the place. 

Beginning near to the bank, but probably 
lower, to Bridlesmith-gate, the whole of the 
buildings are comparatively new from the en- 
largement, of the street, and such is also the 
case on the opposite sid^ of the roadway from 
St. Peter's Churoh-walt, the total of the struc- 
tures being much more costly and elaborate in 
character. St. Peter' s-gate is a very ancient 
thoroughfare, and reference is made to it in the 
Borough Ilecords, VoL I., about A.D. 1285, or 
approximately 620 years since. 

In the enrolment of a grant, or otherwise 
a sale of property, St. Peter*s-gate is referred 
to as being " m the Lorimers-street (an ancient 
name and often used for what we now call 
Bridlesmith-gate), which moiety is the onfe 
nearest to the lane leading to the Church of St. 
Peter." Our ancestors would not be bound 
in matters of orthographv nor in their writin^rs 
to carry out the principle of calling a spade a 
spade, for a thoroughfare with them might be 
and was at various times (vide records) termed 



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214 

a street, a sato, or a lane, and henoe we here 
hare Peter-lane. 

There is evidence that Bridlesmith-ffate, or, 
as then called, Bridilsmethlsgate. was the name 
of that roaolwaj in 1304, and probably also 
about A.D. 1^5, or nineteen years earlier, 
when those writing call it Lorimers-street. 
There is no doubt that each name has its 
origin from the same occupation, for in Vol. 
I., p. 448, we are told that "Lorimerius (from 
the Latin) (is) a Lorimer. a maker of bits, 
bndles, &c." ** Bridlesmith " in English would 
oonvej ajsimilar meaning. Would that be a 
sufficient reason with our ancestors for making 
what to us is a singular and unnecessary sub- 
stitution 7 

Bespecting the lower part of St. Peter's-gate, 
nothing was taken from its northern side, and 
for one reason the road was wider at that part, 
though still considerably less than what was 
needed, and the line of traffic was, and is^ much 
more to and from Albert-street than in any 
other direction, ^erefore a good ''slice" waa 
taken from the north side of St. Peter's Church 
yard, and the road was made to its present 
very desirable width. The remains of many 
who had been buried in the part appropriated 
for the street were properly and cflurefully 
moved to the Church Cemetery, at the top oi 
Mansfield -road, and then reinterred. 

1893. — Near this date Wheeler-gate was 
materially widened, but especially at the lower 
part, where it was not much, if any, more thim 
eight yards in breadth. It nad for many years 
been most inconveniently contracted, which 
rendered it impossible by that avenue to con- 
nect the horse trams of the southern part of 
Nottingham with those running towards the 
north or west. The ground acquired for en- 
largement was all taken from the north-eastern 
side of the street. The buildings afterwards 
erected were much more imposing and other- 
wise superior in character. Under present 
circumstances* and with electric trams, the 
Trent Bridge and Bulwell, with Eadford, Bas- 
ford. Sherwood, &c., are directly connected. 

1893 (March 28th).— The Manchester, Shef- 
field, and Lincolnshire (Great Central) Bail, 



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S15 

way Bill, aUowinff of its extension to Londoa, 
received the Bo^^al Assent. The saoiction given 
to this undsfffliki]^ gave at the time much satis- 
faction locally, and has caused us to have a 
large and convenient station in the centre of 
the citj. 

1894 (November 22nd).— On this date elec- 
tric lights were first used in the Market-plaoe, 
which for a short period caused a considerable 
amount of curiosity. 

In a recent article "Beck-lane" was 
referred to ; but it is the turn of 
one in the vicinity of St. Peter's- 
gate. or abutting it, with a similar 
sounding designation, and "Peck-lane" will 
be brought under consideration. This was, and 
si ill is, a narrow passage, and much the same 
in width as ancient Queen-street (Fletcher-gate, 
&c,^ to Carl ton-street) of 55 years since and 
more, though I believe Peck-lane to be three 
times its length, but its importance was not 
magnified by being termed a "street," for 
almost from its earliest mention it appears to 
have been called a "lane." 

I wish to premise that what we entitle "The 
Market-place" was, until about 200 years since 
(and probablv rather less), called "The Satur- 
day Market In a previous article I have 
fully described Week-day Cross, as being where 
the Market was held on other days in the 
week. Peck-lane is an ancient pathway, and 
it has retained the old name. I first find it 
mentioned in Vol. 1 of the Records, p. 437, 
A.D. 1336, when reference is made to "a mes- 
suage on the north side of St. Peter's Church, 
next to a lane ("Venella"), which leads from 
the said church into the Saturday Market." 

In Vol. 2, p. 358, A.D. 1435, we have in the 
quaint language of the period another reference 
to it and description as " A oomoin lane yat gos 
fro ye Tymberhill agayns ye sawe pytte thoro 
(through or between) ye tenandres of John 
Plumtre and Bichard Watton, at ye norht end, 
and thoro Bichard Dalbe tenandre, at ye sothe 
end." The mention of a sawpit on that side 
of the Market-place greatly assists, if it was 
needed, in explaining why that p«rt should be 
designated " Timberhill," though it would bg 



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vary difficult in these days to find a spot in 
the locality whore it would be sale to make 
or excavate such a hole as would be neoessary 
for a sawpit. 

John Plumptre, who first built the Ho^ital, 
in what is now termed Plumtre-square, was 
Mayor of Nottingham on several occasions, one 
of them being for the year 1406-9. It will be 
noticed above that he owned property in Peok- 
lane. Most certainly in his time he was a 
noted mam in the town, and of considerable 
influence, which may lessen the surprise of 
some that for many years Peck-lane, as a title, 
was superseded by ** Plumptre-lane/' In Vol. 
2, p. 445, A.D. 1414, he is mentioned, and also 
"a tenement at the comer of ' Plumptre-lano,' 
which tenement extends in length 40 feet from 
the said corner (N.W.) towards Saint Peter's 
Church on the south, and in breadth 20 feet 
irpon the Tymbur-row," and this is about the 
.^ize of the present shop. 

Plumptre-lane is mentioned again in 1486, 
when three loads of sand were used in it, but 
there is good reason for supposing that it was 
entirely un paved at that date, and without 
doubt at all times plenty of sand or dirt would 
got into the houses under such circumstances. 
After that time the old name of Peck-lane 
appears to have been revived, for in 1604 there 
is an item in the accounts that twopence was 
paid " to William Ponitt for mendiom; of a hole 
at Peck-lane." 

On two oooaaions in 1572 it is mentioned that 
the Powell > or open drain, at Peck-lane end 
(near St. Peter's CSiurch) needed repairs. In 
1620 the Mickletom Jury report, and say, " We 
present the pavement agaynst the Peck-lane 
end (no doubt near St. P^ber's Ghurch) to be 
verie noysom to cole carriages and o^her 
drawghtes, that the heighte and steapness of 
the hill dothe stalle the draw^tes they cannot 
passe." I have no doubt that in those times 
there would be very few, if any, shops found 
in Peck-lane, for there is ervideoce formerly 
that the private houses in the Saturday Market, 
or Market-place, exceeded the number of shops 
therein. 

In Article 29, p. 173, I give some account of 



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Parliament^fow (m the centre of Lower Parlia> 
ment-street), and also of its being pulled down 
in 1884. After the great ohan^ee necessitated 
in the past, caused by the Great Central Bail- 
way rumnii]^ througnN Nottingham) and going 
under that streets and also what wbb required 
by electric tram lines afterwards using that 
roadway, the whole of the buildings on the 
northern side of Parliament-street, from the 
bridge over the railway to Glasshouee-street, 
were demolished, and the frontage generally 
taken back several yards. This work was 
carried out in or about the year 1902. 

Much about that time, or perhaps during the 
year previous, the House of Correction, near 
the eastern end of Parliament-street, was pulled 
down, and the ground entirely cleared of build- 
ings. Under these circumstances, advantage 
was taken of the site being vacant to form a 
wide and excellent street, which has, I believe, 
been named Edward Seveinth-street, and passes 
anglewise across the ground> until its lower end 
meets with St. Ann's-road, Bathnstreet, and 
Beck-street. By this arrangement an easy mode 
of access by wide thoroughfares is obtained 
from various parts of the city with that dis 
trict, not only for ordinary traffic, but also for 
the running of electric tram-cars. 

1888. — It was probably near this time when 
a broadening of Piloher-gate occurred at its 
upper and lower ends. At the first part, some 
land, formerly belonging to the old town house 
of the Sherwlns, at its north-east comer, which 
had been enclosed with an iron fence, 
was added to the street, and it greatly bene- 
fited thereby, though there was not much, if 
any, more than three to four yards. A ware- 
house, which has been erected since that date, 
has, I believe, also been set back to the line of 
the old house. At the lower end, the north- 
west comer, for a short distance up, has been 
set back several yards, and it allows ample 
room for vehicles to turn round. 

1885. — It was very likely near this date when 
some widening occurred in connection with 
Sneimton-streeit, and since then, as opporlunity 
allowed, other portions have been added. 
The Old Leather Bottle Inn was owned by the 



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918 

Oorporation, and tihe bouse and premises con- 
nected therewith farmed a part oi one side of 
the street, and muoh lessened the difficulty of 
enlarp[ing it% 

This street at its sovrth-easteira end abutted 
upon Old Glasshouee-lane, at it« south-western 
end, and the existence of this thoroughfare, by 
that name, even in the latter half <^ last cen- 
tury, judging by what they have told us, must 
hare been unknown to one or both of the 
Editors of the Becords. See VoL 5, p. 448, 
published A.D. 1900, where it is said: "Glass- 
house-lane — Glasshouse-street." This has refer- 
ence to an occurrence A.D. 1689 in Glasshouse- 
lane, whereas 131 years later — or in 1820 — at an 
election. Glasshouse-street had not been formed 
sufficiently long to have one voter in it, and, 
therefore, it is comparatively a modem street. 

It would be utterly wrong to lay the blame 
upon the Editors for this mis-statement, as in 
giving a similar name to two thoroughfares in 
the town it was, on the part of the imbeciles 
of the Goundl at that date, no better than 
wilfully setting a trap for them and others in 
the futiire to fall in. 

1^8. — About this period I believe a com- 
mencement was made to demolish a consider- 
able number of old buildings, between Long- 
row (near the Exchangp corner) and Parlia- 
ment-street. This no douDt was much needed, 
and an excellent improvement, which allowed 
of the present Y-shaped communication being 
made between the Market-place and Parlia- 
ment-street. The thoroughfare was formally 
opened on July 22, 1892. 

The lower part of King-street, on Long-row, 
is of good width, and a large portion of the 
space was once filled up by two old shops, and 
a passage sufficiently wide for vehicles to go 
throu^. I am very glad to posses a small 
engraving of these shops and the passage. 
There was certainly much that is interesting 
attaching to them. As regao'ds the premises* 
thotigh not of the oldest kind, they were still 
of an ancient style, and wood entered largely 
into their construction. They were four stories 
high, and two of the upper stories overhung, 
but not so much as many other old houses. 



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mo 

In mentioning wooden pillars whioh at one 
time carried the fronts of buildings, I might 
hare included five in this case; also some on 
the front of the Old Bear, once at the west 
end of Long-row, and several in the front of 
a portion of the Flying Horse Hotel, in the 
Poultry, and on Cheapside. The little old en- 
graving goes back probably to at least 1840. 
Of the two shops, one was double-fronted, and 
this was the Mercury" Office, very thortly 
after Mr. Bichard Allen had succeeded Mr. 
Samuel Bennett* the previous proprietor, whom 
I remember, though he was then deceased. This 
shop was on the west of the premises, and 
smaiU squares of glass are shown in the shop 
windows. 

In the centre part is the passage mentioned, 
and through it was the road to Crown-yard, in 
which was the noted old hosteliy called The 
Grown, to which in the Becords, Vol. 2, p. 
391, reference is made as early as A.D. 148o, 
or 421 years since. Over the passage, on the 
front, a sign, with the Crown on it* is shown, 
respecting the old inn. The single-fronted 
shop was on the east side of the premises, 
and from the time of my earliest recollection 
occupied by Mr. Joshua Driver, hairdresser, 
&c. It is probable that he continued there 
afterwai'ds for no less than 25 years. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM. 

ITS STEEETS, PEOPLE, &c 



XXX. 

Li article 56 I refer to s Racecourse 
which in length much exceeried others made 
afterwards, and occupied the whole of the space 
between Mansfield-road and Alfreton-road, near 
to Bobber's Mill, reporting on its shape, &c., 
There cannot be any doubt that this course 
was the first belonging to the town. 

The earliest notice of it will be found in 
the Becords, Vol. 5, p. 364, at a meeting of 
the Town Council, held June 10, 1690, when 
it was resolved : — ** Whereas, the gentlemen in 
the country are desirous that this Corporation 
would raise moneys to purchase a peice of 
Plate, to be run for at the horse race, as 
formerly there hath been ; and whereas Master 
Christopher Benolds hath in his hands Four 

Sounds Two shillings, that was left of a former 
orso-race ; therefore, this House being will- 
ing to gratifie the said gentlemen in their re- 
quest, do consent that if Master Eennolds will 
bring in his moneys there should care be taken 
for a peice of plate." 

This is 214 years since, but the moneys 
referred to had been left over from a former 
race ; therefore, in 1690, races had probably 
been run for a number of years previously. 
From what I have recently observed this race- 
course was m use until 1796, when another Vut 
shorter one was formed, which was much the 
shape of the figure 8. 

Great complaints appear to have been made 
i^ainst it by visitors, as they were unable to 
obtain a good view of the horses when running, 
and about 1813 the course was again altered 
to what may still be seen on the Forest, but 
which has oeen disused since 1891, the new 
racecourse at Colwick having been opened on 
August 19, 1892. 

It will to many bo interesting to note that 
the Town Council, at their meeUng on June 
16, 1699, ordered " That the C&amUrlyns doe 



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pay- five pounds towards a plate to be nm for 
upon Nottingham and Basford Lin^ at the 
next horse race." As before remarked, '* Not- 
tingham Lings" of those days is partly repre- 
sented by the present but much curtailed Not- 
tingham Forest, and the fact of the racecourse 
being on '* The Lings " is ample proof that they 
were not in Lark Dale, as asserted. 

On June 13, 1700, the Town Council again 
"Ordered that this Corporacion do allow five 
pounds towards buying a Plate or Plates, to 
be run for upon Nottingham Course, as is 
usual." According to uie particulars here 
given, it is probable that, wnen horse-racing 
ceased on the Forest in 1891, they had been 
run there approximately for 220 years. 

I now desire to refer in various instances 
to the rare old map previously mentioned, 
with the expectation of permanently fixing cer- 
tain localities which previously were doubtful. 
Beering, on page 86, mentions several springs 
belonging to Nottingham, one of which was 
'* south of the River Leen, not far from the 
Encine House." And continuing he says: — 
"There are besides this . . . two other 
springs on the north side of the town, the one 
in the close called the * Boycroft,' and the other 
in the next close beyond it. This last lies 
somewhat lower, and never fails, whilst the 
first-mentioned is sometimes dry in summer." 

It is respectingBoycroft that I wish to make 
some remarks. Excepting what Deering men- 
tions, which is very little, there appears from 
the Borough Becords to be no knowledge re- 
garding its position. It is noticed in three 
volumes, but the Editors only tell us (from 
Deering) that it was " on the north side of the 
town." I must here remark that the old map 
belongs to prelnclosure times, and as in most 
cases what will be brought under notice is 
amongst fields, where the old landmarks are few 
or imcertain as guides to anyone in present 
times, when so much ground is covered with 
houses and streets. I must in some cases claim 
a little consideration. 

"Boycroft" was a close or field on the left 
or western side of the road when going to St 
Ann's Well, and in shape almost a triangle. 



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I believe it to hare been a short distance 
within what was formerly called Wood-lane, 
and now "The Wells-road," but not far from 
Ihe bottom of the way which leads up to the 
Coppice Asylum, though this, of course, did 
not exist when the map was issued. It ap- 
pears to be a good sized field, yet rather 
peculiar in shape, but the next which is men- 
tioned is much squarer. Near to the south- 
eastern side of these two fields the little rivulet 
ran called "The Beck." 

"Toad Hill" is also noticed, which at thb 
top is occupied by a reservoir connected with 
the water supply of the city, and now known 
as St. Ann's HiU. tt may be reached by Elm- 
avenue, Mapperley-road, and Bobin Hood- 
chase. In my younger days I generally heard 
it entitled "Toadhole Hill." Writing in 1882 
the Editor of the Records, Vol. 1, p. 439, in 
reference to "Todeholes," says: — "St. Ann's 
Hill, near Mapperley-road, was known as Toad 
hole Hill witnin the present century." This 
I consider proves that he was not properly 
provided with the necessary references and 
documents to guide him when writing, as it 
was the common name for the hill until about 
45 to 50 years since, when it was changed to 
St. Ann's Hill. 

In Article 39 I mention the Gallows, and 
describe various matters connected with a pro- 
cession to the place of execution. The lj*st 
carried out at the old place near the top of 
Mansfield- road was on April 2, 1827, or 77 
years since. The culprit was a man named 
William Wells, condemned for highway rob 
bery. Respecting the spot occupied by the 
Gallows, I am very glad to say that in locating 
it I have been assisted by a gentleman who is 
one of our most venerable fellow -citizens, fcr 
he dates back to 1813, and during whose re- 
membrance of more than 80 jeeLVS several other 
executions took place previous to 1827 en 
Gallows' Hill, for in those days death was iho 
penalty attaching to many crimes, and few 
years passed without one or more executions, 
although the population was less than half its 
present number. 

I wish to abknowledge my indebtedness to 



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another aged fellow-citizen, who, though about 
three years yoan«er than the gentleman just 
referred to, can also remember the processions 
of persons condemned to suffer capital punish- 
ment. It should not be forgotten that in former 
times criminals belonging to the county, as 
well as the town, were hung upon the Notting- 
ham Gallows. The course taken to the niece 
of execution from ihe Oountj Hall, High- 
pavement, and the Town Hall, Weekday-cross, 
was by way of Bridlesmith-gate, High-street, 
Clumber-street, Milton-street, and Mamsfield- 
road to Gallows' Hill. 

From information given, the Gallows ap- 
pears to have been erected on the level ground 
which now forms the upper portion of the 
Church Cemetery, and it was probably 100 
yards or rather more from Mansneld-road. At 
the date under consideration the old road on 
the top of the Forest (Forest side) was for a 
distance from Mansfiold-road included in ^hat 
is now the Church Cemetery, and also a T>or- 
tion of a field near to the south of the For^^st 
as then formed. Of this some particulars ere 
given in Article 33. 

Judging hj the large old official map of ihe 
borough, which is set oat to scale, and measur- 
ing from the present Forest-road, I consider it 
probable that, goino; northwards, the i.ite of 
the Gallows was about 100 yards from the 
southern boundary of the cemetery, and pro- 
bably rather more from Mansfield-road, a^KJord- 
ing to the contour of the ground, as depicted 
upon the official map. There is much likeli- 
hood that the Gallows was erected near to 
where the last Windmill on that side of 
the Forest then stood or was afterwards con- 
structed. 

It is certainly proper to state that I have 
seen two or more old maps on which the ground 
now covered by St. Andrew's Church. T«ith 
Mapperley-road to Cranmer-street, and Louth- 
wards approaching Elm -avenue, is entitled 
"Gallows Hill." The upper part of the ground 
is no doubt higher than any portion rf the 
Church Cemetery, and I have thought that tl-is 
might possibly be the original place or jooalily 
on which the Gallows stood a few centuries 



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2M^ 

back, and perhaps afterwards remored fo tliA 
spot abore designated. 

In olden times there was a hamlet called 
Whiston on the top of Mansfield-road, respect- 
ing which most of the particulars or knowl^ge 
appear to be lost. Beference is made o it in 
the Records, Vol. 1, p. 441, nearly 700 je^rs 
since— namely, in A.D. 1217 and 1227. From 
indifference on the part of our ancestors .. wa? 
frequently called "Whetston," especially in 
later times, when applied to places or ground 
in the locality. 

The road out of the town in that direction 
(Mansfield-road) was in olden times frequently 
termed *' Whiston-gate." In A.D. 1417 there 
is reference to " tne Kind's highway leading 
from the "Cowbarre" (Cow-lane — Clumber- 
street) to the Gallows of Whiston." Thia I 
consider favours the idea of the hamlet being 
Quite as much or more to the west of Mans- 
neld-road than to the east, and for the sup- 
])08ition I propose to give a reason in my next 
communication, assisted by the rare old maps. 

In Artide No. 56, with the raluable 
aid of the fine old map of the town, respecting 
which mention is then first made, I consider 
that I fully prove the old " Lyngdalefeld," 
which is first referred to in the Borough 
Records, A.D. 1362, to be the more modem 
" Bowling Alley Field " (a large open piece of 
ground), which many of the older inhabitants 
of tho city, including myself, will still re- 
member when fjoing through it to the Forest, 
With help obtainable from the same source, I 
shall endeavour to locate another interesting 
old spot, and connect it with a title used in 
comparatively recent times. 

In the Borough Records, Vol. 4, p. 445, we 
are told, in reference to Whetston (or Whiston) 
Wong, &c., that the word ***wong' is fre- 
quently treated as a synonym of * furlong* in 
the deeds of the period of this present volume, 
* furlong* meaning a number of ridges of 
arable land all ploughed in one direction, the 
length of the furlong varying with the len^»h 
of the plough drive, and its width depending 
upon the number of ridges of which it con- 
anted/' 



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On the same page, w^hen somewhat fixing 
the place, we are told ihat A.D. 1587 "(thel 
furlong or wong, called Whet»ton Wong (is) 
. . . • land in the Sandye Field on the 
west of the road leading to the Hye Crosse." 
The name is deriyed "from Whiston, a for- 
gotten hamlet." 

In former times the whole of what we now 
know ae Sherwood-street, was termed Shaws- 
lane, or road, and even early last century there 
were practically no houses in it, except perhaps 
•ne close to each comer, adjoining Parliament- 
street* I have looked through the list of those 
who voted at the election in 1806, and only 
noticed one, who said that he resided in Shaws- 
lane. From these particulars it will he seen 
that the whole of the land to the east and the 
west of the lane was graes or imbuilt upon. 

In the upper portion of the lane, commencing 
at Babington-street, and continuing to the top, 
where it once adjoined or abutted upon the 
Lings, or as now called the Forest, the large 
old official map of 1829 shows that there were 
at one time seven fields on the western side, 
and the rare old map, as a title applicable to 
them all, says, "Furlong, butting to Shaws- 
lane-road.'^ Whetston or Whiston Wong (fur- 
long), in Vol. 4, p. 445, is stated to be "en 
the west of the road leading to the Hye Cross," 
and, therefore, according to that statement, 
th«re can be little, if any, doubt whatever (as 
there were no houses near^ that Shaws-lane 
Furlong (the modem name), and Whetston, 
oUierwise Whiston Wong or Furlong (the old 
name), are really the same place or piece of 
land, for the same description applies to each. 

If further proof be necessary, it will be 
found in the fact, as shown by the rare map 
of the town, that the High (>08s Leys were 
to the east of Mansfield-road, commencing in 
a part now called Huntingdon-street, a little 
hi^er than the city schools, and reaching 
dose to where Elm-avenue is formed. From 
this I consider that theprobabilities are in 
favour of the hamlet of Wniston being on the 
west side of Mansfield-road, at the top. 

In my younger days "The Meadow Plats" 
weire frequently noticed in ordinary conversa- 



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226 

tion when referring to a portion of the town, 
whioh as regards myself and many others, there 
would certainly have been much difficulty 
in fully describing or loeating, for it might 
have been termed "an unknown quantity." I 
could have walked into the part beairing tl^t 
name, but had no knowledge where it com- 
menced or ended. 

This state of doubt was, however, conclnded 
when I obtained the rare old map. Seven 
fields are shown, and entitled "Meadow Plat 
Closes." Six of them appear to be of a good 
size. On the southern or town side, I nave 
no doubt that Platt-street, and most probably 
H. portion, if net all, of Oross-street, Ac., were 
liart of the Meadow Plate at one time, and 
n«;r^h-«ast wards they reached close to where 
Alfred street Soutli is now formed, and to 
Ix)ncr Hedge-lane. At the south-east they were 
bounded by Southwell-road, and on the north- 
west they would nearly, if not quite, reach to 
the back of the Cholera, or Fox's burying 
ground. 

In recent times I have thought that the old 
title of " Meadow Plats " . was dying out, as I 
have heard it used far less frejjuently than in 
former times, though as a reminder of the old 
appellation we stUl have " Platt-slreet" I 
have observed no mention of this section of 
the town lands in the Borough Becords under 
the name of " Meadow Plats." 

When examining this old map I have been 
somewhat surprised at the frequency with 
which "Brunts Charity" is entered in con 
nection with land, &c., near Nottingham, and 
which, in numerous instances, is at this date 
occupied by buildings. l%ere must be nearly 
twenty occasions. It is I believe, from this 
source that the Mansfield Grammar School is 
mainly sustained, though it is possible that 
property in other districts may also belong to 
the Charity. 

Amongst its possessions in the city is a very 
fine and valuable block of buildings on the 
Long-row, reaching through to Parliament- 
street, the land of which (leased), I have good 
reason to believe, all belongs to that Charity, 
and no doubt realises a very considerable 



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287 

income. It is "The Black Boy" Hotel, with 
the whole yard, stables, rooms, Ac. And also 
at least one shop on each side of the entrance 
on the Long-row. 

In "The Records," Vol. 4, p. 397 (A.D. 
1559), "Goldes Wonge" is referred to, thoiwh 
on p. 437 it is called Goldeswonge, and "The 
name is recorded in Qoldswong-terrace in Oran- 
mer-street." This appears to be all that the 
Editor could tell us. The old map, however, 
to a large extent, explains and fixes the locality, 
mentioning "Goldswong Closes." These would 
be near to Woodborough-road where it is 
crossed from Bobin Hoc^'s-chase when going 
to the top of St. Ann's-hili or to the reservoir. 
Next to the north-east end of these closes was 
a large enclosure, having the singular title of 
"Fuzball field." 

In the same volume, p. 273. 1605, "Gorsey- 
close" is first brought under notice, when 
various portions of ground were selected or set 
apart, for the use of each of the Aldermen. 
It appears to have been of a Kood size, and in 
length quite double its width. A.D. 1606, 
Yol. 4, p. 281, there is a singular reference 
to it in the minutes of the Council, when wo 
are told " Gorsey close to go to 2 att 50s. rent, 
with reservacion for the towne to use parte of 
vtt to build on. in any tyme of visitacion 
(plague), and to except the bame therein stand- 
inge, to the use of tne towne." 

The buildings would be for cabins for the 
use of those stricken by pestilence, and it is 
very satisfactory to have a knowledge of tha 
spot. The "2 att 50s." was the price to be 
paid by those (? 2 Burgesses) to whom the 
field had been allotted, it being of itself more 
than a fair share of land for each. On p. 437, 
Vol. 4, the Editor says :—" Gorsey 'Olose . . 
Between Mapperley-road and Woodborouffh- 
road, now partly built upon." Considering his 
apparent short supply of old maps and useful 
documents, this wa« a reasonable "guess," but 
it may be mudi improved by explanation. 

At its south-eastern end there was at cne 
time a field of but moderate width, separating 
it from Freeschool-lane. It certainly was rot 
between Mapperley-road and Woodborough- 



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road, for much the g;reator portion, and pro- 
bably all of it, was on the south-eastern Hde 
of what is now Woodborough-road ; but at 
that time, and in that part, it was a mere 
track or footpath only. The north-eastern 
end of the field appears to hare reached close 
to the lower part of the last h^W when going 
up to Mapperley Plains, and was on the right 
hand. This and other names will be familiar 
with many of my older fellow-citizens, though 
now seldom mentioned, and cause thoughts of 
the past to float before the mind. 

The next to be noticed are the Trough Goses. 
They are first referred to in the Becords, Vol. 
2, p. 185, A.D. 1446. In Vol. 4, p. 311, October 
26, 1612, there is reference to a very undesir- 
able circumstance connected with one of them 
as follows: — "Maister John Parker to have 
68. of the ould Chamberlaynes, to bo allowed 
unto him, for his losse receaved these hst 
yeares, in his Trough Close, by the v'sited 
people." In this case cabins had been built 
in the field for those belonging to the town 
who had been stricken by the league (visited). 

On p. 444 the Editor says, "Deering men- 
tions a Trough Close, near Mapperley Hill." 
There were two closes — namely, the Upper 
Trough Close and the Nether or Lower Trough 
Close — which atre both shown upon the old aid 
rare map. They were to the west of and ad- 
joined the Himgerhill Closes, and with but one 
field between them and Gorsey Close. The 
Upper "Olose was not more than half the sire 
of the Nether or Lower Trough dose. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM. 

ITS STREETS, PEOPLE, &c. 



XXXL 

I deske to oommenoe this article by 
making a short but further reference to the 
Nottingham Post Offioe, and those directly con- 
nected with it. As intimated in Article No. 44, 
two persons manaiged to carry on the postal busi- 
ness A.D. 1799. Thirty-three years later, or in 
1832, five persons were needed for the work ; 
this,, to a certain extent, may be accounted for 
by increased business and the growth of the 
town. Some of us can remember circumstances 
which occurred as early, or ev^ii earlier than 
that date. 

In Article No. 47, January 15, 1904, I notice 
various matters relating to the office in more 
recent times, and the desirability for further 
information respecting the number of yersons 
at present employed, for the purpose of oom- 
panson. I am very glad to say that vathin 
a short time, and as expressly wished, the 
knowledge was obtained. The five persons 
mentioned in 1832 included the Post Master, 
the office clerk, and three letter-carriers. 

I will now give an account of the various 
persons forming the " staff " of the Nottingham 
Post Office at the beginning of the year 1904, 
not including the Postmaster, namely: — One 
chief clerk, two superintendents (postal and 
telegraphic), 10 assistant-superintendents, 15 
clerks, 177 male sorting clerks and telegraph- 
ists, one female supervisor, 34 female sorting 
clerks, 21 paid learners, and 12 telephone 
operators. This constitutes the indoor staff. 
The outdoor staff includes: — One insi)ector-in- 
charge, one inspector proper, three assistants, 
250 regular postmen, 30 auxiliary postmen, one 
inspector of telegraph messengers, one assistant- 
inspector, 11 indoor messengers, 59 outdoor 
messengers (with 15 cycles), eight night tele- 
graph messengers (adults), and 23 cleaners. 
Here is a grand total of 661 persons, all em- 
ployed at t&« head office. 



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230 

This is an astounding change in my time, 
and 132 times as many as in 1832, and 330 
times the number employed in 1799. Though 
it must not be forgotten that in the two last 
oases it was during the time of dear letters, 
and also comparatively when Nottingham was 
a small town, whilst in the first instance it 
applies to a large city, when the letters are 
carried cheaply. Tet l^iis is far from com- 
pleting, what may be said respecting the 
" revolution '' in our postal arrangements, and 
persons employed during the time of many who 
are still living to see it. 

We havA in the city, I may say, some scores 
of sub-post offices, in addition to what has been 
referred to, where a large amount of business 
is transacted in telegrams, parcels, postal 
orders, recistered letters Ac, Ac., which, if 
nob carried out there, would necessitate the 
employment of many additional persons at the 
Chief Office. 

Sixty years since there were no branch post 
offices whatever spread about the town, such as 
those which are now so very convenient, and 
therefore it is proper to include all ijcrsons 
engaged in them, and we may, I douDt not, 
truthfully Msert that the total number em- 
ployed in the town in post office work is ap- 
proaching 800. We have at this date very 
great facilities for carrying out all postal busi- 
ness. 

Most people live within a short distance of 
a pillar box and but a moderate space fiom a 
po6t office, though as regards full half of the 
people they do not remember the time when 
other but inconvenient arrangements prevailed. 
For a number of years in my recollection there 
was but one Post Office in the town ; there- 
fore, many persons were compelled to go h^ng 
distances with letters. I have often wnilied a 
mile to get to the letter box, and some would 
be oblig^ to go still further to readi it. 

In 1789 the vane at the top of St. Peter's 
Church spire, which was 33 inches in length, 
had become unsafe ; it was fixed Uiere m 1735. 
The paris-h officers agreed with a Ke^worth 
man. named Bobert Wootton, to take it down, 
and carry out the desired repairs. He acted 



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231 

in a most unnecessarily venturesome nianner 
on occasions during the time he was tn^jaged, 
but completed the work, reaching the top by 
ladders fastened to the spire. 

In 1825 a part of the weathercock fell upon 
the leaded roof of the church, and some in 
lubhority being oonyinced that repairs n'ust 
speedily be carried out, again turned their 
thoughts towards Kegworth as the home of 
those who had previously attended to siich 
business. This time, however, the vostt de- 
volved upon Mr. Philip Wootton, whose father 
was responsible for the repaixs in 1789. A 
few hours after commencing he brought the 
weathercock down, which was 29 inches in its 
extreme length, and made of copper. This was 
repaired and refixed, and also a ball cf gilt 
copper, 40 inches in circumference. 

I wish' now to make a short digression for 
the purpose of comparing the "old" spire of 
St. Peter's 'Ohurch with some in other pl&ces. 
No doubt many persons, as well as u.yself, 
have noticed, when away from Nottingham, 
that the spires to a few churches are, at the 
eight angles, nicely ornamented c\ery few 
feet with "crockets" or small worked pro^- 
tions. One that specially comes to my mind 
is Bottesford Church, which is about 17 miles 
away on the road to Grantham. 

There is also an excellent sample in St. 
George's Church at Leicester, and I have seen 
them "occasionally" in other directions when 
out, as Grantham, Stamford, &c, but the 
places "are few and far between," for to work 
them out of the solid stone would be costly, 
but very effective, though probably in many 
oases the charge for them would be more than 
could be afforded by those responsible for the 
work. 

It may to many appear almost iniredible, 
but it is a fact, that until 1825, or during the 
life of a number who are still remaining with 
us in the city, St. Peter's Church spire was 
finely ornamented with crockets at the angles. 
This is shown to be the case on various old 
en^avings of it. and in other views c(»i;i'€cted 
with the town, of which I have ;4everal, wLere 
they are plainly visible. A portion of the 



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232 

work at the spire consisted in repointing the 
joints of tiie stonework after refixins the 
weathercock, and it was when suspended by a 
rope, running in a pulley at the top of the 
ladders, that Wootton carried out tliis jv-rt of 
the repairs, and also cut off the crockets. 

It has been said that they were sawn off, 
but T consider it to be doubtful, for %irhen sus- 
f "ended in the air, as mentioned, it vould be 
a troublesoine matter to saw gritty stone. Mr. 
T. 0. Hine says: — "The crockete ^ hich orna- 
mented the spire were sawn off 

This wanton waste was committed by a man 
named Wootton, who 'repaired' the hpire." I 
certainly agree with some part of wlat Mr. 
Hine gays, but not thoroughly so, for I should 
have rejoiced to have had the names 
given by Mr. Hine of those who ordered or 
allowed Wootton to disfigure the church so 
grossly and recklessly that they might have 
been "pilloried." 

It was sanctioning what appears io l-e utterly 
incomprehensible and scandalous, for it com- 
pletely defaced the spire. Wootton |»€TS)ronally 
was without authority, aoid merely an instru- 
ment to carry out certain orders. The ques- 
tion is whether the rector and churchwardens, 
or other Church authorities, can c^ear thcm- 
selyes of the responsibility. Who paid 
Wootton? It might probably be guessed. 

In Article No. 36 I noticed Richard Ark- 
wright, the elder and younger, and in refer- 
ence to the latter I wish to make some fuither 
remarks, respecting the sum of one million 
pounds sterling which he bequeathed to Sir 
W. Wigram. When I wrote the article about 
*^even months since, in consequence cf the 
•irionev being left to the son-in-law, I imagined 
that Sir Richard Arkwright's daughter was 
dead, but I have been positively assured that 
she was alive both then and for sjme years 
after, which thoroughly alters the ci.se, and 
in a most costly manner. 

The money really lost to Sir W. Wigram, 
from want of thought or knowledge, was 
ninety thousand pounds, whieh was of itself a 
handsome fortune. If the legacy had been left 
io a son Off daughter, the Government duty 



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233 

payable upon it would lunre been one per cent, 
only, or ten thousand pounds, whereas to the 
son-in-law, who legally apeaking was no rela- 
tion to Sir Biohara Ai^wright, the duty was 
ten per cent., or one hundred thousand pounds, 
whioh would certainly have to be xutid, and in- 
cluded in the revenue. 

It is said by some thai Sir Richard Ark- 
wright made his own will. If this be correct, 
the lawyers would no doubt say, and iiuthfully, 
that he was most unwise in so doing, and there 
would be ample cause. Yet, as compared with 
his enormous wealth, the loss would oe scarcely 
felt, for, besides about seven millions in per- 
sonal property or money, he had very cor-sider- 
abU landed estates. 

In addition to iibe Buffgesses or !EVee- 
men of Nottingham, there waa in farmer times, 
and until 1845, another class of people, having 
ri^^hts of pasturage in the fields during 
"Lammas time," which was from the 14th of 
August in each year, until the .<^me date in 
November following. It is probable that at 
the present time few persons know of this fact. 
Those having the right referred to, owned in 
the town certain houses or pieces of land 
termed " Toftsteads." 

Lloyd's Encyclopeedic Dictionary tells us that 
a toft is "An enclosed piece of land near a 
house, . . a messuage, or rather a place 
where a messuage has stood, but is decayed ; 
a house and homestead. As 'homestead' 
implies the place of the home, so also 'toft- 
stead' means the place of the toft." Blackner, 
p. 31, tells us tliat, "according to the practice 
of common law, every freehold house is a toft- 
stead, which has paid 'scot and lot' for sixty 
years ; or one which stands on the site of 
another, that has paid that length of time ; 
or, in fact, a succession of houses, standing 
on the same spot, which have conjointly thus 
paid. Hence those non-burgess housekeepers 
have a right from custom to turn into the 
fields, who occupy houses thus circumstanced, 
within the liberties of the town." 

We are then informed, on pp. 30-31, that 
" In 1807 some burgesses determined to dis- 
pute the claim of the non-burgess housekeepers. 



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234 

. . . Samuel Mihier and others impounded 
cattle belonging to a penon named Glover, 
who . . . brought an action against 
Milner, which was tried in th« Shirehall, 
before Baron Thomson and a special jury, on 
5 August, 1808, and the burgesses lost the 
trial ; with this proviso, however, that no non- 
burgess housekeeper, except those that reside 
in what are called * tof tsteads,* should have 
the right of turning into these fields." 

Going back fullj sixty years, I may say that 
I knew two persons who were "toftmen," that 
is, according to Lloyd's Dictionary, "The 
owners or possessors of a house and homestead 
possessing this right.'' One waa Mr. James 
Horrocks, of "The Black Bull," Chapel-bar, 
and it was derivable from that house and 
ground, which went through to Parliament- 
street then, if not now. The other was Mr. 
John Minnitt, for many years a tallow chandler 
in the town, who derived his right from the 
ownership of a house and premises in Parlia- 
ment-street, on which the offices, woi4c and 
storerooms now belonging to Messrs. Abbott, 
bookbinders, Ac., have since been erected. I 
am quite aware that there were many others 
in the town possessing the same right, but a 
number of them would be strangers. 

When the inclosure of the common lands of 
the town took place (June 30, 1845), the owners 
of Toftsteads were deprived of their right of 
pasturage for three head of cattle or twelve 
sheep during three months in the year, and 
therefore claimed compensation, which waa con- 
ceded ; and in various parts of the town small 
portions of land were allotted to them by the 
Commissioners of the Inclosure, which gener- 
ally would be of sufficient size to hold three or 
four moderate-sized houses. I well remember 
that there were a number of such parcels of 
land in or near to the top of Raleigh-street, 
and also of Portland-road, Nottingham, some 
of which faced towards Alfreton-road. 

Mr. Minnitt sold the ground allotted to him ; 
but as regards Mr. Horrocks. he had in the 
meantime died and "The Black Bull" waa 
afterwards owned by the late Mr. Ben. Hawk- 
ridge, who sold his allotment. Biespeoting Mr. 




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236 

Hawkridge, I think it should be mentioned 
that about this period, or probably quite fifty 
years since, he was one amongst a few in 
various parts of the countrr who, without being 
articled or having ^one tiirough the ordinary 
and preparatory training were by Act of Par- 
liament entitled or authorised to call them- 
selves solcitors. 

At the time mentioned a considerable change 
was made regarding the Probate Offices or 
'Courts, which were severed from the Ecclesias- 
tical Courts or Jurisdiction, and when doing this 
various positions were abolished, one of which 
was held by Mr. Ben. Hawkridge, and in de- 
priving him of it he was by law " transformed *' 
into a solicitor. There is, however, no " royal 
road to knowledge," and, therefore, we need 
not be surprised if he took a " full-blown solici- 
tor" into partnership. 

I propose now to bring under consideration 
another old Nottingham street — namely, what 
is by us designated Low-pavement — and also to 
notice Broad-marsh. In the Borough Records, 
Vol. 1, p. 406, A.D. 1348, reference is made 
to " a messuage in the high street leading from 
the "Daily Market (Weekday 'Gross) to the 
King's Castle." Thie might probably be Low- 
pavement, or as generally termed at that date 
*' Nether-pavement " or "pament." On ^. 
303 and 316 it is entitled *' Nether-pamemt," 
A.D. 1306. Heigth-pament being one of the 
old terms used for High-pavement, and " Midil- 
pament" speaks for itself. 

In Vol. 3, p. 27, A.D. 1494, the following 
item is copied from the Chamberlain's 
accounts: — "For carria«;e of a load of sand 
from the Maire's (B(£iyor's) tc the La we 
Pament." Twenty years later, however, we get 
back again to the old name, when there is 
reference to "a curtilage . . . called *le 
Tayntre Yerd in le (the) Netherpament,' lying 
next *le Vawte lane' (Drury-hill) and a 
garden." We are told in the Glossary that "A 
tenter (is) a frame for stretching doth." 

In Vol. 4, 1578, " Lowe-pamente " is men- 
tioned, and on p. 282, 1607, the Mickletorn Jury 
say : — " We present yat the stepping-stones 
near James Perrie's door over the wayn 



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236 

(wa^on) way from Oastle Gatt to the Loo 
Pament be mendid.*' In a few years it was 
*' Lowe-pavement,"/ and, except that on an occa- 
sion the first word was spelled *'Loe/' it gained 
its modern name. 

In Vol. 1, A.D. 1395 and 1396, "Brodde- 
merche" is noticed. It was also at times 
giren the Latin title of ''Magnus Mariscus/' 
or "The Great Marsh," which no doubt was 
respecting itc width, as Narrow-marsh is much 
the longest. It was also in the course 
of time called Brodmershe, Brodmarche, Brode 
Merssh, Brodemarshe until the present title 
of Broad-marsh was thoroughly accepted. 

In the memory of many persons still living 
in the city, a large portion of the ground on 
the south side of Broad-marsh was unbuilt 
upon, and there was no Oarrington-street, the 
roads leading out of the town in that part 
being chiefly by Broad and Narrow-marsh and, 
in a lesser degree, by Grey friar-gate. 

I now wish to make some remarks respecting 
the house on the south side of Low-pavement, 
towards the top, and standizm back, which was 
probably erected about 170 years since by 
Mr. Bothwell WiUoughby, a brother of Lord 
Middleton. 

Deering, who wrote his History of Notting- 
ham a short time before his death in 1749, 
when alluding to the rock cellars, on p. 15, 
mentions those belonging to his house ae being 
amongst the finest of tiheir kind in the town, 
and "not many years ago . . . hewed 
out." On p. 23l, when referring to Bothwell 
Willoughby. Esq., he also says : — "This gentle- 
man lives as yet unmarried at Nottingham, 
where he has built himself a beautiful and well- 
finished house." From what Deering says, I 
consider it probable that "Willou^hby House" 
was not erected earlier than 1730, but pro- 
bably a little before the year 1740. 

There is, or once was, a fair quantity of 
ground on the southern side of the nouse, and 
I have been convinced from the oflScial map 
that it reached to, or near. Broad-marsh. The 
fencing to the Pavement is in the old style, 
and of wrought iron, which also applies to the 
old house next above, at the corner of Drury- 



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837 

hill, and built by Mr. Gawthom ; no doubt at 
a somewhat similar date, though I imagine it 
to be the older of the two. 

On a previous occasion I have remarked upon 
the difference socially, in the class of pe(»le 
once living in the Marsh, to what is riow the 
case, and I shall mention an instance, but will 
first say that in the eighteenth centinry it was 

auite <minary, even for maiden ladies, to have 
lie title of "Mistress" (Mrs.) or "Madam" 
attached to their names. For man^ years pre- 
vious to 1774 two single ladies (sisters), one 
styled Madam Cassandra Willoughby (the 
elder) and the other Mrs. Elizabeth Willoughby, 
resided in Broad-marsh. 

They were daughters of Francis Willoughby, 
Esq.. of Cossall, and relatives of Lord Middle- 
ton, of Wollaton Hall. I have frequently 
looked round in Broad-marsh, and imagined 
that ihey lived in what was formerly a good 
old family residence, which is now a puolic- 
house. called " The Black's Head," and believed 
that at the badk, the ground of that house and 
Willoughby House on the Low-pavement were 
once connected. The elder sist€ar died in 1774. 
aged 83 years ; and the younger in 1780, at 
the same age. In the old Manuscript Book, 
often quoted, and dated 1772, is the following 
entry: —"Mrs. Willoughby, for the Broad- 
marsh stables, 10s." Tms was paid to the Cor- 
poration. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM. 

ITS STEEETS, PEOPLE, &c 



xxxn. 

On varicnis oooasions wihilst writing these 
nojes I have, in the interest of ooouracy, 
and with the sole desire to make an cfBcial 
undertaiking more reliable and complete, t^ken 
exception to some of the statements and c^^n- 
clusions of the two editors, who have be.^ en- 
gaged upon the work of searching, and to a large 
extent preparing for publication the Becords 
of the old Borough of Nottingham. 

Five volumes have up to the present time 
been published. The first four being edited by 
one gentleman the fifth by anotli^r, and it 
is much to be hoped that, within a short time 
and before the expiry of the next year, another 
capable person may be again selected for the 
position of Editor, and more volumes be well 
prepared and in due time published. The 
first volume is dated 1882 and the la«t 1900. 

It is those alone who have thoroughly 
and carefully examined the Borough Becords 
who will be fully able to comprehend their 
greart value, for we not onl;^ obtain from them 
an idea respecting the doings of the people 
on very numerous occasions, but our knowledge 
of matters relating to the history of the old town 
generally is much amplified. On p. 128 Deering 
gives us the names of seventy-seven Mayors 
only during the years 1362 to 1598 inclusive, 
and none previous to the first date. l»he 
charter for choosing Mayors was granted 
February 12, 1283-84. The year for v.hich 
the Mayor was elected commenced at Michael- 
mas (September 29), and ended at the same 
date in the following year : until last century 
(1835), when it was changed to the 9th Novem- 
ber, and the twelve months succeeding. 

Of the Mayors elected previous to 1302, the 
Becords give us the names of eight, and Peer- 
ing none, whilst of those elected from A.D. 
1302 to 1698 inclusive, or during 297 years, the 
BeooitU give us the names of all exoept 



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239 

fifteen, wihereaa Deezing asid otibeirs) only 
mention sevens-seven, or but little more than 
one-fourth. In matters oonnected with the 
various streets, gates or roads, lanes, • &€., 
there are many instances where the Becords 
shed much interesting light on various points 
of history, which previous to 1882 had been 
perplexing and obscure. 

In respect to any future history of Notting- 
ham, whilst in course of being written, refer- 
ence to them would be constantly necessary, 
for, though not strictly a history of themselves, 
they are essentially historical. On pages 12 
and 13, Deering gives a list of the various 
streets, lanes, &c., in the town, and on p. 14 
a short description of a number of them. With 
the great assistance derivable from the Borough 
Kooords, I have in many instances, to be found 
in previous communications, brought them 
imder consideration, and it is interesting, if 
not amusing;, to note numerous assertions made 
by him, without the help of the Becords, and 
compare them with the facts now obtainable 
from ^em, and other new and useful sf'Urces 
of information. 

In various instances he appears to have been 
thoroughly unacquainted with changes of names 
to streets, &c., which occurred one or two cen- 
turies before his time, and I have noticed little, 
if any, reference to such a matter by him. In 
Article 14 I explain how the change of name 
gradually took place from " Flesschewer-gate " 
(Butcher-gate) to Fletcher-gate (Arrowmakers- 
gate), in the course of about two centuries end- 
ing 100 years previous to Deering's death 



In Article 15 I explain the manner in which 
Goose-gate obtained its name, and thai it was 
most certainly from Bobert Qos, a prominent 
townsman allout 600 vears since, durins two 
centuries <^ which (14d0 to 1650) it gradually 
yaiied from Gosgat or €k>usegat or Gosgate to 
Gkx>se-gate. I will give one more, and pro- 
bably the most peculiar change of name, relat- 
ing to a thoToi^hfare in Nottingham, and it 
is the more strange from having apparently 
occurred from^ the force of circumstances, and 
gradually, during about twocemturies. 



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In Article 16 it U brought under considera- 
tion. Our modem name for it, as regards the 
spelling, would bo ** Great Smith-gate," Imt 
500 or 600 yerrs since it was called Qreitemith- 
gate, Greytsmyth-gate, &c., 'which ultimately 
became " Qridlesmith-gate," and barely a cen- 
tury since was re-named Pelham-street. Deer- 
iiif^ frequently refers to and quotes an anony- 
mous author, and does so in relation to this 
matter, but the inference amoimts to a cer- 
tainty that they were both auite ignorant of 
tlie old name of the thoroughfare ; and in a 
laboured manner an attempt is made to explain 
the reason for naming it " Qridlesmith-gate." 

This "he turns into * Qirdlesmith-gate/ 
which he (the anonymous author) derives from 
the dialect of the common people about the 
confines of Derbyshire and Staffordshire, ^^ho 
call a girdle a gridle, and in this street such 
lived who made buckles, hooks, and other 
matters of girdles." Considering that Bridle- 
smith-gate was a name in use during the whole 
of the time, it is singularly strange that 
"Greatsmith-gate" (its old title) should ulti- 
mately become " Gndlesmith-gate," which, in 
sound, is so much the same, and must un- 
doubtedly have caused frequent misunderstand- 
ings when mentioned. 

1898-1899. It was near tliis date when the 
high rocky cliff at Sneinton Hermitage was cut 
away to a considerable extent, and a wide, ex- 
oellent road formed, in continuation of Man- 
verg-street, towards Colwick-road. Unless this 
change had been made I think it probable that 
the number of houses since erected in that dis- 
trict would have been considerably less than 
is the case, for those living there are now 
able to get to many parts of the town, which 
are practically level with that locality, and 
soon to Netherfield and 'Darlton, whioh way is 
shortly expected to be formed, the whole of 
the distance, in a piroper and durable manner, 
and so prevent the crossing of Oarlton-hiU on 
numerous occasions. 

1898. In this year, on July 26i^ the Great 
Oetntral Bailwaj was first brought into use in 
and near Nottingham, or, as regarded the new 
portian of Uieir line, from the neoghbooriiood 



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241 

()f Annesley and reaching to London. On that 
date luggage trains commence4l running, and 
fef a short time the line in that part was used 
by them alone. 1900. On May 24th the 
Great Oentral Joint Station was opened for 
passenger trafiic. 

The making of this large and important 
station in the centre of the city wan un- 
doubtedly a notable event in several ways, and 
necessitated rarioua costly alterations, even at 
a distance from it In Deering's time, or cce 
hundred and sixty years since, the site of the 
station and near it were fields of crass, end 
practically the whole of the houses, £c., to the 
north of Parliament-street have been built 
since that date. In many respects a large 
portion of the property on the site of the 
station, wba in aa objectionable state v>hen 
judged by our modem sanitary ideas, and its 
demolition desirable and undoubtedly bene- 
ficial. 

1 have heard it stated that the station covers 
a space of eleven acres. It would, of course, 
be impossible to clear and occupy land of that 
area, and in a large centre of population, 
without interfering with various rights of v^ay, 
drainage, &c, &c. A ninnber of streets and 
possages in their entirety were abolished, and 
several thoroughly altered or cuft short, and 
requiring other avenues to be formed for public 
convenience. 

One of these is a footroad about five yards 
wide, on account of which a bridge was con- 
stnxrbed near the centre, and across the station 
to St. Ann's-street. Then a short distance 
higher up Mansfield-road a large iron bridge 
has been made to span the station, ever which 
is formed a new and wide highway to the 
west end of Union-road. With those opixn:- 
tunities of access the two parts of the cily are 
again fully joined together. 

There is, however, another and important 
matter which must not be overlooked, rnd 
that is the outfall for the sewage. The deep 
excavation for the station in that respect totally 
severed the two parte of the city. When re- 
minded, many will observe the depression in 
the ground on Mansfield-road against the end 



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2A2 

of ShakeiBpe«re-street, for at that put^ bvt on 
the opposite part of the road, was Cmarlotte- 
street, down which formerly ran a yerj large 
outfall sewer, for whieh it was necessary that 
a new course should be found, as the station 
went below ita level. 

To obviate this difficulty, it was necessary 
to tunnel under the road from there to Par- 
liamont-street, down which it was also taken 
and under the railway bridge in that street, a 
short distance below the rails, and thence k> 
Our-lane, by whic^ time, or directly after, 
I doubt not, the sewer was in an 
excavation, and shortly joined the old 
portion. I frequently inspected 4he woik- 
as it progressed, and was <;ertain that on some 
part of • Mansfield-road, and near to or in Par- 
liament-street, the bottom of the tunnel could 
not be any less than forty feet below the level 
of the roadway. This was at intervals, where 
shafts were sunk for the purpose of drawing 
up the sand, which was to spare, when 
tunnelling the rodt:. 

Some of thie amusements of our an- 
cestors, judiged by present ideas, were hnitish 
in character, and much to be deprecated. In 
previous articles I have mentioned the bull- 
baitings and bear baitings, which in former 
times were constantly taking place, and I pro- 
pose in this article to make some remarks upon 
another objectionable " pastime," which happily 
has been abolished many years, and it is cock- 
fighting. As the baitings gradually declined 
in public estimation, I have no doubt that cock- 
fighting became more popular and of frequent 
occurrence. 

We have evidence in the Borough Records, 
Vol. 4, that the barbarous diversion of cock- 
fighting was indulged in more than three hun- 
dred years since ; for the Mickletom jury 
(p. 264), when reporting various encroachments, 
&c., in 1603, May 12, say :—" Item.— We pre- 
Eont Henry Oldfield, belfounder, for enclosinge 
a certayne parcell of grownde commonly called 
'Cockpitt* Leyes." In the same Vol., p. 435, 
the Cockpitl-close is referred to, A.D. 1621-2. 
It is probable that this field was near St. Ann's 
Well, for there is full evidence of sudi fights 



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243 

constantly occurring at that place. There were 
also a number of cockpits in the town, maiij 
of ihem being at inns or places of entertain- 
ment. (No "hotels" then.) 

While writing this I have by me the manu- 
script diary of a gentleman, dated 1699, which 
generally has reference to the ordinary matters 
of life, from which I propose shortly to extract 
various portions. I have also the manuscript 
diary of another ''gentleman," who kept and 
reared cocks for fighting purposes, whidi com- 
menoes ''1760; Januairy ye Ist,** or full 144 
years sinoo. It may he said, by way oi ex- 
planation, that a sovereign at that period 
would be equivalent to tliree, or probably 
nearly four, pounds at the present time. 

On the firfft day he tells us that he won at 
cards 7s. Od., and on January 23 he says, 
"Won at Saint Ann's WeU cockinff (cockfight- 
ing), clear of all expenses, 68. Od. He then 
says, "April ye 8, won at Stapleford cocking, 
clear of all expenses, £1 17s. Od." On June 
16 and 17 he won £1 4s. Od. at St. Ann's Well. 
There is then an item respecting which I am 
rather uncertain. He says, "June 26, won at 
'Tetotum' at several times 78. Od." 

On December 29-30 there appears to have 
possibly been a cockfight at a private house, 
for he says, "Won at Gregory Morley's cook- 
ing, clear of all expenses, £1 vs. 6d." It must 
nc^ be supposed tnat he always won, for he 
did not, and it is probable that on the balance 
he yna a loser. He gives us an insist into 
the care and trouble taken when rowing the 
fowls, for he informs us that he had twelve 
hatched at his fathers, who lived at Oolwick. 
Of these, nine were sent to Somercotes, one 
remained at his father's, one kept at Shelton's 
Lo^e, and one at Mr. Leiver's bam, Basford. 

Then another lot of seven were dispersed 
to Bridgford, Edwalton, Carlton, Slight's 
Lodge, Beeston, and Baeford. 1761, January 
8, another entry says, "Gave and paid Mary 
Yickerstaff, as a satisfaction for keeping me 
two hatches of chickens, Ss. Od/* August 8, 
1761, he says, " Gave Mr. Maciben, for his boy, 
as a satisfaction for his carrying twelve cock 
chickens into Derbyshire, Ac,, Is." 



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244 

I have not observed the name of the writer 
of the diary, but in addition to his father, 
whose name he does not ayipeat to ^ve, he 
refers to his sister Swinscoe at Oolwick. A 
considerable sum in the total is entered as 
the cost of food for the fowls, strikes of barley 
being frequently purchased, and also some 
groats. 1763, Maroh 8, he says, ''Lost at the 
White Lion cocking 4s. Od." At that date it 
was an inn on the Long-row, and I believe it 
so continued until the commenoement of last 
century. 

On various occasions there are entries 
similar to the following: — ''Gave Samuel 
Fletcher tor a year's cook walk, 2s. Od." As 
places having cockpits, St. Ann's Well and 
Gregory Morley are most frequently men- 
tioned. 1763, July 5: A large and gay 
assemblage of the nobility and gentiy met at 
Nottingham for the races and cockfighting. 
Amongst them were the Duke of York, the 
Dukes of Butland and Kingston, the Marquis 
of Granby, and Lords Byron, Strange, and 
Sutton. 

Many dishonourable acts were committed in 
connection with cockfighting (see Date Book), 
and an association was formed to prevent or 
stop them — a large number of fowls had been 
injured or carried away from their wtJks, and 
probably by those who had staked money upK>n 
them. "These acts the association was in- 
tended to check; but what mainly led to its 
institution was this : a number of cocks which 
had been brought from London to fight others 
belonging to Nottingham in a great match 
which was expected to come off about the above 
date, and had drawn to the town many of the 
aristocracy and moneyed men, were found to 
have been poisoned with arsenic, so as to dis- 
able them from fighting, some person having 
oo^trived to get into the cellar at the While 
Lion Inn, where the fowls were kept ; a reward 
of £50 wa8 offered by Major Brereton for his 
apptrehension." Tliis is a sample of the "good 
old times" on which, we have certainly in 
some respects improved. 

I will now refer to the diary of the gentle- 
man first mentioiied, and dating back two hun 



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&45 

dred and five years (1699). The writi<ng is in 
the oontempoirary style, and also the mode nt 
spelling. I have not observed his name, but 
without doubt, from the full evidence that he 
kept at least twelve men and women servants 
(names given), and refers to his "Aunt Nude- 
gate," &c (now Newdijate), he must have 
been in an excellent social position. 

The old Nottingham residence of the Newdi- 
gates was at the upper and south-western 
comer of Castle-gate, in which Marshal Tallard, 
the French commander, afterwards resided for 
several years, who was taken prisoner at the 
Battle of Blenheim on August lo, 1704, by the 
Duke of Marlborough. The Marshal is credited 
with having been the first to introduce salads 
into Nottingham. Respecting the diary and 
moneyj which may be mentioned, it miist not 
be forgotten that the modern equivalent for 
that of two hundred years since, or rather 
more, would probably be four or five times 
lamr. 

He ceirtainly resided away from the town, for 
mowing, haymaking, and other work on land 
is mentioned. Few received a shilling per 
day for wages, but as regards the first ijart of 
the diary, at any rate, the remuneration to 
labourers was ordinarily eightpence per day. 
Payments of a few shillings "To ye post" are 
frequent. An early entry is "Paid for a hunt- 
ing horn, 2s. 6d." 

Those whom I consider to have been 
labourers upon the land do not appear to have 
been paid weekly, judging by various entries, 
such as "Jo. Crowshaw for 24 days* work 
168. OJ., George Pallett 20 days 13s. 4d.," and 
others in the same manner and proportion. 
On February 15, 1698, he says:— *^ Paid Ste. 
(? Stephen) Morris for shoes for the children, 
and one pair for my wife 16s. Od.'* ; and March 
2, Jo. Hac^ett for 4^ days' thatching 48. 6d. 
Paid for 3 cotton nightcaps 3s. Od. Paid for 
a matt for ye seat in ye church, and 2 basses 
Ss. Od. March 8 for a bed and boulstor 
tick £1 6s. Od. Baker, for let the child blood, 
6s. Od. March 19 paid for pipes 5s. Od. March 
26, 2d. (? dozen) of trenchers, and a straw hat 
for Moll 28. 6d. 



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246 

''April 6. Paid Mary 'KmbrlH for spining 
one lb. of flax, and knitting one pair of btook- 
ings 3s. 6d. A piece of fustian £1 128. Od. 
April 12. The window tax 48. Od. 18th. 30 
beesoms 2$. 6d. 29th. For 2 lobsters 3s. 6d. 
(a great price). May 4. For a hatt for Fra., 
5s. 6d. 5th, for 35 yards of matting for the 
matted room 17s. 6d. 9th, For a salmon 
13s. 4d. 15th, Paid Aunt El. () Elizabeth) 
Nudegate interest of PIO, 6 months 11 days 
£1 liu. Od. 

"1699.— May 20, paid a Scotchman for things 
for mj wife £1 10s. Od." The next is an in- 
teresting article, and comparatively a costly 
one. June 9, "To Mr. Bott for stof for my 
frock ooat and furnet £2 Os. Od. To Will. 
C^unpion for making me a coat and my wife 
a stomage Os. Od. June 13, Paid for 31 yards 
of flaxen cloath (? homespun linen) at Is. lid., 
total £2 19s. 5d. For a groce of pipes Is. 4d. 
For 21b8. of oherries Is. Od. (June 27). 29 
July, Paid Judith Parker for spining for 
blanckets, 6s. Od. 

"September, 1699, Paid for 6 groce of corks 
6s. Od. For a pair of gloves 48. 6d. October, 
Paid Mrs. Crysp for a perriwigg £1 4s. Od. 
Marv Timberley for knitmg 3 pairs of thread 
stockings and spining lib. of thread 8s. 6d. 
Paid Mrs. Crisp for a wigg shee is to send 
down £1 4s. Od. November, Paid window tax 
56. Od.'' The wages of the women servants (five 
to six, and names mentioned^ were from two 
to three pounds per vear^ ana abotrt six men- 
servants (names given) thirty shillings to three 
pounds per year more than women servants. 
This will give some idea of the domestic life 
of our ancestors, together with the cost of 
various articles, full two hundred years since, 
in or near Nottingham. 



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OLD NOTTINGHAM 

ITS STfiEETS. PEOPLE. &c 



xxxuv. 

WM some afisistanoe from "Tlie 
Review" of the period, I propose to p[ive a 
brief account of the mode adopted by "resur- 
rection men" when despoiling the graves of 
the dead in Nottingham. l^ere must have 
been a oonsiderable demand for "bodies" in 
various parts of the country at the time, for 
they do not appear to have had any difB^ulty 
in. disposing of them for the purpose of dissec- 
tion, &c. Doubtless a few are still left with 
us who will remember some of these circum- 
stances. 

1827.— Thursday, January 18: About ^e 
p.m. on that dajr, when getting dark, a man 
named Smith, alias Hammond, took a hamper 
to Messrs. Pickford and Co.'s warehouse, Leen- 
bridee, directed to " S. Bogers, 2, Buciklersbury, 
London." The suspicion of Mr. White, the 
bookkeeper, being aroused, and believing some- 
thing was wro^, he called upon Smith to open 
the hamper. He endeavoured to appease Mr. 
White by assuring him that all was correct, 
but he insisted t£kt Smith should open it or 
take it away. He said he dare not open it, 
but would speak to his master, who was near, 
and went out, leaving the hamper. 

Mr. White directed Joseph Arnold, one of 
Messrs. Pickford's porters, to follow Smith, 
when, having traced nim to Bullivant's-yard, he 
returned and told Mr. Smith that they were 
putting;: a horse into a cart, and he was sure 
they meant to be off. Ultimately, after a 
struggle, the men escaped, but the horse and 
cart were detained. In a short time tJie 
hamper was opened, and found to contain the 
bodies of an aged woman and a little boy, about 
three and a half vears old. They were doubled 
up into the smallest compass and packed with 
straw, which was also stuffed in the woman's 
mouth, and in that of the child's was wool. 

The bodies were replaced in coffins, William 
Davis, alias "Old Friday," the gravedigger to 



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St. Mary^s parish, being compelled to pL^ce 
them therein, an office which he perfoimed with 
great reluctance. I remember him well as 
being looked upon with great loathing and sua- 
picion some jears afterwards. The bodies were 
shortly recognised, the child by its mother, 
Mrs. Bose ; and the aged woman proved to be 
Mrs. Dorothy Townsend, who had only been 
buried on Wednesday (the previous day), hav- 
ing died the Sunday before on Eichmond Hill. 
In a short time she was again intoned. 

These abominable acts appear to have oc- 
curred almost exclusively in the now disused 
burial grounds (three) in or near to Barker-gate. 
They caused a terrible amount of anxiety, and 
a great commotion in the town amongst those 
having relatives and friends interred there, 
numerous graves being searched, of which some 
had not been interfered with, but in a number 
of other cases the coffins were found to be 
empty, except of the grave clothes. 

The excitement was intense. Included in 
the many robberies, one woman lost two chil- 
dren, who had been buried dosely after each 
other ; another woman had recently buried her 
husband, but no body was in the grave when 
opened. She was taken away insensible, with 
her four children, to a house in Silverwood's- 
place. Whilst excavating a -shaped turn- 
screw was found — a tool well adapted for open- 
ing coffins. The sight was grievous ; bitter 
tears were shed, and vengeful imprecations 
uttered against those who for money had caused 
so much sorrow. 

None of the men were apprehended, and they 
must have kept themselves carefully secluded. 
Davis (" Old Friday ") was thoroughly believed 
to be implicated, but nothing could be proved. 
Popular vengeance, however, was roused against 
him to such a degree that he was m(H>bed, ' 
both in Nottingham and Arnold, and very 
narrowly escaped with his life. I remember 
seeing him excavating a grave, seven years 
after this event — namely, in May, 1834. The 
exact number of bodies removed will never be 
known, but about thirty of the graves re- 
opened were found to have had the remaivs 
stolen of those who had been buried in them. 



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1839.-~May 30 : On that day the railway to 
Derby was first used, and in a moderate time 
afterwards special trains were introduced, and 
provAd successful in satisfying the people, and 
years afterwards in paying the shareholders. 
There was an early special train which, in one 
respect, has seldom, or never, been surpassed 
in the town, and perhaps not equalled. It 
was from Nottingham to Derby, and composed 
of eighty-four carriages. 

In that respect I think it excels, though as 
regards their room for passengers it is very 
likely that recent trains are qmte equal to it, 
for at that date the carriages had not only very 
few compartments, but I am also convinced 
that they were narrower, and believe that 
twenty-five, to thirty at most, of our large and 
modem carriages would be fully equal to the 
eighty-four mentioned. 

In a year or two after the canal was opened 
(on July 30, 1793), or in September, 1797, the 
Date Book tells us that "A Mr. Redfem com- 
menced running a * packet-boat,' for the con- 
reyance of passengers (on the canal), twice a 
week, between Kottingham and Oromford. 
The fare was 5s. best cabin, and 3s. second 
best. Passengers were also taken to Leicester 
in a similar boat, first room 5s., second 2s. 
6d., starting from Mr. Maddock's, the Naviga- 
fion Tavern." 

A shilling at that date would be the equiva- 
lent for about 3s. at the present time, there- 
fore, they were costly outings, and many 
would, no doubt, much prefer to walk to the 
two places. Even 2s. 6d. would be about 
equal to the wages of a labouring mkn, in 
most towns, for two days* work, 110 years 
since. In Article 44 I refer to the greatest 
modern flood in this district, which happened 
in February, 1795, and that Mr. John Brad- 
shaw contracted to carry out a portion of the 
work necessary, to make good the damage 
done. 

I now desire to say that he also (going back 
full seventy-five years) was probably the first 
to have a steam vessel plving upon the Trent, 
and ohiefly, if not entirely, between Kotting- 



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ago 

ham and Gainsboroqglu Thia was, of course, 
a number of years before railways were run- 
ning near here. Mr. Bradshaw was prepared 
to Uke passengers to Gainsborough, whitSi, in 
fine weather, with the river moderately full, 
would probably prove an enjoyable outing, 
though occasionally the vessel would stick upon 
a sandbank for an hour or two, when passing 
down or coming up the river, which was very 
undesirable, but when going to Gainsborough 
some would thmi take the coach to Scarborough, 
Hull, Ac, 

I do not know the ordinary charge for such 
a journey, but am well aware how much easier, 
cheaper, and with far greater speed and com- 
fort, the excursion can now be made than at ihe 
date named. On the canal even with an 
"express boat," it is probable that the pro- 
gress would not be more than four miles an 
hour, but in going "down" the Trent the 
steamer of that day, when unimpeded, might 
perhaps accomplish twelve miles an hour. 

I here desire to make a few more remarks 
respecting the road to Mapper ley Hiti by Hed- 
lane, and also to the part where, as regards 
Nottingham, it ended, in past times the whole 
length of the way from Mansfield -road to the 
termination of the borough waa in the town, 
though on its extreme ver^, according to the 
rare old map, and when going from Mansfield- 
road. Basford Parish is shown to bound it to 
the left, or north-west, until the borough ter- 
minated, asainst Gedling Parish. There is 
scarcely a house or other building shown at 
that time as being on the top of Mapperley 
Hill. 

To the right of the road, co.nmendng near 
the bottom of the last hill, and extending to 
where the borough and Gedling Parish ad- 
joined, there was a quantity of land, which in 
olden times was open to the public, or com- 
monable all the year, the same as Nottingham 
Lings, or the Forest (as now named), was 
formerly; On the south-eaetem side of this 
land, at its lower end, the two Trough Closes 
touched upon it, and next above them it waa 
the. same with the Hungerhilla. 

iTien came the Coppices. Three are shown, 



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251 

but the first is furthiBst from the iomn. Here 
was the north-western side of the old Notting- 
ham Wood. In the total it probably covered 
what afterwards formed eight or ten fields. St. 
Ann's Well was (on the opposite side of the 
ground) induded with a field or two in this 
part of the Corporation Chamber Estate. In 
the names of tne fields there are St. Ann's 
Close, Home Close, Square Close, Spring Wood 
Close, Top Close, Nether Top Close, Plinder's 
Close, and two entitled Stone Pit Close. Further 
^m the town, and reaching to the borough 
boundary adjoining Gedling^ were nine other 
field?, belonging to the Ciorporation Bridge 
Estate. 

With this, the laat part of Article No. 
33, the Second Series of "Not^s on Old Not- 
tingham" will oome to a conclusion. There 
are, however, still a few thoroughfares, which 
have been altered, widened, or thoroughly 
made by the Corporation, the changes con- 
nected with which must be recorded. 

The first road to consider is one, as regards 
the circumstances under which it was formed, 
is very different to any other, and it connects 
Meadow-lane with London-road, by way of the 
Cattle Market. It was made or first used at 
the same time as the Market, in 1886, but 
except on market days, there was no regular 
thoroughfare until 1902, when it was fully 
brought into use and is certainly a great con- 
venience to many. 

lOOL—July 25: The Victoria Embankment 
by the Trent side was opened. This is one of 
the finest promenades belonging to the city. 
1901. — The four thoroughfares surrounding 
Trinity Church were all considerably widened 
by ground taken from the churchyard. The 
change was one much to be desired, especially 
AS regards Milton-street or Mansfiela-road, from 
its contiguity to the Victoria Station, and also 
from being an important route for the electric 
tram lines. 

I shall now refer to a short, and ho doubt 
very old, but, judged by present requirements, 
an important and central thoroughfare, its 
modem name being High-street. On Deering's 
map (1746) it has the same title, but on pa^e 



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13, when referring to it, he mjs: ''Sadler- 
gate, now called Eugh-street/' I have not seen 
any reference to it in the Borouch Records 
under either of these names ; the hut volume 
published, ends with A.D. 1702. According to 
Deering, the street in his time had not long 
been known by the latter name. 

For several centuries before his time, and 
until about 1812, the space between the nortb 
end of Bridlesmith-gate and the south end of 
what is now called High-street, was entitled 
"The Hen Cross* or "Women's Maiket." 
Though High-street does not appear to have 
had any special name attached to it, I have 
little doubt that it was once known as "Hen- 
crosse-rowe." In the Eecords, Vol. 4, p. 438, 
in reference to it there is the following : — 
"A.D. 1583, a messuage near the Hennecrosse 
abutting upon the street adjoining the said 
Cross." 

We are then referred to "Panyer" on page 
440, and are there told that in "A.D. 1552 
William Boee brings a writ of right against 
Joan Stapleton, widow of John Bose, regard- 
ing the messuaffe known as ' le Panyer, ' in 
Hencrosse-rowe. Judging by Speed's old 
map (1610), " the rowe " must have been on the 
eastern side of the roadway, for the other was 
considerably shorter, as shown, and with an 
opening in it. I believe these to be the only 
occasions on which I have observed some old 
• references, to that well-known and now im- 
portant street. In 1902-3 it was much in- 
creased in width on its eastern side. 

1897-98.— Considerable changes were made in 
the two passages of Gamer's Hill and Middle 
Hill, connecting High-pavement, &c., with 
Middle-marsh, when making the Great Central 
Bailway at the part where it enten or emerges 
from the tunnel, under a portion of the middle 
part of the city, and at the same time an ap- 
preciable addition was made to the size of 
Weekday Cross, under which the railway 
passes. 

In Article 52 I give a short account of the 
tolls which, by Charter, in olden timies the 
Corporation of Nottingham were empowered to 
exacts from places ae distant as Newark and* 



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253 

Betford, but to a gT«at extent in the vaJlej 
of the Trent, though the burgesses of the 
town were, to a large degree, if not thoroughly, 
free from such charges themselves in other 
places. 

In the Borough Records, at various dates, 
commencing soon after A.D. 1560, the Cham- 
berlains in their accounts mention payments 
which were made by them, for the repairs of 
"chains" at the end of various important 
thoroughfares. In 1572 they say : — " Item paid 
to Maister Cadman for 91b. of cyron (iron), 
and workemanshyp of the same, for the dieyne 
at the Chappyll Barre." And also:— "Item 
payed to Ix)renoe Hynde for a cheyre, and a 
stapylle for the Maroh (Marsh) end, weyinge 
501b., at 2d; a lb., Ss. Od.** In 1621 there is 
an '^Item for mendinge the Chaynes at Stony- 
streete," and also "at Marshe end, and a 
staple." 

In 1627, "Item for mendynge the chayne. 
at Bridgend (Plumptre-square), 2s. 2d. Item 
paied Maister Perrie for mendinge the chaynes 
in the towne in severall places, 8s. 3d." At 
these dates a shilling would be the average 
equivalent for nearly ten shillings at the pre- 
sent time. The chains with but little doubt 
were for the purpose of forming a bar across 
the ends of various thoroughfares, and de- 
manding toll upon sundry matters brought into 
the town, which weire liable to a charge. If 
I do not remember a chain, I seem to have a 
dim recollection of a rope being used for the 
purpose from sixty-five to seventy years since. 

While writing this, I have by me a schedule 
of the various matters liable to toll at that 
time, and the amounts payable on each, of 
whioh I will give a copy. It was in use by a 
collector (Mr. Thomas Spencer) on Derby- 
road at Goose Fair, Ac, in the early part of 
last century. It is as follows : — " Town and 
County of the Town of Nottingham. — The fol- 
lowing are the Customs, and Tolls, which the 
Mayor and Burgesses of the Town of Notting- 
ham have been accustomed to take, within the 
said Town and County, during all Fairs held 
therein, viz. : —For every w.agg6n laden with 
Goods, Wares, or Merchandise, Bd.- "Foi every 



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2S4 

Cart laden with ditto, 4d. For every Pack of 
Wooll, Id. For every Stocking- knitter*s 
Frame, 4d. For every Horse, Mare, Colt, or 
Filly, sold in the Town, 4d. For every Bull, 
4d. For every Ox, Steer, Heifer, or Swine, 
2J. For a Pair of Mill-stones, 4d. For every 
Pair of Smithy Bellows, 4d. For every Dairy of 
Cheese Standing for Sale in the Market, 2d.** 

In the Beoords, Vol. 5, p. 416, is an early 
and interesting reference to Sir Thomas White's 
loans, namely: — "1661. — August 14: Bond in 
£80 from the Mayor and Burgesses of the town 
of Nottingham to tiie Mayor, Bailiffs, and 
commonalty of the *Citie of Coventry,' for the 
distribution of money from Sir Thomas White's 
Charity, i.e., £40, unto fower young men of 
the same Towne, for nyne yeares, according to 
the mind, devise, and intent of Sir Thomas 
White, late of London, Merchant Taylor, and 
Aldesrman, deceased." 

1857. — September 24: On that day we are 
informed in the Date Book that pillar letter- 
boxes were first erected in Nottingham, and 
that in "1858, May 24, Nottingham postmen 
first appeared m uniform." This is in complete 
accordance with my recollection, but contrary 
to a statement which I recently saw respecting 
the times previous to 1840, when letters were 
dear. It was asserted that the postman started 
on his rounds, having 'a red coat,' &c.« &c. 
This is quite contrary to my remembrance and 
that of many others, as well as to what is 
mentioned in the Date Book. In the latter 
part of Article 44 I refer to the "three post- 
men" of 1833, mentioning William Brown, of 
whom I retain in memory at that date, and 
for at least seven years later, a full recollec- 
tion, but he most certainly did not wear any 
sort of livery or uniform, which would also 
undoubtedly be the case with the others. 

I wish to terminate these articles by bring- 
ing under consideration the various markets 
now or formerly connected with Nottingham, 
but specially in reference to the Great Market- 
place. Many of my fellow-citizens who are still 
left will, with myself, remember when a very 
different state of things existed to what is now 
the case, for piraotically the Great Market was 



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ass 

the only one in use. 

Qoinpr back from fifty to sixty years, cattle 
and sheep were brought to, and sold in, the 
half nearest to Beast Market-hill. The sheep 
were in "pens," which were fixed close to the 
road across that end. They were formed of 
'*fleaks," owned even at that date by the Cor- 
poration, being fixed on Tuesday and removed 
each Wednesday, and stored in a large shed, 
the site of which is now occupied by the back 
part of the Albert Hotel, on Derby-road. The 
calfUe were placed more towards the centre of 
the Market, and next the stalla. 

For a considerate period in the remem- 
brance of many, they were not enclosed to ]>re- 
vent them from moving to other parts or getting 
on the causeways, Sk. Afterwards this was 
remedied, for iron sockets with hin^^ed lids 
were fixed in the ground at short distances, 
and in them wooden posts, full six inches 
sqiuure, were fitted. These had holes bored 
throiigh them, in which ropes were inserted, 
and a fence was thus formed in the parts where 
desirable. This system continued in use until 
A.D. 1870, when the sheep and cattle market 
was removed to the ground now occupied by the 
Guildhall, &c., in Burton-street. 

The land on the opposite side of Sherwood* 
street, on which the tFniversity College stands, 
was during some years used for and termed 
"The Horse Fair Close." The sheep, Ac., 
were removed from this part on the opening 
of the Cattle Market near London-road, 
September 28, 1886, or jiiet previous to Goose 
Fair of that year. Alderman Lambert was 
Mayor, Mr. F. Acton chairman of oomtnittee, 
and Mr. Joseph Radford clerk of the maricets. 
The first beast disposed of in that market 
belonged to the Mayor, and was offered by 
auction by Mr. Bradwell, and sold for £22 Ss. 
Od. to Mr. Curtis Machin. 

Until about the year 1872 the method of 
arranging the stalls, &c., in the Market-place 
was entirely unsystematic, and lacking in thought 
or care, a large portion of the space being prac- 
tically wasted. Bows of granite squares rap in 
the pavement betweeri Beast Market^hill and 
the Exchange, as a guide by vhioh to fix the 



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966 

stalls. In my early days there were a number 
of persons called " squatters," who exposed 
their wares for sale spread out on the ground, 
some of which were composed of second-hand 
articles in iron, of numerous soHs. 

The stalls were of many different kinds and 
sizes, some belonging tc those who uised them, 
but much the larger number were fixed and let 
weekly by outsiders, the charge being a penny 
per foot frontage on Saturdays, and a half- 
penny additional when also vised on Wednes- 
days. Strange to sa^, these owners of stalls, 
thou^ obtaining their living from the Mai^et^ 
posttiTely paid hothing whatever towards its 
expenses. The two persons supplying the 
greater portion of the stalls, would doubtless be 
Mr. Merrin, of Derby-road, and Mr. Peck, of 
Mount East-street. 

There were some freemen or burgeeeee who 
as suoh, claimed eight feet of space for a stall 
oT standing, which generally was imderstood as 
applying to the frontage, but the depth back- 
wajrd was in quantity very indefinite. Singular 
to say, a few country people also claimed to be 
free to sell their produce, cattle, &c., in the 
Mai4cet, saying that they were "chartered," or 
calling themselves "ohartw men." 

As a close reader, i\pt only of the histories 
of Nottingham, but specially of the Borough 
Records, I am compelled to believe that their 
claims were thoroughly baseless, and as having 
been assumed but never conferred. In factj. I 
certainly should not have 'been disposed to> 
allow them, unless tiieir authority was fully 
explained and produced. For many years which 
some of us can remember, the attention given 
to the Market place generally, together with 
its arrangements, &c., &c., was very inadequate, 
and consequently resulted in a great loss to the 
borough funds. 

Fortunately for us all, there has during the 
last thirty to thirty-three years, been a most ap- 
preciable and desirable change for the better, 
and this has occurred since the appointment of 
Mr. Joseph Radford, the present energetic 
clerk of the markets. In most particulars, 
even to the disposing of the stalls, in the op- 
posite direction to the former mode, ther^.haa. 



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257 

been a "revolution.'* Commencing in June, 
1882, the city now supplies the stalls, which 
are made and fixed in a manner so as to 
strictly economise the space, and there are by 
these means, a greater number on much less 
ground. Then the freemen were prevented 
from taking more than their proper share, when 
having a standing free, and also often enjoying 
a burgess part. 

The interlopers or so-oalled ** charter men** 
were stopped in their unjustifiable claims, and 
all are now treated fairly and equitably. But 
with what result ? The ** revolution " docs not 
apply to the " arrangement " only, but at times 
when statements have been made public re- 
specting the income from the markets, it has 
been with much pleasure I have noticed that 
the receipts, proportionately in their increase, 
had been as much "revolutionised" as any 
other matters, for they had more than trebled. 
In the interest of the city, we have cause for 
hopinij that Mr. Radford, aided by his eflScient 
assistants, may continue able for a number of 
years longer to superintend the arrangements, 
&c., of the markets. 

Respecting the manuscript diary, dated 1699, 
and referred to in the la«t part of Article 63, 
I have fortunately found that the writer was 
Francis Mundy, a name still well known in 
Derbyshire as owners of land and collieries. 



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